HISTORY OF AHMADIYYAT
THE REVIVAL OF ISLAM
WHAT IS AHMADIYYAT?
Ahmadiyyat is a sect of Islam and not a new religion.
Ahmadiyyat is a movement, entirely within the fold of
Islam, meant to revive its true spirit and philosophy,
to cleanse Islam of all superstitious and unnecessary
beliefs and customs which had crept in over the past
fourteen centuries, and, finally, to preach the religion
of Islam to non-Muslims with the enthusiasm and zeal
of the early Muslims.
The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam was founded by Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India, in 1889. The followers
of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad believe that he is the same Messiah
and Mahdi whose coming was foretold by the Holy Prophet
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,
and was eagerly awaited by all Muslims. His followers
call themselves Ahmadi Muslims, only to differentiate
themselves from members of other Islamic sects, and
strictly follow the orthodox religion of Islam.
As far as the fundamental beliefs or acts of worship
are concerned, the Ahmadi Muslims have neither taken
anything out nor added anything new to the religion
of Islam. The Ahmadi Muslims make their declaration
of faith by reciting the same Kalima which was recited
by the Holy Prophet Muhammad himself; they say their
Prayers and fast in the same manner as the Holy Prophet
of Islam did; and their Qiblah, their Ka'ba, their Azan
and their Quran are all exactly the same as that of
the other Muslims.
DIFFERENCES WITH SUNNI MUSLIMS
There are basically three beliefs held by Ahmadi Muslims
which separate them from the mainstream of Sunni Islam.
These three beliefs concern:
o The finality of Muhammad's prophethood.
o Jesus Christ's ascension to heaven, and
o the identity of the Promised Messiah
These three areas of contention between Ahmadi and
Sunni Muslims are briefly described below:
The Finality of Muhammad's Prophethood
In verse 41 of Surah al Ahzab, the Prophet Muhammad
has been given the title of Khataman Nabiyyeen, the
Seal of the Prophets. A majority of the Muslims interpret
from this verse that the Holy Prophet Muhammad was chronologically
the last Prophet and that no new Prophet can come after
him. They also believe the phenomenon of prophetic revelation
to be closed for ever.
According to the Ahmadi Muslims, the expression 'Seal
of the Prophets' does not mean that the Holy Prophet
is chronologically the last Prophet. A seal is a mark
of distinction and, in this case, implies great perfection
of prophethood. Ahmadis believe that the door to prophethood
is always open. However, a new prophet after the Prophet
Muhammad must be a follower of his and must be from
within the fold of Islam. Ahmadi Muslims do believe
that the Prophet Muhammad was the last law giving Prophet
and that no new law giving prophet can come after him.
Jesus Christ's Ascension to Heaven
The Sunni Muslims believe that Jesus was not put on
the cross and that his place was actually taken by someone
who resembled him. Jesus, according to them, was physically
raised to heaven.
Ahmadis believe that Jesus was indeed put on the cross,
but only for a few hours. They believe that Jesus, after
recovering from his wounds, traveled East to Kashmir
where he died a natural death and remains buried in
a tomb in Srinagar, in Mohallah Khanyar.
The Identity of the Promised Messiah
A majority of the Sunni Muslims believe that Jesus
Christ himself will return one day as the latter day
Ahmadi Muslims believe that since Jesus Christ has
already died, it can only be someone else who can appear
as the latter day Messiah. Ahmadis believe that this
Promised Messiah has already come in the person of Hazrat
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad alaihisslam of Qadian.
These are the three important areas of contention between
the Ahmadi and Sunni Muslims. In all other essential
Islamic beliefs, the two groups hold more or less similar
WHAT IS MEANT BY THE "PROMISED" MESSIAH?
In the Hadith of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, there are
numerous references to the coming of a latter day Reformer
who will cleanse the religion of Islam of all unnecessary
customs and superstitions and restore to it the eminence
and glory which it used to enjoy in the early days.
This Reformer is referred to by various names and titles
in the Hadith such as:
Jesus son of Mary
The advent of this Reformer is so vividly described
in the Hadith literature that Muslims of all sects and
generations had been eagerly waiting for his appearance.
Since one of the names used for this Reformer in the
Hadith is "Jesus son of Mary", many simple
minded Muslims started believing that Jesus Christ himself
will reappear in the latter days of Islam. When Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad proclaimed in 1890 that he was the Messiah
whose advent was promised in the Hadith of the Holy
Prophet, a majority of the Muslims rejected his claim
because they were looking forward to the second coming
of Jesus Christ himself. In this respect these Muslims
behaved like the Jews of two thousand years ago who
had rejected Jesus' claim to prophethood because they,
too, were waiting for the second coming of the Prophet
After receiving many revelations to this effect, Hazrat
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad declared in 1890 that he was the
same Messiah and Mahdi whose advent had been foretold
by the Holy Prophet Muhammad himself. He declared that
he was in communion with God and constantly received
His revelations and signs.
SIMILARITIES WITH JESUS CHRIST
A question arises as to why the latter day reformer
has been referred to by the name of "Isa ibne Maryam"
(Jesus son of Mary), in the Hadith of the Holy Prophet.
The reason is the great resemblance this latter day
reformer bears to Jesus Christ in a number of ways.
If we look at their time settings, their teachings and
their objectives, we find such a remarkable resemblance
between the two as if the history is repeating itself.
Some of the important areas in which the two prophets
resemble each other are discussed below:
Relationship to the Law Giving Prophet
Jesus Christ was not a law giving prophet and came
some 1300 years after the Prophet Moses, the greatest
law giving prophet of the Israelites.
Similarly, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was not a law
giving prophet and he, too, came some 1300 years after
the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the greatest law giving prophet
of all times.
Reason for Rejection by the People
Jews of the day rejected Jesus' claim to prophethood
because they were mistakenly waiting for the second
coming of the Prophet Elijah himself.
Similarly, Muslims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's time rejected
his claim to Messiahship because they, too, were mistakenly
waiting for the second coming of Jesus Christ himself
The intention of Jesus Christ was to reform Judaism
and not to found a new religion. It is not possible
to found a new religion without giving the people a
new Law. Jesus did not abrogate the Mosaic Law and,
in fact, maintained its continued applicability to his
Similarly, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad came to reform the Islam
of his day and not to found any new religion.
Jesus' teachings emphasized the gentler elements of
the Jewish religion, such as meekness, humility, charity,
forgiveness and repentance. Jesus de emphasized the
harsher elements of the Mosaic Law which, with its restrictions
and punishments, had come to be regarded more as a curse
than as a blessing.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's teachings also emphasized the
gentler elements of the religion of Islam such as patience,
meekness, humility, forgiveness, charity and prayer.
He, too, de emphasized some of the
harsher elements of Islamic history such as jihad with
THE INSTITUTION OF MUJADADIYYAT IN ISLAM
A Mujaddid is a person who renews or renovates the
religion. According to a Hadith of the Holy Prophet,
which has been recorded by Abu Da'ood, renovators will
appear during every century of Islam:
"Verily, God shall raise for this community, at
the beginning of every century, one who will renovate
for it its religion".
A list of various "Renovators" who have appeared
during the past fourteen hundred years is given below.
These mujaddids were the most outstanding saints and
scholars of their time and did much to reform the religion
of Islam, of their day.
In this list, only one Mujaddid is given for each century.
Many Muslims, however, recognize more than one Mujaddid
for some centuries. For example, two Mujaddids are recognized
for the Second century of Islam: Ahmad bin Hanbal and
Imam Sha'fi. Similarly, Abu Ubaid Naishapuri is included
with Abu Bakr Baqlani as the two Mujaddids of the Fourth
century. For the Seventh century, Moeen-ud-Deen Chishtee
is recognized along with Imam ibne Taymiyya, and for
the Eighth century, Saleh bin Omar along with ibne Hajar
Asqalani. Similarly, for the Ninth Century, Syed Muhammad
Jaunpuri is recognized along with Jalal-ud-Deen Sayutee.
But far the Fourteenth Century of Islam, which ended
in the year 1980 A.D., no one other than Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad of Qadian has ever been recognized as a Mujaddid.
LIST OF MUJADDIDS OF ISLAM
Century Name of Mujaddid Hijrah Christian
1st Omar bin Abdul Aziz 60 101 717 720
2nd Ahmad bin Hanbal 164 241 780 855
3rd Abul Hasan Ashari 260 324 873 935
4th Abu Bakr Baqlani 7 403 7 1013
5th Al Ghazali 450 505 1058 1111
6th Abdul Qadir Jilanee 470 561 1077 I 166
7th Ibne Taymiyya 661 728 1263 1328
8th Ibne Hajar Asqalani 773 852 1372 1449
9th Jalal-ud-Deen Sayutee ? ?
10th Muhammad Tahir Gujratee ? ?
11th Ahmad Sirhindi 971 1034 1564 1624
12th Shah Wali Ullah 1113 1175 1702 1762
13th Ahmad Brelwi 1201 1246 1786 1831
14th Mirza Ghulam Ahmad 1251 1326 1835 1908
BIRTH OF HAZRAT MIRZA GHULAM AHMAD
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was born at Qadian, India, on February
13, 1835. He was born immediately after a twin sister
named Jannat Bibi, who died a few days later. Mohyuddin
ibne al Arabi, a great Muslim mystic of Spain, had prophesied
that the Promised Messiah would be born a twin. The
name of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's father was Mirza Ghulam
Murtaza and his mother's, Chiragh Bibi. He had an older
brother by the name of Mirza Ghulam Qadir and a sister
named Murad Bibi.
A distant ancestor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, by the name
of Mirza Hadi Baig, came to India from Samarqand in
the latter part of the sixteenth century. This occurred
soon after Babar, also from the Samarqand region, had
established himself as the first Moghul Emperor in India.
Mirza Hadi Baig settled with his companions near River
Beas, about seventy miles east of Lahore, and founded
a village by the name of Islampur. Later on this place
came to be known as Islampur Qadi which, in the course
of time, got shortened to Qadian. At the time of Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad's birth, Qadian was merely a small village
without electricity, paved roads or railway line. The
nearest connection with the outside world was through
a place called Batala, eleven miles away.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the thirteenth descendent of
Mirza Hadi Baig. During the Moghul rule in India, Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad's ancestors held responsible posts at the
royal court and had control over a large area around
Qadian. At the rise of the Sikh rule in Punjab, his
family started to lose control of this territory, which
was eventually confiscated in the nineteenth century
by the British Government in India. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's
father spent his entire life in litigation trying to
regain possession of his ancestral estate. He spent
a great deal of money and effort towards this end but
did not gain much.
THE FAMILY TREE OF HAZRAT MIRZA GHULAM AHMAD
The three Khalifahs of the Promised Messiah, after
Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen, are shown below by numbers
QADIAN AND SURROUNDINGS
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad received all his education at home.
His religious education started at an early age of six
when a tutor, by the name of Fazl Ilahi, was retained
to teach him the Holy Quran and the Persian language.
When he was ten years old, another teacher by the name
of Fazl Ahmad taught him Arabic grammar. At age seventeen,
he received instruction in more of Arabic grammar and
something of logic, by another tutor named Gul Ali Shah.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's father, being an experienced physician,
instructed him in the field of natural medicine.
Although Mirza Ghulam Ahmad could swim and tide, he
was not really fond of games or sports. Right from very
early age, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was given to studying
the Holy Quran, the Hadith of the Holy Prophet, and
other religious literature. Even at this young age his
favourite pastime was praying and studying.
According to the custom of the time, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
was married at an early age of sixteen, to his cousin
named Hurmat Bibi. From this first marriage, two sons
were born: Mirza Sultan Ahmad (1853 1931) and Mirza
Fazl Ahmad (1855 1904). Neither of these sons performed
the Bai'at during the lifetime of the Promised Messiah.
Mirza Fazl Ahmad passed away four years before his father's
death while Mirza Sultan Ahmad eventually performed
the Bai'at at the hand of Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood
Ahmad, the Second Successor of the Promised Messiah.
Even after the marriage, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad continued
to spend most of his time in seclusion, prayer and meditation.
The first marriage of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was not a happy
one and eventually resulted in permanent separation.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's father wanted him to learn some
worldly knowledge and obtain some lucrative post in
line with ancestral tradition, but he had no such desire.
His father eventually secured him a government post
as a Reader in a court in Sialkot. In deference to his
father's wishes, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad took up this position
in 1864, at the age of 29. He worked at Sialkot for
about four years but his heart was never in his job.
He spent all his spare time in worship, in the study
of religious books and in carrying out discussions and
debates with the Christian missionaries in the area.
In 1868 he learned of his mother's serious illness
back in Qadian. He immediately resigned from his job
and returned to Qadian. His mother, however, passed
away before his arrival.
START OF REVELATIONS
The spiritual experiences of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad began
in his early youth when he started having true dreams
and visions. In these dreams he met various saints and
prophets including the Holy Prophet Muhammad. It was,
however, in 1865 at the age of thirty, that Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad received his first revelation which concerned
"Eighty years or thereabouts, or a little more.
you will see your distant progeny."
The above revelation was in the Arabic language. A
few years later, in 1869, he received another important
revelation in Urdu:
"I shall bestow blessing upon blessing on thee,
so much so that kings will seek blessings from thy garments."
In the beginning, his revelations were short and infrequent,
followed by long silent intervals. Gradually, the frequency
as well as the length of his revelations increased.
The written contents of some of his individual revelations
run for many pages. In his lifetime, he received revelations
mostly in Urdu and Arabic languages with some in Persian
and a few even in English.
After the death of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, a collection
of all his dreams, visions and revelations was compiled
from various publications into one volume called Tadhkirah.
Many of his revelations were repetition of the Quranic
verses. The purpose was to emphasize certain meanings
and implications of these verses which applied to a
particular set of circumstances. A great number of his
revelations and visions contain prophecies regarding
future events. Many of these prophecies were fulfilled
during the lifetime of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad or soon afterwards.
But some of his prophecies concern the future and still
await fulfillment. A great many of his revelations contain
statements of extreme love and endearment which God
displayed for Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.
FASTING AND DEVOTION
In the year 1875, at the age of forty, Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad kept fasts over a period of eight or nine months.
He gradually reduced his daily food to just half a piece
of bread and intensified his prayers and devotions.
As a result, God blessed him with great insight into
the spiritual secrets and he met many prophets and saints
in his visions.
DEATH OF FATHER
In the year 1876, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was in Lahore
when he had a dream. From this dream he concluded that
his father was about to pass away. He hastened back
to Qadian and found that although his father was ill,
it did not appear that his illness was very serious.
The next day, at noon, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad received the
following Quranic verse in a revelation:
"We call to witness the heaven and that which
appears by night."(86:2)
With this revelation he was also given the understanding
that it referred to the death of his father which was
to occur that day after sunset. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was
greatly troubled by this revelation and naturally wondered
about the cessation of certain sources of income which
were available only during his father's lifetime. Immediately,
he received another revelation of the following Quranic
"Is not God sufficient for His servant?"
This revelation gave him great comfort and satisfaction.
That day, after sunset, his father passed away in accordance
with his revelation.
ADHERENCE TO TRUTH
An incident took place in 1878 which demonstrates how
truthful and honest Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was in his everyday
life. It so happened that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad once sent
a manuscript to a printer by mail, at the rate prescribed
for parcels. In it he also enclosed a letter, addressed
to the printer, giving certain instructions for the
printing of the manuscript. He was not aware that postal
regulations forbade the inclusion of letters in any
material sent at the parcel rate. The owner of the printing
press was an opponent of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and made
a complaint against him to the postal authorities.
A case was filed against Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and he
was summoned to the court to answer the charges. The
lawyer who was representing his case, advised him to
deny that he had placed any letter in the parcel. But
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad immediately rejected this advice
telling his lawyer that he could not deviate from the
truth and make a false statement for fear of punishment.
His lawyer told him that in that case there would not
be any hope for acquittal since he would be admitting
to the breaking of the postal regulations.
Later in the court, when he was questioned by the magistrate,
he admitted that he had placed the letter in the parcel
but explained that he did not know that he was breaking
a postal regulation and had no intention of defrauding
the Post Office. The court was so impressed by his forthrightness
and honesty that the case against him was dropped and
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was acquitted.
WRITING OF `BRAHIN E AHMADIYYA'
Around the latter half of the nineteenth century, Islam
in India was being ruthlessly attacked by the Christians
and the Arya Samaj, a militant sect of the Hindus. Under
the favourable climate of the British rule, the Christian
missionaries were spreading their religion with great
force and speed. The Muslims in India were completely
heedless to this deteriorating situation and Islam in
that country was indeed in a sorry state.
It was in such circumstances that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
took up his pen in defense of Islam and to prove its
excellences. For this reason he started writing a great
book called Braheen e-Ahmadiyya, meaning Proofs of Ahmadiyyat.
The four volumes of this book were published between
1880 and 1884 while the fifth volume was published in
Aside from some articles he had been contributing to
the local journals, Braheen e-Ahmadiyya was Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad's first major writing. In this book he presented
proofs of the truth of the Holy Quran and of the Prophethood
of Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
He also threw a challenge, accompanied by a prize of
10,000 rupees, to any non Muslim who could refute these
arguments and could produce even one fifth as many proofs
in favour of his own religion.
Overnight, the publication of Braheen e-Ahmadiyya brought
great fame and respect to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and people
began to look at him as a great champion of Islam. He
went on to write more than eighty books over the next
28 years. All this voluminous literature was intended
for the revival of Islam and presenting its excellence
and superiority over all other religions. Most of his
books were written in the Urdu language while some twenty
books were written in Arabic.
APPOINTED AS A REFORMER
Although Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had been seeing visions
and receiving revelations for some time, his real mission
and status had not yet been made apparent to him. It
was in March 1882, when he was 37 years old, that his
true station began to be revealed to him.
"God bless thee, O Ahmad... The Gracious God has
taught thee the Quran so that you should warn the people
whose ancestors have not been warned... Proclaim: I
have been commissioned and I am the first of the believers...
"He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance
and the true faith so that He should make it prevail
over all faiths... We shall suffice thee against those
who mock at thee... This is a mercy from thy Lord. He
will perfect His bounty upon thee so that it should
be a sign for the believers. You have appeared with
clear vision from your Lord so give glad tidings to
people ... Tell them: "If you love God, then follow
me, God will then love you...`
"God praises thee from His Throne. We praise thee
and call down blessings on thee... I am with thee and
be thou with Me wherever thou may be... God will exalt
thy name and perfect His bounty upon thee in this world
and the hereafter... Give glad tidings to those who
have believed that they have the station of righteousness
before thy Lord. Recite to them whatever has been revealed
to thee from thy Lord".
With this revelation of March 1882, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
realized that he was being appointed by God as the Mujaddid
or Reformer of the fourteenth century of Islam. At this
stage he did not make any specific public claim; his
status as the Promised Messiah was yet to be revealed
to him in another eight years. He, however, intensified
his prayers and worship and devoted all his time towards
his writings and preaching the truth and the excellence
The rust marriage of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, which had
taken place when he was sixteen years old, had ended
in a permanent separation. Around the year 1881, when
he was 46 years old, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad started to receive
revelations regarding his second marriage:
"We give thee glad tidings of a noble son"
"Be grateful for My bounty that you have found
"I have determined to arrange another wedding
for you. I shall make all the arrangements and you will
not be put to any trouble"
Under the Divine Will, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad married a
second time on November 17, 1884. He was 49 years old
at the time. His second wife, Nusrat Jehan Begum, came
from a noble Sayyed family of Delhi. From this second
wife ten children were born whose names are given below:
1. Ismat Bibi Apr. 15, 1886 1891
2. Basheer Ahmad Aug. 7, 1887 Nov. 4, 1888
3. Mirza Bashiruddin Jan. 12, 1889 Nov. 8, 1965
4. Shaukat Bibi 1891 1892
5. Mirza Bashir Ahmad Apr. 20, 1893 Sept 2, 1963
6. Mirza Sharif Ahmad May 24, 1895 Dec. 26, 1961
7. Mubaraka Begum Mar 2, 1897 May 23, 1977
8. Mirza Mubarak Ahmad Jun 14, 1899 Sep 16, 1907
9. Amtul Naseer Jan 28, 1903 Dec 3, 1903
10. Amtul Hafeez Begum Jun 25, 1904 May 6, 1987
Five of the above ten children died in infancy or early
childhood; the surviving five, three males and two females,
lived to ripe old ages.
Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad, the oldest of the
five surviving children, became the Second Khalifah
of the Promised Messiah alaihisslam and served in this
capacity for over fifty years.
Nusrat Jehan Begum, the second wife of Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad, died on April 20, 1952, in Rabwah, Pakistan.
She was 86 years old at the time.
SOLITARY RETREAT IN HOSHIARPUR
In January 1886, at the age of 51, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
traveled to Hoshiarpur with the intention of spending
some time in a solitary retreat. In a house on the outskirts
of Hoshiarpur, he isolated himself for a period of forty
days. During this time his food was placed outside his
door and no visitors were allowed to see him. He spent
all this time in intense meditation and worship and
was in constant communion with God and received many
revelations. He supplicated to his Lord to give him
a sign for the truth of Islam. It was during this solitary
retreat that he was given the glad tidings of a great
son to be born to him who is known, in the history of
Ahmadiyyat, as the "Promised Son" or the "Promised
"I confer upon thee a sign of My mercy according
to thy supplications. I have heard thy entreaties and
have accepted thy prayers with My mercy and have blessed
this thy journey.
"A sign of power, mercy, nearness to Me is bestowed
on thee; a sign of grace and beneficence is awarded
to thee and thou art granted the key of success and
"Rejoice therefore that a handsome and pure boy
will be bestowed upon thee; you will receive a bright
youth who will be of thy seed and will be of thy progeny.
"A handsome and pure boy will come as your guest.
His name is Emmanuel and Bashir. He has been invested
with a holy spirit, and he will be free from all impurity.
He is the light of God. Blessed is he who comes from
"He will be accompanied by grace which shall arrive
with him. He will be characterized with grandeur, greatness
and wealth. He will come into the world and will heal
many of their disorders through his Messianic qualities
and through the blessings of the Holy Spirit. He is
the Word of God for God's mercy and honour have equipped
him with the Word of Majesty. He will be extremely intelligent
and understanding and will be meek of heart and will
be endowed with secular and spiritual knowledge...
"Son, delight of the heart, high ranking, noble;
a manifestation of the First and the Last, a manifestation
of the True and the High; as if God has descended from
heaven. His advent will be greatly blessed and will
be a source of manifestation of Divine Majesty. Behold,
a light comes; a light anointed by God with the perfume
of His pleasure. We shall pour Our Spirit into him and
he will be sheltered under the shadow of God. He will
grow rapidly and will be the means of procuring the
release of those held in bondage. His fame will spread
to the ends of the earth and nations will be blessed
through him. Then he shall be raised to his spiritual
station in heaven. This is a matter decreed"
In a second announcement, two days later, Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad declared that this promised son will be born within
a period of nine years.
Two months after the announcement regarding the birth
of the promised son, a daughter named Ismat Bibi was
born to Ghulam Ahmad. His enemies rejoiced at her birth
and took this opportunity to ridicule and defame him.
Many of his opponents started saying that the prophecy
was falsified by the birth of the daughter.
Then, one and a half year after the famous announcement,
a son was born to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and was named Bashir
Ahmad. This son, too, died little over a year later
and the enemies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad again raised a
commotion in order to discredit him. They all started
saying that the boy who had died was the one who should
have lived to become the Promised Reformer. Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad responded to these accusations by saying that
he had never claimed that this Bashir Ahmad was indeed
the Promised Son and that all he had prophesied was
that such a son will be born within a period of nine
In due course of time, the Promised Son was born to
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on January 12, 1889, within the specified
period of nine years and was named Mirza Bashiruddin
Mahmood Ahmad. He eventually became the Second Successor
of the Promised Messiah and served in this capacity
for a period of over fifty years. On receiving a revelation
in 1944, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad declared in
a public address that he indeed was the Promised Son
whose birth was prophesied by the Promised Messiah in
1886. We will read more about the Promised Son in the
section on Promised Messiah's Successors.
COMMANDED TO ACCEPT THE BAI'AT
In 1888, some six years after being appointed as a
Reformer, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was commanded by God to
start accepting the Bai'at or the oath of allegiance
of his followers. In an announcement printed on green
paper and published on December 1, 1888, Mirza Ghulam
"I have been commanded that the seekers after
truth should enter into covenant of Bai'at with me for
the purpose of learning the way of true faith, true
purity and the love of the Lord and of discarding an
evil, slothful and disloyal life.
"Therefore, those who perceive such strength in
themselves should come forward to me. I shall be the
sharer of their sorrows and shall try to lighten their
burdens. God will bless them through my prayers and
my attention towards them provided they are wholeheartedly
ready to comply with the conditions of the covenant
which are divinely determined"
By taking the Bai'at or the oath of allegiance, Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad was laying the foundation of a movement
which will be made up of people completely devoted to
the cause of Islam in every respect. Before accepting
any Bai'at, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad announced, on January
12, 1889, the ten conditions of initiation into the
Movement. A newcomer to the Movement was asked to abide
by the following conditions:
1. To abstain from shirk or setting up partners with
2. To keep away from falsehood, adultery, cruelty,
dishonesty, riot, rebellion and every kind of evil
3. To offer the five Daily Prayers and also the Tahajjud
Prayer if able to do so
4. Not to harm God's creatures in general and Muslims
in particular, by one's actions or by words
5. To stay faithful to God in sorrow or pleasure, prosperity
or adversity, happiness or misfortune
6. Not to follow vulgar customs, to abstain from evil
inclinations, to submit to the authority of the Holy
Quran and to make the sayings of God and His Messenger
the guiding principles of one's life
7. To completely discard pride and haughtiness and
to pass one's days with humility, lowliness, courtesy
8. To consider the religion, the honour of religion
and the well being of Islam dearer than one's life,
wealth and children
9. To show sympathy to God's creatures and to use one's
natural talents for their welfare
10. To establish a brotherhood with Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
on condition of obeying him in everything good, till
the day of one's death.
These were the ten conditions of the Bai'at which every
one intending to enter the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam
had to abide by.
THE FOUNDING OF AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT
After publishing the ten conditions of the Bai'at,
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad traveled to Ludhiana in March 1889
and issued another leaflet. In this leaflet he said
that be would stay in the town at a house near that
of Munshi Ahmad Jan's, a disciple of his. Those who
wished to become his followers were asked to come to
the house for an oath of allegiance. He explained the
meaning, the necessity and the importance of the Bai'at,
in the following words:
"God wishes to found a community of the faithful
to manifest His Glory and Power. He will make the community
grow and prosper and will cause it to establish the
love of God, righteousness, purity, peace and good will
among men. This shall be a group of men devoted to God.
He shall strengthen them with His own Spirit and bless
them and purify them. He shall multiply them exceedingly
... He shall make the Community grow, so much so that
its numbers and progress shall amaze the world. My true
followers shall excel every other people. There shall
always rise among them, till the Day of Judgment, persons
who will be the chosen ones of God in every respect"
The formal ceremony of the Bai'at started on March
23, 1889. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad sat in one corner of the
room while his disciples were called in, one by one.
The ceremony was extremely simple. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
would stretch out his right hand which was then held
by the disciple who would repeat the following words
in Urdu after him:
"I repent today at the hand of Ahmad, of all the
sins and bad habits to which I was addicted; and most
truthfully and solemnly do I promise that, to the last
day of my life, I shall avoid, to the best of my ability,
all manner of sin. I will hold my faith above all worldly
considerations. I shall try, as far as I can, to observe
the ten conditions of Bai'at laid down in the leaflet
dated January 12, 1889. I seek forgiveness of God for
my past sins".
After this, the disciple would repeat the following
words in Arabic:
"I ask forgiveness of God, my Lord,
"I ask forgiveness of God, my Lord,
"I ask forgiveness of God, my Lord, for all my
sins and turn to Him. I bear witness that there is none
worthy of worship except God. He is One, without partners
and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and
Messenger. My Lord, I have wronged my soul and I confess
all my sins. Do thou forgive me my sins as there is
none other who can forgive".
After taking this oath from the disciple, Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad would lift up his hands in prayer and thus the
ceremony of the Bai'at would be completed for each follower.
The very first person who took the Bai'at at the hands
of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen who was
his most devoted follower and eventually succeeded him
as his First Successor.
On March 23, 1889, some forty persons performed the
Bai'at and thus was laid the foundation of the Ahmadiyya
Movement in Islam. This Movement, which started with
a handful of devours in the late I800s, has today grown
into millions of adherents spread all over the world.
The Movement has established missions and mosques in
numerous countries of the world, built schools and hospitals
in many African nations, translated the Holy Quran in
many languages, and is zealously preaching the religion
of Islam in every corner of the world. The unusual success
of the Movement is a living proof of God's support for
this otherwise humble and resource less community.
CLAIM TO MESSIAHSHIP
Early in 1890, God revealed to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad that
Jesus Christ had died a natural death and that the belief
that he was still alive in heaven was false. Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad announced this fact openly to the world and declared
that Jesus son of Mary could not possibly come back
to life as the latter day Messiah. He told the world
that the prophecy of the Holy Prophet regarding the
coming of a Mahdi and a Messiah had been fulfilled in
his own person. He further proclaimed that God had appointed
him to bring about a reform in the world and to re establish
the supremacy and glory of the religion of Islam.
As proof for his claim, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad presented
many arguments. He explained that just as the Prophet
Elijah did not come back to life himself and his second
coming was in fact realized in the appearance of John
the Baptist, similarly, Jesus Christ would not reappear
himself and his second coming could only be realized
in the appearance of someone else with the characteristics
and qualities of Jesus. As further proof, he produced
numerous references in the writings of early Muslim
scholars and in the sacred books of other religions,
all of which attested to the truthfulness of his claim.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's claim to Messiahship received
a muted response from the public. Those who were honest
and sincere could not find any fault with his claim
and eventually entered his fold. But there were many
other people who, for various reasons, did not accept
his claim and denounced him as an unbeliever and a non
Muslim. The Christian missionaries opposed him for he
had proved that Jesus was a mortal being like the rest
of us and could not possibly be the Son of God in the
literal sense of the phrase. Muslim mullahs also opposed
him since they saw in him a threat to their own dogmatic
teachings and power.
ANNUAL GATHERING INSTITUTED
On December 27, 1891, a gathering of the Ahmadiyya
Movement was held in Qadian, India, in which 75 persons
participated. The conference was a great success and
the Promised Messiah announced that such a gathering
of the community should be held every year for three
days during the Christmas holidays. Since then, this
annual gathering has been held more or less without
any break and the number of participants bas steadily
grown. The last Annual Gathering held during the lifetime
of the Promised Messiah, in 1907, was attended by some
2,000 followers. In the recent Annual Gathering held
at Rabwah, Pakistan, the number of participants reached
a quarter million people.
In these annual gatherings, the Ahmadiyya community
reviews the work done in the previous year and listens
to talks and speeches presented by teamed scholars and
the Khalifah on topics covering Islam, Ahmadiyyat, comparative
religions, and economic, social and political problems
and their remedies. The Ahmadi Muslims participating
in these gatherings come from all parts of the world.
They take this opportunity not only to increase their
religious knowledge and spiritual energy but also revive
old friendships and establish new relations of love,
affection and Islamic brotherhood. With many Ahmadis
now living outside India and Pakistan, annual gatherings
are also organized in various other countries.
PROPHECY REGARDING PANDIT LEKH RAM
Pundit Lekh Ram was a leader of Arya Samaj. Arya Samaj
was a highly militant and dogmatic sect of Hinduism
which fiercely attacked both Islam and Christianity
because they were attracting too many converts, especially
from the lower castes. Pundit Lekh Ram was a persistent
enemy of Islam and always used the foulest language
in attacking the character of the Holy Prophet Muhammad.
Many a times the Promised Messiah tried to correct him
on this point but he would not listen. Finally, on February
20, 1893, the Promised Messiah made the following announcement
concerning Pundit Lekh Ram:
"Within six years from today, this man will be
overtaken by severe torment as a punishment for the
disrespect which he has shown towards the Holy Prophet.
"Now by announcing the prophecy I am seeking to
inform all Muslims, Christians and followers of other
religions that if this person is not overtaken within
the period of six years from today by a torment that
should be distinguishable from ordinary sufferings and
should bear an extraordinary character and should be
in the nature of Divine punishment, then it might be
concluded that I have not been sent from God"
In another revelation God informed the Promised Messiah
that this reckoning will occur on the day next to the
day of the Eid Festival.
Even after the announcement of the prophecy in his
regard, Pundit Lekh Ram did not mend his ways and continued
to make vile remarks in his writings about the Prophet
Muhammad, the Holy Quran and Islam. He even made a prophecy
of his own that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad will die of cholera
within three years and that his children will not survive.
What Pundit Lekh Ram had prophesied did not, of course,
come to pass. The Promised Messiah did not die within
the specified period and his children did indeed survive.
The Promised Messiah's prophecy, however, was fulfilled
word for word. Pundit Lekh Ram met his fateful end on
March 6, 1897, on the day following the festive day
of Eid al Adha. He was fatally stabbed by an unknown
person in his own house and the assailant could not
be apprehended. The fulfillment of this prophecy was
a great sign of the truth of the Promised Messiah.
SIGN OF THE ECLIPSES
In a Hadith of the Holy Prophet, one of the signs of
the appearance of the Mahdi relates to the darkening
of the sun and the moon during the month of Ramadhan.
This Hadith was recorded by Dar Qutnee and goes as follows:
"For our Mahdi there are appointed two signs which
have never been manifested for any other claimant since
the creation of the heavens and the earth. One is the
eclipse of the moon on the first of Ramadhan and the
other is the eclipse of the sun in the middle of Ramadhan.
These two signs have not appeared since the creation
of the heavens and the earth"
An eclipse of the moon normally occurs on the 13th,
14th or 15th night of a lunar month near the time of
the full moon. An eclipse of the sun takes place on
the 27th, 28th or 29th day of the lunar month, near
the time of the new moon. According to the Hadith of
the Holy Prophet, the lunar eclipse was to occur on
the 13th (the first of the appointed nights), and the
solar eclipse was to occur on the 28th (the middle of
the appointed days), of the month of Ramadhan.
This heavenly sign was fulfilled during the time of
the Promised Messiah, in exactly the way described in
the Hadith. The moon was eclipsed on the 13th of Ramadhan,
1311 Hijrah (corresponding to March 21, 1894), and the
sun was eclipsed on the 28th of Ramadhan (April 6, 1894).
It should be noted that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the only
person in history who has claimed this heavenly sign
in support of his claim.
DISCOVERIES REGARDING BABA NANAK
Baba Nanak, born in India in the fifteenth century,
is considered by the Sikhs as the founder of their religion.
The Promised Messiah's research and investigations regarding
the Sikh religion demonstrated that Baba Nanak in fact
was a Muslim saint who observed all the rituals and
commandments of Islam. He showed the world that Baba
Nanak, though born in a Hindu family, had accepted Islam.
Baba Nanak believed in the Unity of God, offered the
Daily Prayers and carried out all other duties of Islam
including the pilgrimage to Mecca. Although Baba Nanak
always preached the religion of Islam to his followers,
they, however, deviated from his true teachings because
of their political conflict with the Muslim Moghuls
Another piece of evidence which the Promised Messiah
presented to the world concerns a cotton cloak of Baba
Nanak considered a sacred relic by the Sikhs. In 1865,
the Promised Messiah went to Dera Baba Nanak, a small
village not too far from Qadian, where this cloak is
kept. When the cloak was opened, it displayed the Kalima
and other Quranic verses written on it.
The Promised Messiah explained all these findings regarding
Baba Nanak and the Sikh religion in his book Sat Bachan,
meaning the True Word, in the language of the Sikhs.
This book was published in November 1895.
CONFERENCE OF WORLD RELIGIONS
At the end of 1896, a three day conference on religions
took place in Lahore in which representatives of the
various faiths were invited to present papers dealing
with the following five basic themes:
1. The physical, moral and spiritual conditions of
2. The state of man after death.
3. The object of man's life and the means of its attainment.
4. The effect of human actions in this life and in
5. The means of achieving spiritual knowledge.
The purpose of this conference was to allow the public
at large to see the relative merits of the various religions.
The Promised Messiah, being one of the invitees, prepared
an essay on Islam covering these basic themes. While
he was still writing the essay, he received a revelation:
"The essay has come out best"
From this he concluded that his paper would excel all
others at the conference. Before the start of the conference,
the Promised Messiah fell ill and could not personally
attend it. He, therefore, appointed one of his followers,
Hazrat Maulvee Abdul Kareem, to read the paper on his
Many well known religious scholars participated in
this conference which took on the aspect of a tournament
of religions. When the Promised Messiah's essay was
read on the second day of the conference, the audience
applauded it warmly and the Indian press gave it an
excellent review. Since the essay was more than 150
pages long, its reading could not be completed that
day. At the request of the audience, the program of
the conference was extended by one more day. During
the two days, the reading of the Promised Messiah's
essay took seven and a half hours.
This essay was later published under the title Islami
Usool ki Philosophy, meaning The Philosophy of the Teachings
ACCUSATION OF MURDER BY DR. MARTIN CLARK
Some Christian missionaries in India saw that the Promised
Messiah was slowly gaining ground against them. When
they felt that their efforts to refute his arguments
were futile, they resorted to cheap tactic. Dr. Henry
Martin Clark was a Christian missionary working in Amritsar.
In August 1897, Dr. Clark brought a charge against the
Promised Messiah in the court of the District Magistrate.
Dr. Clark accused Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of instigating
a young man by the name of Abdul Humid to murder him.
The case eventually came up before the court of Captain
M. W. Douglas, the Deputy Commissioner of Gurdaspur.
Abdul Hameed was properly tutored by the opposition
and told a pre-rehearsed story to the court. Captain
Douglas, however, felt uneasy about the testimony of
Abdul Humid and asked the District Superintendent of
Police to question him.
On interrogation, the youth burst into tears and admitted
that he had been lying throughout the case. He then
made a full statement saying that he was pressured by
other people to lie against Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. After
this, Captain Douglas acquitted the Promised Messiah
with due honour and the case against him was discharged.
It is interesting to note that while the enemies were
leveling charges of murder against the Promised Messiah,
his own behaviour towards them was that of a gentleman.
During the trial Maulvi Muhammad Hussain of Batala,
an enemy of the Promised Messiah appeared as a witness
against him. While Maulvi Muhammad Hussain was in the
witness box, the defense counsel retained by the Promised
Messiah started to cross examine him. The defense counsel
wanted to show the court that Maulvi Muhammad Hussain
did not enjoy a good reputation in private life. For
this purpose the defense counsel asked him a question
which would have brought out a self humiliating answer.
But, before the witness could answer, the Promised Messiah
rose from his chair and at once stopped his own counsel
from taking this liberty with the personal honour of
the witness. Although the witness was one of his staunchest
enemies, the Promised Messiah would not allow his weakness
to be exposed in public. This is an excellent example
of the true Islamic character of the Promised Messiah.
NEWSPAPERS OF THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT
The very first newspaper of the Ahmadiyya Movement
was called AI Hakam and was published for the first
time in October 1897. Sheikh Yaqoob Ali Irfani was its
editor. The paper was initially published from Amritsar
but later on was transferred to Qadian. Five years later,
in 1902, another newspaper called AI Badr was started
from Qadian. The first editor of Al Badr was Mufti Muhammad
Sadiq and the paper continues to be published from Qadian
to this very day.
Both these newspapers played a historical role in recording
the speeches, revelations, addresses and conversations
of the Promised Messiah and in preserving the early
history of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
CHALLENGE TO JOHN ALEXANDER DOWIE OF USA
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, John Alexander
Dowie had established himself in the United States of
America as a healer, prophet, and the fore runner of
Jesus Christ. He had founded his own Christian sect
and had taken up the title of Elijah III.
Dowie was a bitter enemy of Islam and of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad. He used to express his belief in this regard
in the vilest possible language and used to advocate
the total destruction of Muslims and the religion of
Islam. When the Promised Messiah came to know of Dowie's
claims, he confronted him with the following challenge
in September 1902:
... There is no need for Mr. Dowie to subject the millions
of Muslims to destruction. There is a very easy way
to determine whether Dowie's god is true or our God.
That is that Mr. Dowie should pray that of the two of
us, the one who is false may die before the other. Dowie
believes in Jesus as God and I consider him a humble
creature and a prophet. The matter in issue is, which
one of us two is in the right?
"The method I propose is that Mr. Dowie should
come into the field against me with the permission of
his false god ... If the false god of Mr. Dowie possesses
any power he will certainly permit him to come forth
This challenge of the Promised Messiah was given great
publicity in the American press. Dowie, however, gave
no reply to the challenge. A year later, in August 1903,
the Promised Messiah published another statement addressed
to Mr. Dowie:
"I do not say merely out of my own mouth that
I am the Promised Messiah. God, Who has created the
heavens and the earth, bears witness for me... I have
thousands of His testimonies in my support which I cannot
number. One testimony is that if Mr. Dowie will accept
my challenge and will put himself in opposition to me
expressly or by implication, he will depart this life
with great sorrow and torment during my lifetime.
"Dowie has not so far replied to my challenge
nor has he referred to it in his paper. I, therefore,
grant him time for seven months from today, the 23rd
of August 1903. If during this period he comes forth
in opposition to me and makes an announcement in his
paper that he accepts fully the plan that I have put
forward, the world shall soon see the end of this contest.
"If Mr. Dowie runs away from this contest, I would
call upon the people of America and Europe as witness
that this would also be considered his defeat, and in
such case it should be concluded that his claim of being
Elijah is a mere boast and deceit.
"I close these brief remarks with the following
prayer: O Powerful and Perfect God, Who has ever been
revealing and will ever continue to reveal Thyself to
Thy prophets, do Thou give Thy judgment and show to
Thy people the imposture and falsehood of Dowie"
At last, in December 1903, Mr. Dowie made the
"In India there is a Muhammadan Messiah who keeps
writing to me that Jesus Christ lies buried in Kashmir.
People ask me why do I not send him the necessary reply?
Do you think that I should answer such gnats and flies?
If I were to put my foot on them I would trample them
to death. The fact is that I merely give them a chance
to fly away and survive"
The challenge was finally acknowledged by Dowie. From
that day on, Dowie suffered a gradual decline of all
his affairs. His health began to deteriorate, his followers
began to have doubts and questioned his claims, and
he began to experience financial difficulties. In 1905,
he suffered a severe stroke and was paralyzed, his wife
and children deserted him and he was charged with many
immoral practices. Finally, on March 9, 1907, Dowie
died a miserable death and another prophecy of the Promised
Messiah was thus fulfilled.
Towards the end of the year 1905, the Promised Messiah
received repeated revelations intimating him of his
"Only a little is left from the term appointed
by your Lord"
"Only a few days are left. All will be saddened
on that day"
"The end of thy appointed term is approaching and
We shall not leave any cause of humiliation for thee"
"Thy time is near and We shall keep up for thee
In December 1905, the Promised Messiah wrote a booklet
called "Al-Wasiyyat" (The Will) in which he
recorded his last testament to the Ahmadiyya Community.
In it he urged the members of the Community to bring
about a change for the better in their lives and to
live up to the standard demanded by Islam. He also told
them that on his departure from this world, God would
send His Second Manifestation to the world. He instructed
the Community to be sympathetic towards each other and
to get rid of their low passions. He further said:
"Do not think that God will let you go waste.
You are the seed that God has planted with his own hands.
God says that this seed will grow and blossom and its
branches will spread out to all directions and it will
become a big tree. Blessed are those who believe in
what God says and do not fear the trials that come in
In the Will, the Promised Messiah made a mention of
a vision of his and said that he had been shown a site
which was going to be his grave. In this vision he saw
an angel who was measuring the land and after reaching
a certain spot which was shining like silver, the angel
said that this was his grave. He was also shown a piece
of land which the angel said was the Bahishtee Maqbarah
or a "graveyard of the dwellers of paradise".
He was told that his sincere followers will be buried
in this graveyard.
In the Will, the Promised Messiah alaihisslam laid
down the conditions for burial in that graveyard. In
addition to being a good follower of Islamic principles,
one who wished to be buried in the Paradise Graveyard
was required to make a will leaving one tenth to one
third of one's estate in the name of the Ahmadiyya Movement.
If a person had no property or income but otherwise
merited burial in the graveyard, he was to be permitted
to be buried therein.
In accordance with the wishes and instructions of the
Promised Messiah, this special graveyard was established
JOURNEY TO LAHORE AND DEATH
In April 1908, the Promised Messiah traveled to Lahore
accompanied by his family. During his stay there he
made numerous speeches, met with a succession of visitors
and wrote his last book entitled Paighame Suleh or Message
of Reconciliation. This book was addressed to Hindus
and Muslims to patch up their quarrels and sign a formal
pact to tolerate one another and enjoy the benefits
of unity and peace. He told the two groups that unwarranted
attacks on the scriptures and prophets of other people
cause only trouble and that more understanding should
be used in religious matters. Even in the presence of
differing viewpoints, he said, mutual respect could
bring the people closer.
On May 20, 1908, the Promised Messiah received his
last revelation in Arabic:
"It is the time of departure; yes, it is the time
of departure and death is near"
Six days later, on May 26, 1908, the Promised Messiah
passed away. He was a little over 73 years old at the
time (equivalent to 75 years by lunar reckoning). His
coffin was brought from Lahore to Batala by train and
from there his companions carried it on their shoulders
to Qadian, a distance of eleven miles. Next day he was
buried in the Bahishtee Maqbarah.
A LIST OF THE PROMISED MESSIAH'S BOOKS
The writings of the Promised Messiah fall into three
1. Books, magazines, and posters which he wrote for
the purpose of publication.
2. Letters which he wrote to his relatives, friends
or other people.
3. Addresses and speeches which he made in formal or
The authenticity of Promised Messiah's various "writings"
should be considered in the order given above. Below
is given a list of the books of Promised Messiah, which
belong to the first category. The books marked with
an asterisk * are entirely or partly in Arabic.
Name of the Book Title in English Year Published.
1. Braheen e-Ahmadiyya Proofs of Ahmadiyyat, Vols.
1, 2 1880
Vol, 3 1882
Vol. 4 1884
2. Poranee Tahreerain Old Writings (1879) 1899
3. Surma Chashme Arya Collyrium for Aryas' Eyes 1886
4. Shahna e Haq Battalion of Truth 1887
5. Sabz Ishtihar Green Poster 1888
6. Fatah Islam Victory of Islam 1891
7.Tauzih e-Maram Explanation of Objectives 1891
8. lzala Auham Removal of Suspicions 1891
9. Mubahisa Ludhiana Ludhiana Debate 1891
10. Mubahisa Delhi Delhi Debate 1891
11. Asmani Faisla Divine Decision 1892
12. Nishan e-Asmani Heavenly Sign 1892
13. Aaina-e-Kamalate Islam* Mirror of Islam's Excellences
14. Barakat ud-Dua The Blessings of Prayer 1893
15. Hujjatul Islam Convincing Proof of Islam 1893
16. Sachai ka Izhar The Expression of Truth 1893
17. Jang e-Muqaddas The Sacred Battle 1893
18. Shahadatul Quran Testimony of the Quran 1893
19. Tohfa e-Baghdad* A Present to Baghdad 1893
20. Karamat us-Sadiqeen* Miracles of the Truthful 1893
21. Hamamatul Bushra* Dove of Good News 1894
22. Nurul Haq* Light of the Truth 1894
23. Itmamul Hujja* The Convincing Proof 1894
24. Sirrul Khilafah* The Secret of Khilafat 1894
25. Anwarul Islam The Light of Islam 1894
26. Minan ur-Rahman* Bounties of the Gracious 1915
(written in 1895)
27 Zia-ul-Haq The Light of the Truth 1891
28. Nurul Quran The Light of the Quran 1895
29. Miyarul Mazahib The Standard of Religions 1895
30. Arya Dharm The Arya Religion 1895
31. Sat Bachan The True Word 1895
32. Islami Usool ki Philosophy Philosophy of Islamic
33. Anjam e-Atham* The End of Atham 1896
34. Siraj e-Muneer The Bright Lamp 1897
35. AI Istifta The Query 1897
36. Hujjatullah* Convincing Proof from God 1897
37. Tohfa a Qaisariyya A Present to the Queen 1897
38. Sirajuddin Isai ke Char An Answer to Four Questions
Sawalon ka Jawab of Sirajuddin, a Christian 1897
39. Kitabul Bariyya The Book of Acquittal 1898
40. AI Balagh* The Conveyance of Message 1922
(written in 1897)
41. Zaruratul Imam The Need for Imam 1897
42. Najmul Huda* The Star of Guidance 1898
43. Raaz e Haqiqat The Secret of the Truth 1898
44. Kashful Ghita. The Opening of a Curtain 1898
45. Ayyam e Sulah Days of Reconciliation 1899
46. Haqiqatul Mahdi The True Nature of Mahdi 1899
47. Masih Hindustan Main Jesus in India (written in
48. Sitara e Qaisarah The Star of the Queen 1899
49. Tiryaqul Qulub Elixir for the Hearts 1899
50. Tohfa e Ghaznaviyya A Present for the Ghaznavi 1902
(written in 1900)
51. Roodade Jalsa e-Dua Minutes of the Meeting for Prayer
52. Khutba e-Ilhamiyya* The Revealed Sermon 1902
(written in 1900)
53. Lujjatun Noor* The Sea of Light (written in 1900)
54. Government Angrezi aur The British Government and
Jihad Jihad 1900
55. Tohfa e-Golarhviyya A Present for the Golarhvi 1902
56. Arba'een Forty (Brochures) 1900
57. Ijazul Maseeh* Miracle of the Messiah 1901
58. Aik Ghalatee ka Izala A Misunderstanding Removed
59. Dafi-ul-Balaa The Remover of the Calamity 1902
60. Al Huda* The Guidance
61. Nazoolul Maseeh The Advent of Messiah 1909
(written in 1902)
62. Kashti e-Nuh The Ark of Noah 1902
63. Tohfatan Nadwah A Present to the Nadwah 1902
64. Ijaz e-Ahmadi The Miracle of Ahmad 1902
65. Review ber Mubahisa Review of the Batalwi and
Batalwi wa Chakralwi Chakralwi Debates
66. Mawahib ur-Rahman* Gifts of God 1903
67. Naseem e-Dawat The Breeze of Invitation
68. Sanatan Dharm Sanatan Dharm 1903
69. Tazkira tush-Shahadatain A Narration of two Martyrdoms
70. Seera tul-Abdal* The Characteristics of godly
71. Lecture Lahore The Lahore Lecture 1904
72. Lecture Sialkot The Sialkot Lecture 1904
73. Lecture Ludhiana The Ludhiana Lecture 1905
74. Al Wasiyyat The Will 1905
75. Chashma e-Maseehi A Healing Fountain 1906
76. Tajelliyat e-Ilahiyya The Divine Manifestations
(written in 1906)
77. Qadian ke Arya aur ham Aryas of Qadian and We 1907
78. Brahin e-Ahmadiyya Proofs of Ahmadiyyat 1905
79. Haqiqat ul-Wahee* The Nature of Revelation 1907
(written in 1906)
80. Chashma e-Marifat The Fountain of God
81. Paigham e-Sulah The Message of Reconciliation 1908
THE SYSTEM OF KHILAFAT AFTER
THE PROMISED MESSIAH
After the death of the Promised Messiah, a system of
Khilafat was instituted in the Ahmadiyya Movement which
is similar to the Pious Caliphate that followed the
Holy Prophet Muhammad.
In this system of Khilafat, some select members of
the community elect a Khalifah by majority vote. The
Khalifah is the religious head of the community and
directs all affairs of the community in complete accordance
with Islamic principles. The Khalifah usually asks for
a Bai'at from the community members to re affirm their
allegiance to him and to the cause of Islam.
To date, four Khalifahs have led the Ahmadiyya community
after the death of the Promised Messiah. The names of
these Khalifahs and the periods of their Khilafat are
1st Khalifah Maulana Noor-ud-Deen 1908 1914
2nd Khalifah Mirza Basheer-ud-Deen Mahmood Ahmad 1914
3rd Khalifah Mirza Nasir Ahmad 1965 1982
4th Khalifah Mirza Tahir Ahmad 1982 present
HAZRAT MAULANA NOOR-UD-DEEN
At the death of the Promised Messiah, a score of the
leading members of the Community got together and decided
that Maulana Noor-ud-Deen should be requested to undertake
the responsibility of leading the Community. This request
was conveyed to Maulana Noor-ud-Deen in a written document
signed by these people. After receiving the request,
Maulana Noor-ud-Deen thought for a while and then said
that he will give his reply after prayer.
After performing his Nafl Prayer, he suggested that
the members of the Community gather in the garden where
he would address them. In his address he told the fellow
Ahmadi Muslims that he had never desired to be their
leader. He even mentioned the names of seven other persons
who, he said, were more deserving of this honour. Then
he told the gathering that if they really insisted,
he would be willing to carry this burden. He reminded
them, however, that a person, who performed the Bai'at,
gave up all his freedom in the cause of Islam. Finally,
he urged the fellow community members to remain united.
His address was received with great acclamation and
all those present performed the Bai'at at the hand of
Maulana Noor-ud-Deen, who then became the First Successor
to the Promised Messiah. Maulana Noor-ud-Deen was born
in 1841, at Bhera, a small town in Sargodha District.
He traced his ancestry to Omar bin Khattab, the second
Caliph of the Holy Prophet Muhammad. He was extremely
learned in the Holy Quran and was well known for his
knowledge of natural medicine.
In 1865-66, at the age of 25, he traveled to the cities
of Mecca and Medinah. He stayed there for nearly one
and a half years to acquire religious knowledge.
On his return to Bhera, his home town, he started a
religious school where he taught the Holy Quran and
the Tradition of the Holy Prophet. Besides, he started
practice in the natural medicine. In a short time he
became well known for his healing powers and people
traveled great distances to be treated at his clinic.
His fame came to the notice of the Ruler of Kashmir,
who appointed him his court physician in 1867.
Around 1871, at the age of 30, he married Fatima Bibi.
This marriage lasted until 1905, when Fatima Bibi passed
away. After her death, and on the insistence of the
Promised Messiah, he married Sughra Begum.
In 1885, Maulana Noor-ud-Deen came across an announcement
published by the Promised Messiah. He was so deeply
impressed by it that he traveled to Qadian to meet the
author. After meeting the Promised Messiah, Maulana
Noor-ud-Deen was convinced of his truth and became a
devout follower of his. When in 1889 the Promised Messiah
started accepting the Bai'at, Maulana Noor-ud-Deen was
the first person to be invited to perform it.
In 1892, the old Ruler of Kashmir died and the new
Maharajah terminated his services. Maulana Noor-ud-Deen
returned to Bhera and started the construction of a
large clinic. In the following year he went to Qadian
to visit the Promised Messiah. After staying there for
a few days, he asked the Promised Messiah for permission
to return to Bhera. The Promised Messiah asked him to
stay a little longer. After a few days, the Promised
Messiah asked him to have his wife come over and join
him, which Maulana Noor-ud-Deen did. Then a little later,
the Promised Messiah asked him to have his books shifted
to Qadian. After some time, when Maulana Noor-ud-Deen
again asked for permission to leave, the Promised Messiah
"Maulvi sahib, forget about your home town now"
And this Maulana Noor-ud-Deen did. From that moment
on, even the thought of ever returning to his home town
never occurred to him again.
His life at Qadian was completely dedicated to the
service of the Ahmadiyya Movement. He spent his time
teaching, looking after the poor, treating the sick,
proof reading the Promised Messiah's books and in prayer
Some of the important contributions made by Khalifatul
Masih I towards the success of the Ahmadiyya Movement
include the founding of Madrassah Ahmadiyya (The Ahmadiyya
School), the entrusting of the English translation of
the Holy Quran to Maulvi Muhammad Ali and establishment
of the first foreign mission in England under the supervision
of Chauhdry Fateh Muhammad Siyal.
In January 1914, the health of Khalifatul Masih I started
to decline and continued to do so for the next two months.
In early March, he wrote out his will while he was confined
to bed. At his instruction, his will was read out to
those who were present. Nine days later, on March 13,
1914, Khalifatul Masih I passed away. At the time of
his death he was 73 years old, the same age as the Promised
Messiah. He was buried in the Bahishtee Maqbarah, by
the side of the Promised Messiah.
Maulana Noor-ud-Deen was truly an unselfish, unassuming,
godly person. His most important characteristic was
his unshakeable faith in God and his complete reliance
on Him for all his worldly needs. He was extremely learned
and was endowed with great knowledge of the Holy Quran.
Consequently, the Promised Messiah had great love and
regard for him and expressed it in one of his Persian
"How good would it be if every one of the community
would become Noor-ud-Deen".
HAZRAT MIRZA BASHEER-UD-DEEN MAHMOOD AHMAD
At the death of Khalifatul Masih I, Mirza Bashiruddin
Mahmood Ahmad became the second successor of the Promised
Messiah and continued to lead the Community for nearly
Birth And Early Childhood
Mirza Bashiruddin was born in Qadian on January 12,
1889 and was the eldest of the five surviving children
of the Promised Messiah. Throughout his childhood and
early youth, Mirza Bashiruddin suffered from chronic
bad health and always fared poorly in his school exams.
He could never concentrate on his studies and eventually
failed his high school exam. But he took a deep interest
in the study of the Holy Quran and learned it from Maulvi
Noor-ud-Deen who was a great scholar in this field.
Later in his life, Mirza Bashiruddin not only studied
the religious literature of Islam and other faiths,
but also developed an unusual comprehension and mastery
of many scientific, economic and political disciplines.
When the Promised Messiah died, Mirza Bashiruddin was
only 19 years old. He stood by the body of his holy
father and made a pledge in these words:
"If all others should leave you and I should be
left alone, yet I will stand against the whole world
and shall not heed any opposition or hostility"
Later events will show that both, his resolve in the
face of difficulties and his commitment to the cause
of Ahmadiyyat, were fulfilled to the most elegant manner.
In 1911, at the age of 22, Mirza Bashiruddin set up
an association with the name of Majlis Ansarullah, under
the auspices of Khalifatul Masih I. This Association
of the Helpers of God carried out much useful work in
the education of the Community and the upbringing of
In the year 1912, Mirza Bashiruddin performed the pilgrimage
to Mecca. In 1913, he started the publication of a weekly
paper called Al Fazl which, in the course of time, became
a daily newspaper of the Ahmadiyya community.
Election As Khalifah
On March 13, 1914, the First Successor of the Promised
Messiah, Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen, passed away and the newly
born Ahmadiyya Movement was faced with a serious crisis.
There was a small faction in the Community, led by Maulvi
Muhammad Ali, who wanted to do away with the system
of Khilafat. During the Khilafat of Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen,
these dissenters could not freely give voice to their
feelings. At his death, therefore, they openly opposed
this system and wanted to defer indefinitely the election
of the next Khalifah.
The day after the death of Khalifatul Masih I, his
will was read out to some 2,000 Ahmadis who had gathered
in the mosque. In this will, Maulvi Noor-ud-Deen had
suggested that the Community elect a new successor.
Maulvi Syed Muhammad Ahsan then stood up and formally
proposed the name of Mirza Bashiruddin. After this,
the entire congregation shouted, "We second it".
Shortly afterwards, all present took the Bai'at or the
oath of allegiance at the hand of Mirza Bashiruddin,
now the Second Khalifah of the Promised Messiah.
Maulvi Muhammad Ali and other dissenters left the congregation
without performing the Bai'at. In a few days they even
left Qadian and moved to Lahore where they founded their
own organization under the name of Ahmadiyya Anjuman
Isha'at Islam. The followers of Maulvi Muhammad Ali
are commonly referred to as Lahoree Ahmadis and differ
with the Ahmadiyya Movement on two important points:
1. The Lahoree Ahmadis regard the Promised Messiah
as only a Reformer and not a Prophet.
2. As a consequence of the above belief, they argue
that the Successors of the Promised Messiah should not
be called Khalifahs.
Today, the members of the Anjuman at Lahore are only
a very small fraction of the Ahmadi Muslims living all
over the world.
Main Achievements Of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II
The 52 year long period of Mirza Bashiruddin's Khilafat
gave the Ahmadiyya Movement great stability and visionary
direction. The Movement progressed in this period in
leaps and bounds. Below, we will read about some of
the achievements of the Second Khalifah.
(I) Missionary Work:
Immediately after taking over the office of Khilafat,
Mirza Bashiruddin intensified the missionary work of
the Ahmadiyya Movement both inside India and abroad.
As a result of this effort, a number of new missions
were opened in foreign countries, some of which are
In 1915, first missions were established in Ceylon
In 1920, the first mission was opened in the United
States of America.
In 1921, the first missionary was sent to the West
African countries. Since then many missions, schools
and hospitals have been established in Ghana, Nigeria,
Sierra Leone, Gambia, Ivory Coast, and Liberia.
In 1924, the foundation of the Fazl Mosque in London
was laid by Khalifatul Masih II himself.
In 1925, the first mission was set up in Indonesia
In 1928, a mission was established in Haifa, Palestine.
This place is now in Israel.
In 1934, the first mission in East Africa was opened.
In 1935, a mission was also established in Japan. This
mission had to be closed at the outbreak of the second
World War and was reestablished in 1969, during the
period of Khalifatul Masih III.
In the period 1935 38, missions were opened in many
East European countries such as Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia
and Albania. At the outbreak of the Second World War
these missions had to be closed. After the war, these
countries came under Communist rule and the missions,
therefore, could not be revived.
In 1938, a mission was established in Burma.
In 1945, a mission was opened in France but was closed
down after a few years.
In 1946, a mission was opened in Aden.
In 1946, the first mission was opened in Spain.
In 1947, a mission was established in Holland and the
first mosque was built in The Hague in 1955.
In 1948, the first mission in Switzerland was opened
and the mosque at Zurich was built in 1963.
In 1949, a mission was established in Hamburg, West
Germany and a mosque was built there in 1957. A second
mosque was built in Frankfurt in 1959.
In 1956, the first mission was opened in Copenhagen,
Denmark. Since then, missions have been opened in other
Scandinavian countries namely, Sweden and Norway.
In 1960, the first South American mission was opened
In 1960, a mission was also established in the Fiji
(ii) Tahreek e-Jadeed:
In November 1935, Khalifatul Masih II initiated the
scheme of Tahrik-e-Jadeed. Under the nineteen demands
of this scheme, the Ahmadiyya Community was urged to
lead a simple life, to make sacrifices in the cause
of Islam and to volunteer their lives for missionary
work. The scheme was initially proposed for a period
of three years but was made permanent very soon. Under
this scheme of Tehrike Jadeed today, missionary programmes
are being carried out all over the world.
(III) Waqf-e Jadeed:
In 1958, Khalifatul Masih II set up the organization
of Waqf e Jadeed to carry out the missionary work inside
Pakistan. Under this scheme, volunteers were asked to
dedicate their lives to educate the rural population
of the country and teach them the true religion of Islam.
(IV) Community Organized By Age Groups:
For the better functioning of the members of the Community,
Khalifatul Masih II established various organizations
for the different age groups. The male members of the
Community were divided into three age groups:
Atfalul Ahmadiyya: for boys 7 to 15 years old
Khuddamul Ahmadiyya: for the youth 15 to 40 years old
Ansarullah: for men above the age of 40
Similarly, the female members of the Community were
Nasiratul Ahmadiyya: for girls 7 to 15 years of age
Lajna Imaillah: for ladies above the age of 15
These various organizations are very active in Pakistan
and abroad. They carry out programmes not only relevant
to their own class and age group, but also for the benefit
of the community at large. This organization of the
Ahmadiyya Community into various classes and age groups
greatly helped in promoting affectionate ties of mutual
brotherhood and sisterhood.
(v) Majlis-e Mushawarat:
In 1922, the Khalifatul Masih II set up a consultative
body to advise the Khalifah on many important matters
related to finance, budget, education, missionary projects
and other affairs of the community. This advisory body
formally meets at least once every year. The number
of the delegates to this Majlis keeps growing in response
to the growth of the community. Currently, the delegates
number more than 500.
(vi) Public Awareness Of Islam:
In the early twentieth century in India, Islam was
a much maligned religion and slanderous remarks were
frequently made against the character of the Holy Prophet
of Islam. To create public awareness of the true teachings
of Islam and of the real character of the Prophet Muhammad,
Khalifatul Masih II introduced public meetings in which
representatives of other religions were invited to give
speeches on the life and work of the Holy Prophet. These
meetings were very successful in spreading the message
of Islam and improving inter faith relations.
Claim To Be The Promised Son
By 1939, the Ahmadiyya Movement had completed 50 years
of its existence and Khalifatul Masih II had completed
25 years of his Khilafat. The Movement had made remarkable
advances during the Khilafat of Mirza Bashiruddin and
the feeling was growing among the members of the Community
that he, indeed, was the Promised Son regarding whom
the Promised Messiah had made the famous prophecy. But
Mirza Bashiruddin had refrained from making any public
claim so far.
Finally, on January 28, 1944, Khalifatul Masih II related
a dream of his in the Friday sermon. According to this
dream it was made clear to him that he was indeed the
Later on, he called special meetings of the Community
to re affirm this fact. These meetings were held in
the following places:
Hoshiarpur: on February 20, 1944
Lahore: on March 12, 1944
Ludhiana: on March 23, 1944
Delhi: on April 16, 1944
In all these meetings he told the public that through
various dreams, visions and revelations, God had made
it clear to him that the prophecy regarding the Promised
Son was fulfilled in his own person.
Migration To Pakistan
On the creation of Pakistan, in August 1947, many of
the Muslims living in India moved to the new Islamic
state. Khalifatul Masih II also decided to move the
administrative centre of the Ahmadiyya Movement from
Qadian to Pakistan. Some 313 Ahmadis stayed behind in
Qadian to take care of the founding place of Ahmadiyyat,
while the rest moved to the new country.
On September 20, 1948, about a year after moving from
Qadian, Khalifatul Masih II laid the foundation of the
new centre at Rabwah. At the time of its founding, Rabwah
was a waste, desert land with no vegetation and frequent
dust storms. Over the past forty years, Rabwah has grown
into an exemplary Muslim community complete with schools,
colleges, hospital, institutions of religious learning
and offices of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Rabwah is also
the official residence of the Khalifah.
Attempt On Life
In March 1954, an assassin attacked Khalifatul Masih
II with a knife while he was leading the afternoon Prayers
in the Mubarak Mosque in Rabwah. He received a deep
wound in the neck, which could have been fatal had it
gone a little deeper. Khalifatul Masih was 65 years
old at the time.
Although the wound healed in due course, it shattered
his nerves leading to a severe nervous fatigue a year
later. After recovering somewhat, he traveled to Europe
for medical treatment on the advice of his doctors.
After staying there for about six months, he returned
After his return from Europe, he undertook the writing
of the Shorter Commentary of the Holy Quran, in the
Urdu language. The strain from this work plus other
demands of his office, led to strong nervous fatigue
in 1958. From then on, his condition gradually worsened
till, on November 8, 1965, Khalifatul Masih II passed
away. He was 77 years old at the time of his death.
Next day he was buried in the Bahishtee Maqbarah at
The Writings Of Khalifatul Masih II
Some of the important writings of Khalifatul Masih
II are listed below:
Tafseer e-Kabeer The Larger Commentary of the Holy
Tafseer e-Sagheer The Shorter Commentary of the Holy
Dawatul Ameer Invitation to the Chief (published is
English under the title of Invitation to Ahmadiyyat)
Tohfatul Malook A Present for the Kings
Haqiqatul Nabuwwat The Truth of Prophethood
Saire Roohanee The Spiritual Stroll
Inqilabe Haqeeqee The True Revolution
Hindustan ke Siyasi Mas'ala ka hal The Solution to the
Political Problem of India
Paighame Ahmadiyyat The Message of Ahmadiyyat
Fazail al Quran The Excellences of the Holy Quran
Hasti Bari Taala The Existence of God
Malaikat Allah The Angels of God
Islam ka Iqtisadi Nizam The Economic System of Islam
Introduction to the Study of the Holy Quran
HAZRAT HAFIZ MIRZA NASIR AHMAD
With the death of Khalifatul Masih II, the Ahmadiyya
Community was once again faced with the task of electing
the new Khalifah. The wounds of dissent, which the community
had incurred after the death of the first Khalifah,
had healed but their memory was still fresh. To safeguard
against a similar dispute arising again, Khalifatul
Masih 11 had established an Electoral College for the
election of the Khalifah. The members of this college
numbered about one hundred and fifty and included, among
others, the Amirs of various circles in Pakistan, heads
of the various central organizations and senior missionaries
of the Movement.
At the death of Khalifatul Masih II, the Electoral
College met in the Mubarak Mosque in Rabwah. When the
votes were cast, Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the eldest son of
the departed Khalifah, was elected by an overwhelming
majority. Immediately, some five thousand Ahmadis waiting
outside the mosque for the results, performed the Bai'at
at the hand of Khalifatul Masih III. He was 56 years
old at the time.
Birth And Early Life:
Mirza Nasir Ahmad was born on November 16, 1909 and,
by the young age of 13, had committed the entire Holy
Quran to memory. In 1934, at the age of 25, he graduated
from Government College, Lahore, with honours in Arabic.
The same year he got married and soon afterwards proceeded
to Oxford University for higher education. After obtaining
his degree from Oxford, he returned to Qadian in 1938.
From that day till he became the Khalifah in 1965, Mirza
Nasir Ahmad held a number of important positions in
the Ahmadiyya organization:
1938 1939 Professor, Jamia Ahmadiyya, Qadian
1939 1944 Principal, Jamia Ahmadiyya, Qadian
1939 1949 Sadar, Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya
1949 1954 Naib Sadar, Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya
1944 1965 Principal, Talimul Islam College
1954 1965 Sadar, Majlis Ansarullah
1955 1965 President, Sadar Anjuman Ahmadiyya
1965 1982 Khalifatul Masih III.
Main Achievements Of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih
As Khalifatul Masih III, Mirza Nasir Ahmad led the
Community for nearly 17 years and contributed a great
deal towards the progress of the Movement in the missionary
work at home and abroad. Some of the noteworthy achievements
of Khalifatul Masih III are mentioned below:
(i) Fazle Omar Foundation
In 1965, Khalifatul Masih III established the Fazl
e Omar Foundation in the memory of Khalifatul Masih
II, who was named Fazl e Omar in one of the revelations
of the Promised Messiah. The purpose of this foundation
was to carry on all the works in which the departed
Khalifah had taken particular interest. An appeal was
made to the community to raise 2.5 million rupees as
the capital of the foundation. The community participated
in this venture overwhelmingly and the actual contributions
far exceeded the initial target which was then raised
to 5.2 million rupees. The main objectives of the foundation
o to assist in research work
o to assist in new missionary venture
o to assist in new educational effort
o to assist in economic welfare
(ii) Khilafat Library:
On October 3, 1971, the Khalifatul Masih III inaugurated
the Khilafat Library in Rabwah. This library can accommodate
50,000 books and has ample space for readers, research
scholars and administrative work.
(iii) Nusrat Jehan Scheme:
After touring the West African countries in 1970, Khalifatul
Masih III announced a scheme to expand the activities
of the Movement in West Africa through the establishment
of a number of schools and hospitals.
The new scheme was named Nusrat Jehan Scheme and Khalifatul
Masih Ill appealed to the Community to raise 100,000
pounds sterling over the next three years. Furthermore,
he appealed to the Ahmadi teachers and doctors to volunteer
themselves for service in these African countries.
The response of the community in making financial donations
as well as volunteering their services was overwhelming.
Very soon, schools and hospitals started to be established
in Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Gambia and Sierra Leone.
The results of this scheme have been most gratifying.
The effort of the Movement has not only provided educational
and medical services in remote regions which were completely
devoid of any such facility, but, more importantly,
the close contact of Ahmadi doctors and other workers
with the local population has forged strong bonds of
(iv) Waqfe Aarzee:
Waqf Aarzee means the temporary donation of one's time.
Khalifatul Masih III instituted this scheme early in
his Khilafat, under which Ahmadi Muslims would spend
at least two weeks of their time at a designated place
in the country and teach the local community the Holy
Quran and explain to them the true religion of Islam.
(v) Centenary Jubilee:
At the Annual Gathering held in Rabwah in December
1973, Khalifatul Masih III announced that the Ahmadiyya
Movement will celebrate its 100th anniversary on March
23, 1989. The celebrations will start on March 23 and
will continue throughout the year, finishing at the
Annual Gathering of the same year.
The Centenary Jubilee will not only mark the 100 year
existence of the Ahmadiyya Movement, but also the culmination
of an intensive programme undertaken in the intervening
years which would involve:
o the establishment of additional missions abroad
o the translation of the Holy Quran in French, Russian,
Italian, Spanish, Chinese and Yugoslavian languages
o the publication of Islamic literature in al least
100 languages of the world
o the installation of printing presses in Pakistan
o the establishment of a broadcasting system in a foreign
Khalifatul Masih III appealed to the Community to pledge
25 million rupees to finance the various projects envisaged
under this centenary celebration scheme.
Persecution of Ahmadis In Pakistan
Like the Muslims of the early days of Islam, Ahmadis
have had their share of discrimination and persecution.
Although the opposition of the Ahmadiyya Movement by
the mullahs and orthodox Islamic clergy dates back to
the days of the Promised Messiah, organized discrimination
and persecution has greatly intensified since the creation
The fast major outbreak of severe violence against
the Ahmadis occurred in 1953, during the Khilafat of
Mirza Bashiruddin, Khalifatul Masih II. At that time,
the government of Pakistan had to impose Martial Law
within the country to curb the rioting and looting against
The second wave of such anti Ahmadiyya activities started
in 1974 and was backed by the government of Prime Minister
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. During this period, many Ahmadi
homes were looted and burned, the community was boycotted,
many Ahmadis in the higher echelons of the government
and the armed forces were retired, and a number of the
community members were put to death.
These outrages against the Ahmadiyya Movement culminated
in a resolution of the National Assembly of Pakistan,
on September 7, 1974, which declared the Ahmadis as
non Muslims under the law and constitution of the country.
Throughout these extremely trying circumstances, the
Ahmadiyya Community displayed a remarkable sense of
restraint and self control and bore these outrages with
great patience and forbearance.
Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who used to take
great pride and credit for declaring the Ahmadis non
Muslims, came to a sorry end. On July 5, 1977, less
than three years after the resolution of the National
Assembly, he was removed from office by the Martial
Law regime of General Ziaul Haq. Bhutto was then imprisoned
and charged for the abetment of the murder of a political
opponent in 1974. He was convicted on March 18, 1978
and hanged on April 4, 1979, despite many pleas for
clemency by many countries. Bhutto's age at the time
was 51 years and 3 months. This incident marked the
fulfillment of the Promised Messiah's revelation and
"He is a dog and he will die on the numeric value
In this revelation the Promised Messiah was given the
intimation that the value of the letters in the word
"dog" points to the age of the person. The
Arabic word used for dog in his revelation was "klb"
which, under the letter valuing system, amounts to the
number 52. In explanation of this revelation the Promised
Messiah wrote in his book Azalah Auham:
"He is a dog and he will die on the numeric value
of the letters in dog; which amount to fifty two. This
means that his age will not exceed fifty two years and
that he will die within the course of his fifty second
This prophecy of the Promised Messiah made in 1891,
was fulfilled word for word, eighty eight years later.
Illness And Death
In June 1982, Khalifatul Masih III was taken ill while
visiting Islamabad. The illness proved fatal and on
June 9, 1982, Khalifatul Masih III passed away. His
body was taken to Rabwah where, on the following day,
he was buried in the Bahishtee Maqbarah.
HAZRAT MIRZA TAHIR AHMAD
After the death of the Khalifatul Masih III, the Electoral
College convened in the Mubarak Mosque in Rabwah to
elect the new Khalifah. After the votes were cast, Mirza
Tahir Ahmad, the son of Mirza Bashiruddin and the grandson
of the Promised Messiah, was elected by as overwhelming
majority as the Fourth Khalifah of the Ahmadiyya Movement
Mirza Tahir Ahmad was born in Qadian on December 18,
1928. He obtained his high school education at Talimul
Islam High School, Qadian, and his early college education
at Government College, Lahore. In 1949, he enrolled
in the Jamia Ahmadiyya missionary college at Rabwah
and successfully completed his Shahid examination in
In 1955, he went to England where he undertook some
higher studies and also performed missionary services.
After staying in Europe for two and a half years, he
returned to Rabwah.
Since 1958, Mirza Tahir Ahmad has held a number of
important positions in the organization of the Movement,
some of which are listed below:
1958 Nazim Irshad, Waqf e-Jadeed
1960.1966 Naib Sadar, Khuddamul Ahmadiyya
1961 Member, Iftaa Committee
1966 1969 Sadar, Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya
1976 Director, Fazle Omar Foundation
1974 Member of the representative delegation to
the Pakistan National Assembly
1979 1982 Sadar, Majlis Ansarullah
1982 Elected Khalifatul Masih IV
The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam continued its rapid
progress under the leadership and guidance of its fourth
Khalifah. New missions and mosques were opened; members
of the Community were urged to call people unto God
and to make additional sacrifices of their time and
their wealth. In the face of this new zeal that started
to pervade the Community, the government and the Muslim
clergy in Pakistan mounted another wave of opposition,
restrictions and persecutions. This culminated in the
formation of a Government ordinance which severely restricted
the freedom of religious expression on the part of the
Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan.
In view of the nature of these restrictions, Hazrat
Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the Fourth Khalifah of the Promised
Messiah, decided to leave Pakistan and came to London,
England, in April 1984. He undertook this migration
to safeguard the institution of Khilafat, which was
increasingly coming under great danger in Pakistan,
and to continue to lead the Community, an act which
was being denied in the home country.
The Khilafat of Mirza Tahir Ahmad is facing a new level
of national and international opposition and persecution.
But, despite all these setbacks, the Ahmadiyya Movement
in Islam continues to make significant progress in the
areas of missionary work, translations of the Holy Quran,
publishing of Islamic literature and increasing spiritual
fervour among its members.