In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.

Love for All, Hatred for None.

Browse Al Islam


A BOOK OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE


 

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Title
Table of Content
Foreword
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6


 

SECTION 2

THE HOLY QURAN

GUIDANCE FOR MANKIND


WHAT IS REVELATION

The Muslims believe that God speaks to His chosen servants through the process of revelation. It is through this process that spiritual knowledge and wisdom is given to man by God. The knowledge received through revelation is considered to be the truest form of learning.

Revelation can be of many kinds. It may comprise ordinances, laws and injunctions. It may be prophetic in nature and bring knowledge of future events. It may bring great insights into matters of material or spiritual nature. It may convey God's goodwill, pleasure and love; or it may be the medium of God's warning, displeasure and rebuke.

The nature of revelation varies according to circumstances and the spiritual station of the recipient. Muslims believe that of all revelations and divine communications, the most complete, the most perfect and the most comprehensive is the Holy Quran.

WHAT IS THE QURAN

The Quran is a compilation of the verbal revelations given to the Holy Prophet Muhammad over a period of twenty two years. The language of the Quran is Arabic. The word Quran means something that is "read" or "recited". The diction of the Quran could be best described as poetic prose and its language is a model of linguistic purity and stylistic elegance.

The Quran is the Holy Book or the Scriptures of the Muslims. It lays down for them the law and commandments, codes for their social and moral behaviour, and contains a comprehensive religious philosophy. It is the ultimate source of the Islamic law and a complete guidance for the Muslims. Besides its proper name, the Quran is also known by the following names:

al Kitab The Book
al Furqan The Discriminant
al Dhikr The Exposition
al Bayan The Explanation
al Burhan The Argument
al Haqq The Truth
al Tanzil The Revelation
al Hikmat The Wisdom
al Huda The Guide
al Hukm The Judgment
al Mau'izah The Admonition
al Rahmat The Mercy
al-Noor The Light (64:9)
al-Rooh The Word (42:53)

Surahs And Verses

The Quran is divided into 114 Surahs or Chapters and each Chapter consists of individual Ayaat or verses. There are in total 6,348 verses in the Holy Quran. The Surahs are of varying lengths, some consisting of a few lines while others run for many pages. Surah al Baqarah is the longest Chapter comprising 287 verses while Surah al Kauthar is the shortest with only four verses including the tasmia.

Each Surah in the Quran has a name given to it. These names are not necessarily revealed but have been introduced by scholars and editors for the sake of reference. These names are usually taken from some prominent or unusual word which occurs in the Surah.

At the beginning of each Surah, except one, stands the following invocation which is part of the Surah:



(In the name of God, the Most Gracious, Ever Merciful)

The one exception is Surah al Taubah, the 9th Chapter of the Holy Quran. Many scholars view this Chapter as part of the previous one. According to the subject matter Chapters 8 and 9 are one. In Surah al-Naml, the 27th Chapter of the Holy Quran, the phrase "In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful" is mentioned twice: once in its usual place at the beginning of the Surah and the second time in verse 31, in reference to the opening line of Prophet Solomon's letter to Queen Sheba.

Meccan and Medinite Chapters

In the printed copies of the Quran, the title of each Surah is followed by the name of the place where the Chapter was revealed. The place names used are "Meccan" for all Surahs revealed before Hijrah (622 A.D.), and "Medinite" for all Surahs revealed after Hijrah. Many of the Surahs in the Quran are composite, and a Chapter marked Meccan may contain some verses from the Medinite period, and vice versa.

During the twenty two year period of the Quranic revelations, Prophet Muhammad lived in Mecca for twelve years (610 622 A.D.) and in Medinah for ten (622 632 A.D.). Of the 114 Surahs of the Holy Quran, about 92 were revealed in Mecca and 22 in Medinah. Generally speaking, there are three characteristics which distinguish Meccan Surahs from the Medinite ones:

1. The Meccan Surahs deal mainly with faith, while the Medinite Surahs deal mainly with action or the implementation of faith.

2. Meccan Surahs are generally prophetic, while the Medinite Surahs deal with the realization and fulfillment of prophecies.

3. Meccan Surahs emphasize Man's relationship with God, while Medinite Surahs emphasize man's relationship with fellow man and lay down rules and regulations for social and moral conduct.

The Arrangement Of The Holy Quran

The arrangement of the Quran does not follow the chronological order in which the verses and the Surahs were actually revealed. Except for the short "Opening" Chapter which has been placed at the head of the Quran, the long Surahs are generally in the beginning while the short ones are generally towards the end. This is not a rigid principle as there are many exceptions to it. Because of the presence of long Surahs at the beginning of the Quran, about half the text of the entire Quran is contained in the first 18 Chapters while the other half is contained in the next 96 Chapters. Although the Quran is not arranged in a chronological order or by subject matter, there is certain continuity between the various Chapters. If we were to observe closely the closing
lines of some Surahs and the opening lines of those immediately following these, we would detect a continuity of the underlying theme.

The First Revelation

The beginning of the Holy Quran took place in the year 610 A.D. with the first revelation received by the Holy Prophet while he was meditating on Mount Hira. The Angel Gabriel brought this revelation and made the Prophet repeat after him:
Read, in the name of thy Lord Who created
Created man from a clot of blood
Recite, for thy Lord is Most Beneficent
Who taught by the pen
Taught man what he knew not. (96:2-6)
These verses are now part of Surah al-Alaq, the 96th Chapter of the Holy Quran. This first revelation marks the beginning of the prophetic mission of Muhammad which lasted twenty-two years. No special instructions were given to the Holy Prophet at this stage. Such instructions started to come down in subsequent revelations. The second revelation forms the beginning of Surah al-Mudathir, the 74th Chapter of the Holy Quran, and starts to define the Prophet's mission more clearly:
O thou covered in a mantle
Arise and deliver thy warning
And thy Lord do thou magnify
And thy garments do thou purify
And all uncleanliness do thou shun
And give not to gain more
And for thy Lord's cause, be patient (74:2-8)

The Last Revelation

The last whole Surah to be revealed is considered to be Surah al- Nasr, the 11Oth Chapter of the Holy Quran. This is a "Medinite" Surah in the sense that it was revealed after the Hijrah. But this Chapter was actually revealed at Mecca, during the time of the Prophet's farewell pilgrimage. The very last verses with which the Quranic revelations came to a close however, belong to Surah al Maidah, the 5th Chapter of the Holy Quran. These verses were also revealed during the farewell pilgrimage, immediately after the Prophet's sermon on the Mount:

This day have I perfected for you your religion, and completed upon you My favour, and have chosen for you Islam as religion. (5:4)

Cryptic Letters Of The Holy Quran

At the beginning of twenty nine Surahs, following the invocation, stands a letter or a group of letters of the alphabet. These letters are known as Muqatta'at or abbreviations. Of the twenty eight letters of the Arabic alphabet, fourteen have been used in this way. Below, these Muqatta'at are indicated by a bracket around the letter:

(alif) ba ta tha jim (ha)
kha dal dhal (ra) za (sin)
shin (sad) dad (ta) za (ain)
ghain fa (qaf) (kaf) lam (mim
(noon) (ha) wow (ya)

The Quran has used the Muqatta'at in groups as well as singly, in fourteen different combinations, as under:

alif lam mim alif lam mim sad alif lam ra
alif lam mim ra kaf ha ya ain sad ta ha
ta sin mim ta sin ya sin
sad ha mim ain sin qaf ha mim
qaf noon

The significance and meaning of these mysterious letters is not known for sure. According to some scholars of the Quran, these letters are abbreviations of certain words. For example:

alif lam mim stands for "anallaho a'lamo"
I am Allah, the Most Knowing)

Alif lam ra stands for "anallah al Ra"
I am Allah, the Most Seeing)

Following is a list of all the Surahs that contain these cryptic letters:

Surah Name of Surah Muqatta'at used

2 al Baqarah alif lam mim
3 Al-Imran alif lam mim
7 al Araf alif lam mint sad
!0 Younas alif lam ra
11 Hud alif lam ra
12 Yousaf alif lam ra
13 al Ra'd alif lam mim ra
14 Ibrahim alif lam ra
15 al Hijr alif lam ra
19 Maryam kaf ha ya ain sad
20 Ta Ha ta ha
26 al Shu'ara ta sin mim
27 al Naml ta sin
28 al Qasas ta sin mim
29 al Ankaboot alif lam mim
30 al Rum alif lam mim
31 Luqman alif lam mim
32 al Sajdah alif lam mim
36 Ya Seen: ya seen
38 Sad sad
40 al Mumin ha mint
41 Ha Mim al Sajdah ha mint
42 al Shura ha mim ain sin qaf
43 al Zukhruf ha mim
44 al Dukhan ha mim
45 al Jathiyah ha mim
46 al Ahqaf ha mim
50 Qaf qaf
68 al Qalam noon


Writing And Recording Of The Holy Quran

For a time the Quran was being preserved by the early Muslims who would memorize the revelations received by the Holy Prophet. This was the normal practice at that time and the pre Islamic Arabic poems were treated in the same way. However, as the revelations grew in number and as some of the Muslims who had memorized the Quran started to be lost in battles, the Holy Prophet appointed some scribes to write down the Quran.

As the Quranic verses were revealed in passages of varying sizes and belonging to different Surahs, the text of the Holy Quran did not exist in one volume during the life of the Prophet Muhammad. It was during the Caliphates of Abu Bakr and Omar that the task of collecting the Quran in one volume was entrusted to Zayd bin Thabit. During the time of Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam, an authorized version of the Quran was established which was then used for making duplicate copies. These duplicate copies were sent to various parts of the Muslim world to be used as standard texts for further copying.

The text of the Holy Quran has remained unchanged over the past 1400 years. The millions of copies of the Quran circulating in the world today are all identical down to a single letter. And this is not strange since God says in the Holy Quran that He Himself will guard this book:

"Surely it is We Who have revealed the Exposition, and surely it is We Who are its guardians" (15:10)

WHAT DOES THE HOLY QURAN CONTAIN

To the Muslims, the Quran is the Word of God and contains complete guidance for mankind. Much of the Quran is about God, His attributes and man's relationship to Him. But it also contains directives for its followers, historical accounts of certain prophets and peoples, arguments for accepting Muhammad as a genuine Prophet and good news for the believers and warnings for the disbelievers. Broadly speaking, the contents of the Holy Quran fall into five main categories:

1. Nature of the Spiritual World
2. The Law and Commandments
3. Historical Accounts
4. The Wisdom
5. The Prophecies

One by one we will discuss these various aspects of the Holy Quran.

1. The Nature of Spiritual World

The central theme of the Quran is, of course, the doctrine of One God. The God of Quran is All Powerful, All Knowing, Merciful and Compassionate, and the sole Creator of the universe. He is the One Who gave us fire, and when we die it is to Him that we will return. He not only listens to our prayers, but provides for our needs without even our asking; He is a Generous and Gracious God. In Surah al Hashr, some of God's attributes are described as follows:

He is God, there is no god except Him;
The Knower of the unseen and the seen;
He is the Gracious, the Merciful.
He is God, there is no god except Him;
The Sovereign, the Holy One, the Giver of peace, the Bestower of
Security, the Protector, the Mighty, the Subduer, the Exalted.
Glory be to God, above that they associate.
He is God, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner.
His are the most beautiful names.
All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him,
He is the Mighty, the Wise. (59:23 25)

Besides containing illuminating facts about the various attributes of God, the Quran explains the rest of the spiritual world in considerable detail: the purpose of creation, the nature of angels, the nature of hell and heaven, the continuation of fire after death, the divine revelations and the concept of the Day of Judgment.

Scriptures of other religions also talk about these spiritual things, but the philosophy contained in the Quran is far more rational, meaningful and capable of standing up to the test of time.

2. The Law and Commandments

Most of all, the Quran is the Law for the Muslims. It lays down commandments for worshipping God and contains numerous codes for the social and moral behaviour of its followers. In this respect, the Quran supersedes all previous Laws and Dispensations given to earlier prophets. The commandments in the Quran clearly tell the Muslims what to DO and what NOT to do. The following are some of the "positive" commandments in the Quran:

o worship One God (2:22)
o pray to the Lord in humility and in secret (7:56)
o observe the Daily Prayer (2:44)
o enjoin Prayer on your household (20:133)
o keep the fasts during the month of Ramadhan (2:184)
o pay the Zakat (2:44)
o spend secretly and openly (14: 32)
o perform the pilgrimage (2:197)
o perform ablution before the Prayer (5:7)
o obey God and His prophets and those in authority among you (4:60)
o ask forgiveness of God (4:107)
o seek refuge with God from Satan, the cursed (16:99)
o be patient (3:201)
o follow the way of Abraham (16:124)
o strive in the way of God (2:191)
o vie with one another in good works (2:149)
o eat of the good and pure things (2:173)
o give the orphans their due (4:3)
o make peace between the parties that fight each other (49:10)
o call the people to their Lord with wisdom and exhortation (16:126)
o fulfill the covenants (16:92)
o discharge the trusts (4:59)
o observe justice (4:136)
o keep the oaths and fulfill the promises (5:2), (5:90)
o be good to others (16:91)
o be good to the parents (2:84)
o look after the kinsman, the poor and the wayfarer (2:84)
o give full measure and full weight (7:86)
o guard your chastity (24:31)
o face the Sacred Mosque during the Prayer (2:150)
o seek help through perseverance and Prayer (2:154)
o give the women their dowries (4:5)
o greet each other with a greeting (4:87)
o invoke blessings on the Prophet (3:57)
o keep silent when the Quran is recited (7:205)

Similarly, there are "negative" commandments in the Quran which prohibit or forbid the Muslims from:

o associating any other deity with God (2:23)
o reviling other people's deities (6:109)
o making friends with people with whom God is angry (60:14)
o killing other people (2:105)
o stealing other people's property (5:39)
o devouring the property of the orphan (17:35)
o eating certain forbidden foods (2:174), (5:4)
o consuming alcoholic drinks (5:91)
o giving false testimony (2:284)
o taking interest (3:131)
o uttering unseemly speech in public (4:149)
o indecency and manifest evil (16:91)
o gambling (5:91)
o marrying idolatrous people (2:222)
o entering homes before asking for permission (24:28)
o spreading disorder in the earth (7:57)
o letting one people deride another people (49:12)
o becoming disdainfully proud (17:38)
o becoming divided (3:106)
o exceeding the limits in the matter of religion (4:172)
o using compulsion in the religion (2:257)
o being suspicious, spying and backbiting (49:13)
o following the footsteps of Satan (24:22)
o killing children for fear of poverty (17:32)

Besides the above mentioned DO's and DON'T's, there are many other commandments in the Quran which control the institutions of marriage, divorce, inheritance and fighting.

All Muslims are supposed to follow these commandments. The willful violation of any of these commandments constitutes sin, and the violation of some of the social commandments can even be punishable by the society.

3. Historical Accounts

The Quran contains historical accounts of many earlier prophets and peoples. The purpose of narrating these stories is to show mankind how loving and faithful God can be to His true servants and chosen people and also how utterly destructive His wrath can be upon those who disregard His Commands.

The various prophets whose lives are narrated in the Quran include Abraham, Joseph, Moses and Jesus, among others. Some of the earlier peoples that are mentioned in the Quran include, among others:

o The people of A'd to whom Hood was sent
o the people of Thamood to whom Saleh was sent
o the people of Midian to whom Shoaib was sent
o the people of the Wood
o the people of the Hijr
o the people of Tubba
o the people of the Elephant

Many Surahs of the Holy Quran are named after the Prophets such as Younas, Hood, Yousaf, Ibrahim, Luqman, Muhammad, and Nooh. These Surahs, however, are not exclusively devoted to the accounts of these prophets and also contain other narratives and commandments. The only Surah that is entirely devoted to the account of one prophet is Surah Yousaf.

The Quran also gives an account of many incidents that took place during the life of the Prophet Muhammad. However, not many contemporaries of the Holy Prophet are mentioned by name. The only two persons whose names appear in the Quran are Zayd, the freed slave and adopted son of the Prophet and Abu Ahab, an uncle and arch enemy of his. Zayd's name occurs in Surah al Ahzab, verse 38, and Abu Lahab's name occurs in Surah Ahab, the 111th Chapter of the Holy Quran. The Prophet's own name, Muhammad, is mentioned only four times in the Holy Quran. At all other places he is referred to as the Prophet, the Messenger, the Warner or by some other similar title.

4. The Book of Wisdom

Most important of all, the Holy Quran is the Book of Wisdom. Any person, whether he is a Muslim or not, can benefit from this treasure of God's Wisdom. Below are given some samplings of this wisdom:

" "A kind word and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury " (2:264)
" "God burdens no soul beyond its capacity" (2:287)
" "Man is created of haste" (21:38)
" "If God helps you, none can overcome you; but if He forsakes you, then who is there who can help you beside Him" (3:161)
" "No soul that bears a burden shall bear the burden of another" (53:39)
" "Man will have nothing but what he strives for" (53:40)
" "If you keep away from more grievous of the things which are forbidden to you, God will remove from you your minor evils" (4:32)
" "And if you try to count the favours of God, you will not be able to count them" (14:35)
" "And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between the two, in sport" (21:17)
" "God cannot be questioned for what He does" (21:24)
" "O children of Adam, We have given you garments to cover your nakedness... but the garment of piety is the best of all garments" (7:27)
" "God deprives no people of the favours, until they change their own condition" (8:54)
" "And how many a sign is there in the heavens and the earth, but men pass them by, turning away" (12:106)
" "Those who prefer the life of the present world to that of the next, and hinder men from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, have fallen into deepest error" (14:4)
" "Verily, he truly prospers who purifies himself" (87:15)
" "You prefer the life of this world, whereas the Hereafter is better and everlasting" (87:17 18)
" "We have surely created man to (face) hardships" (90:5)
" "Surely, man is ungrateful to His Lord; and surely, he is very keen for the love of wealth" (100:7 9)
" "Mutual rivalry in seeking worldly gains, diverts you from God" (102:2)
" "Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you be in strongly built forts" (4:79)
" "And know that your possessions and your children are but a trial and that it is God with Whom there is a great reward" (8:29)
" "Certainly, God wrongs not men at all, but men wrong their own souls" (10:45)
" "Wealth and children are an ornament of the life of this world. But lasting good works are better in the sight of thy Lord" (18:47)
" "If the ocean became ink for the words of my Lord, surely, the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my Lord came to an end" (18:110)
" "And God increases in guidance those who follow guidance" (19:77)
" "Every soul shall taste of death" (21:36)
" "ls not God sufficient for His servant?" (39:37)
" "Man does not tire of praying for good; but if evil befalls him, he despairs, giving up all hope" (41:50)
" "When We bestow a favour on man, he goes away, turning aside; but when evil befalls him, behold! he starts offering long prayers" (41:52)
" "Verily, the most honourable among you, in the sight of God, is he who is the most righteous among you" (49:14)
" "It is most hateful in the sight of God that you should say what you do not do" (61:4)
" "God will soon bring about ease after hardship" (65:8)
" "Verily, getting up at night is the most potent means of subduing the self and most effective in respect of words of prayer" (73:7)
" "It is for Us to give life and death; and it is We Who are the sole inheritor" (15:24)
" "And call not any other beside God. There is no god but He; everything else will perish. His is the Judgment, and unto Him shall you return" (28:89)
" "Among His signs are the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversities of your tongues and your colours. In that indeed are signs for those who ponder" (30:23)


And, in the context of earlier generations of people:

" "Those are a people that have passed away; for them is what they earned, and for you shall be what you earn and you shall not be questioned as to what they did." (2:142)

5. Prophecies in the Holy Quran

The Quran contains numerous prophecies which cover a wide span of time. Some of these prophecies were realized within days of the original revelation while others took months or years. Many were fulfilled after the death of the Holy Prophet and some relate to events, inventions and discoveries of the present day. Some of the prophecies even concern events of the distant future, up to the Day of Judgment. As God says in the Quran: "For every prophecy there is a fixed time" (6:68). Below are given some of the prophecies as examples:

(i) When the Holy Prophet was leaving Mecca at the time of Al-Hijrah, he received the revelation:

"He Who has made the Quran binding on thee will most surely bring thee back to thy birth place" (28:86)

This prophecy was eventually fulfilled with the conquest of Mecca and the triumphant return of the Holy Prophet.

(ii) In the year 622 A.D., Chosroe's armies gained victories against Heraclius, the Emperor of Rome. The Iranians got control of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Asia Minor and their armies reached within ten miles of the city of Constantinople. The people of Mecca rejoiced at this victory of the fire worshipers of Iran against the People of the Book. At this time the Holy Prophet received the following revelation:

"The Romans have been defeated in the land nearby, And they, after their defeat, will be victorious in a few years; The dominion belongs to God, before and after, And on that day the believers will rejoice over the help of God" (30:36)

This prophecy of Surah Room was fulfilled in a few years when the Romans defeated the Iranian armies and recovered their lost territories. This victory of the Romans also coincided with the victory of the Muslims at Badr and thus the second part of the prophecy, that the Muslims will rejoice that day, was also fulfilled.

(iii) In Surah ar Rahman, there is a prophecy:

"He has made the two bodies of water to flow. They will one day meet. Between them there is a barrier which they cannot surmount... There come out from both of them pearls and coral"(55:20.23)

This prophecy was fulfilled with the construction of Suez and Panama Canals in 1869 and 1914 respectively. The Suez Canal joined the Red Sea with the Mediterranean and the Panama Canal joined the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean.

(iv) In Surah al-Hijr is a prophecy concerning the safe guarding of the Holy Quran:

"It is We Who have revealed the Exposition, and it Is We Who are its guardians" ( 15:10)

The preservation of the Holy Quran in its original form is a well known fact. God has indeed guarded the Quran from any alteration, addition or omission. Of all the revealed books in the world, the Holy Quran is the only one which has remained completely unchanged since it was first compiled.

PRAYERS IN THE HOLY QURAN

Besides the ritual Prayer called Salat, Muslims are enjoined to pray to their Lord for all their spiritual and worldly needs. These Silent Prayers or supplications can be offered at any time during the day and in any language convenient to the believer.

All prayers in Islam are addressed directly to God, without going through the agency of any intermediary. The Holy Quran teaches its reader the proper words for prayer and supplication. This is achieved by direct exhortations to the believers as well as by examples of the prayers of earlier prophets and peoples.

The most well known and oft repeated prayer in the Holy Quran is Surah al Fatihah, the first Chapter of the Holy Quran. This prayer is recited in all the Daily ritual Prayers:

In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds,
The Gracious, the Merciful,
Master of the Day of Judgment,

Thee alone do we worship, and Thee alone do we ask for help.
Guide us along the straight path,
The path of those upon whom Thou bestowed Thy blessings,
Not of those who incurred Thy wrath,
Nor of those who have gone astray. " (1:1 7)

Following are some more prayers mentioned in the Holy Quran:

o "Our Lord, grant us good in this world as well as good in the hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the Fire." (2:202)

o "Our Lord, do not punish us if we forget or fall into error;
Our Lord, lay not upon us a responsibility as Thou laid upon those before us;
Our Lord, burden us not with what we have not the strength to bear;
And absolve our sins, and grant us forgiveness, and have mercy on us;
Thou art our Master; so help us against the disbelieving people. "(2:287)

o "Our Lord, let not our hearts become perverse after Thou hast guided us; and bestow on us Thine mercy; surely, Thou alone art the Bestower." (3:9)

o "Our Lord, Thou hast not created this in vain; Holy art Thou; save us then from the torment of the Fire.
Our Lord, whomsoever Thou causest to enter the Fire, him have Thou surely disgraced...
Our Lord, we have heard a Crier calling unto faith, 'Believe ye in your Lord', and we have believed.
Our Lord, forgive us, therefore, our errors and remove from us our evils, and in death count us with the righteous.
Our Lord, give us what Thou host promised us through Thy Messengers; and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection.
Surely, Thou breakest not Thy promise. "(3:192 195)

o "O my Lord, increase me in knowledge." (20:115)

o "Our Lord, grant us of our wives and children the delight of our eyes, and make us a model for the righteous." (25:75)

o ' My Lord, grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou hast bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do such good works as may please Thee. And make me and my seed righteous. I do turn to Thee; and, truly, l am of those who submit to thee" (46:16)


When Adam and Eve disobeyed God, they asked for forgiveness from their Lord, praying:

o "Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves and if Thou forgive us not and have not mercy on us, we shall be of the lost." (7:24)

When the Prophet Noah embarked on his Ark, he prayed:

o "In the name of God be its course and its mooring. My Lord is surely Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. "(11:42)

o "My Lord, cause me to land a blessed landing, for Thou art the Best of those who bring men to land." (23:30)

The following are the prayers of Abraham which he said for himself and his progeny:

o "Our Lord, make us submissive to Thee and make of our offspring a people obedient to Thee. And show us our ways of worship, and turn to us with mercy; for Thou art Oft Returning, Merciful." (2:129)

o `My Lord, make me observe Prayer, and my children, too. Our Lord, accept this prayer. Our Lord, grant forgiveness to me and to my parents and to the believers on the day when the reckoning will take place. "(14:41 42)

o "Our Lord, in Thee do we put our trust and to Thee do we turn, and towards Thee is the final return. Our Lord, make us not a trial for those who disbelieve, and forgive us, our Lord for Thou art the Mighty, the Wise. "(60:6 7)

When the Prophet Joseph was appointed governor of a province in Egypt, he prayed as follows:

o "Lord, Thou hast bestowed sovereignty upon me and taught me the interpretation of dreams. O Maker of the heavens and the earth, Thou art my protector in this world and the Hereafter. Make me die in a state of submission and join me with the righteous. "(12:102)

The following is the prayer of Prophet Moses when he was commanded by God to take the message to the Pharaoh:

o "Lord, open up for me my breast, and ease for me my task, and loosen the knot of my tongue, that they may understand my speech, and grant me a helper from my family, Aaron my brother. " (20:26 31)

When the Pharaoh's magicians had believed in Moses and the Pharaoh threatened to cut off their hands and feet, the magicians prayed as follows:

o "Our Lord, send down upon us steadfastness and cause us to die in a state of submission." (7:127)

When the Prophet David and the Israelites faced Goliath, they prayed:

o "Our Lord, bestow steadfastness upon us, and make our feet firm, and help us against the disbelieving people." (2:251)

When the Prophet Job was afflicted, he prayed to his Lord:

o 'I have been afflicted with distress, and Thou art the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy. "(21:84)

The following is Zechariah's prayer for an offspring:

o "Lord, leave me not childless, and Thou art the Best of inheritors." (21:90)

o "My Lord, grant me by Thy grace pure offspring; Surely, Thou art the Hearer of prayer." (3:39)

The following is the prayer of the disciples of Prophet Jesus:

o "Our Lord, we believe in that which Thou hast sent down and we follow the Messenger. So write us down among the witnesses." (3:54)

The following are some of the Holy Prophet's prayers mentioned in the Holy Quran:

o 'Lord, I seek refuge with Thee from the incitements of the evil ones, and I seek refuge with Thee, Lord, test they come near me. "(23:98 99)

o "Lord, forgive and have mercy on us. For all those who show mercy Thou art the Most Merciful. "(23:119)

o "Our Lord, avert from us the punishment of hell. for the punishment thereof is a lasting torment."(25:66)

The following is a prayer said by the Angels on behalf of the believers:

o "Our Lord, Thy mercy and knowledge extend over all things. So forgive those who repent and follow Thy way; and protect them from the punishment of hell. Our Lord, make them enter the Gardens of Eternity which Thou hast promised them, as well as such of their children as are virtuous. Surely, Thou art the Mighty, the Wise. "(40:8 10)

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF
THE HOLY QURAN

 

The Holy Quran has been translated into many major languages of the world. There are a large number of translations existing in the English language alone. The oldest English translation of the Quran is by Alexander Ross which was published in 1649, more than three hundred years ago. Following is a list of some of the well known English translators of the Holy Quran, with the dates of their publications against their names.

1. Alexander Ross 1649
2. George Sale 1734
3. J.M. Rodwell 1861
4. E.H. Palmer 1880
5. Abdul Hakim 1905
6. Mirza Abdul Fazl 1910
7. Muhammad Ali 1917
8. Ghulam Sat war 1929
9. Marmaduke Pickthall 1930
10. Abdullah Yousaf Ali 1934
11. Richard Bell 1937
12. A.J. Arberry 1955
13. Sher Ali 1955
14. N.J. Dawood 1956
15. Abdul Majid Daryabadi 1957
16. Mir Ahmed Ali 1964
17. Muhammad Asad 1964
18. Syed Abdul Lateef 1968
19. Malik Ghulam Fareed 1969
20. Pir Salahuddin 1969
21. M. Zafarullah Khan 19
71
22. Hashim Amir Ali 1974
23. Rashad Khalifah 1981

BOLD ARE Members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community

COMMENTARIES OF THE HOLY QURAN

Besides the simple translation of the Arabic text into various languages, there exist a number of books which also contain detailed explanatory notes and interpretations of the Holy Quran. Such a book is called Tafseer or Commentary of the Holy Quran. It should be noted that a commentary and interpretation is largely a matter of individual opinion. Some of the best known Commentaries of the Holy Quran are in the Arabic language. A list of some of the better known Commentaries is given below:

Name of Commentary Author

Commentaries in the Arabic Language

Commentary of the Quran Imam ibne Jareer Tabari
Tafseer of ibne al Katheer ibne al Katheer
Al Kashaf an Ghawamid al Tanzil Imam Zamakhshari
AI Bahr al Muhit ibne Yousaf of Granada
Durre Manthur Jalal-ud-Deen Sayutee
Ruh al Ma'ani Abul Shihab Baghdadi
Anwar al Tanzil Nasir ud Din Baydawi
Fatah al Qadir ibne Ali Shaukani
Fatah al Bayan Siddiq bin Hasan
Tafseer Kabir Imam Fakhruddin Razi
Qurtubi Abdullah al Qurtubi
Ruh al Bayan Sheikh Ismail Haqqi

Commentaries in the Urdu Language

Tafseer Kabir Mirza Bashiruddin
Mahmood Ahmad
Majma al Bayan Muhammad Ali

Commentaries in the English Language

Commentary on the Quran Rev. E.M. Wherry
The Holy Quran with English
Translation and Commentary Mirza Bashiruddin
Mahmood Ahmad


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