The functions performed
in a Prayer are categorised according to their relative importance.
PARTS OF PRAYER
Those which are so essential
that without them the Prayer cannot be considered valid, are called Fardh,
i.e; obligatory, mandatory or compulsory.
If Fardh constituent
parts are not carried out, the Prayer becomes null and void. However,
in case a worshipper does not perform that part because he completely
forgot about it, the Prayer will be held valid in the sight of Allah.
If he had forgotten at the time but remembers it either during the Prayer
or after the Prayer, or if someone reminds him of his omission, then he
should rectify the omission by performing the function that has been missed
and then perform the Sujood-us-Sahv, i.e; two prostrations by way
of condonement. These compulsory functions are as follows:
- Takbeer Tahreemah:
To say Allahu Akbar to begin the Prayer.
- Qiyam: The
posture of standing.
- Ruku: The
posture of Bowing down.
- Sajdah: The
posture of Prostrating.
The above are the
common features of every Raka'at.
- The Final Qa'dah:
The last long sitting position before ending the Prayer. This feature
is not repeated in every Raka'at.
- Recitation of Sura
Fatiha: The recitation of Sura Fatiha is also essential
in every Rak'at.
When the Imam
is leading the congregation, the loud recitation of Sura Fatiha
is compulsory in the first two Raka'at of the following Prayers:
a. Fajr Prayer,
which comprises two Raka'at.
Prayer, which comprises three Raka'at.
c. Isha'a Prayer,
which comprises four Raka'at.
Note: If the
recitation of some portion of the Holy Quran is not done in the first
two Raka'at, the Raka'at will not be invalidated, but on
remembering this mistake, the two Sujood-us-Sahv become essential
to validate the Prayer. If the Imam forgets to recite Sura Fatiha
aloud and also the additional verses of the Holy Quran in any Rak'at,
and he is reminded of this before he goes to the Bowing position, he should
complete this function by reciting Sura Fatiha as well as the verses
of the Holy Quran and then go into Ruku. In this case no prostrations
of condonement are necessary. However, if he has led the congregation
into Ruku and then remembers his mistake, the repetition of the
function, i.e; the recitation of Sura Fatiha and the verses of
the Holy Quran, is not needed. Only two Prostrations of condonement are
enough to make the Prayer valid.
OF THE SALAT
The Wajibaat (essential
or necessary parts) is the second category. These are the parts which,
if left out wilfully, will invalidate the Prayer, but if forgotten and
remembered afterwards, may be condoned by offering two Prostrations of
condonement towards the end of the Prayer. The Prostrations of condonement
are deemed sufficient to rectify the mistake and the missed function is
not repeated in this case. The Wajibaat of the Prayer are as follows:
- The recitation of
a portion of the Holy Quran after reciting Sura Fatiha
in the first two Raka'at of the Fardh. part of the Prayer
and in all Sunnah and Nawafil Prayers.
- Standing erect after
Ruku, technically called Qauma Note: Qiyam is a
Fardh part, i.e; is compulsory, while Qauma is Wajib
i.e; essential or necessary.
- Jilsa, the
sitting position between two prostrations.
- Short sitting position
after completing the first two Raka'at (not the final Qa'dah).
- Recite At-tashahud
i.e; At-tahiyyatu Lillahi was-salazoatu.....in Qa'dah
- For the Imam
to recite Sura Fatiha and a portion of the Holy Quran audibly
in the first two Raka'at of Fajr, Maghrib, Isha'a,
Jumma and Eid Prayers, and to recite the same silently
in Zhuhr and 'Asr Prayers.
- Tarteeb, i.e; to
perform various Fardh and Wajib parts of the Salat in
their appropriate order.
- Ta'deel i.e; to
perform all parts of the Prayer with dignity and respect. In other words
the Salat (Prayer) should be offered with full concentration
and without any haste.
- To turn the face
to the right and to the left, saying Assalamo Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,
to mark the end of the Prayer.
- For the Imam
to say Takbeer-i-Tahreema aloud.
SUNNAH (PLURAL OF
SUNNAT) OF THE SALAT
All other parts of the
Salat, besides the Fardh and Wajib constituents,
are either Sunnat or Mustahab factors. The worshipper should
strictly adhere to all the Sunnat and Mustahab parts of
the Salat and should not omit any of them without any good reason.
However, no prostrations of condonement are performed if any of the Sunnat
or Mustahab parts are omitted. The Sunnah parts of the Salat
(Prayer) are as follows:
- To raise the hands
up to the ear lobes when reciting Takbeer-e-Tahreema.
- Folding of arms
in Qiyam position
- To recite thanaa.
- To recite A'uozuo
billahi min-aash-shaitan-ir-Rajeem before reciting Sura Fatiha.
- To say Ameen
at the end of Sura Fatiha.
- To say Allahu
Akbar while going to Ruku.
- To recite Subhana
Rabbi yal 'Azeem at least three times in Ruku position.
- To say Same 'Allahu
liman Hamedah while getting up from Ruku, and in case one
is offering individual Prayer, to say Rabbana wa lakal Hamd.
If one is following the Imam in a congregation, to say Rabbana
wa lakal Hand is the Practice of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him.
- To say Allahu
Akbar while going into the position of Prostration and while getting
up from the Prostration.
- To say Subhana
Rabbi yal A'alaa at least three times during the Prostration.
- To recite the prescribed
prayer during the Jilsa position.
- To raise the forefinger
of the right hand while reciting Ashhado alla illaha Illallah
- To recite Durood
and other prayers during the final Qa'dah.
- To recite Sura
Fatiha in the third and fourth Raka'at.
- For the Imam
to say Allahu Akbar, and Same Allahu liman Hameedah, in
an audible voice.
The following things,
which pertain to the style and the carriage of Prayer, i.e; its beauty
and its excellence, are entitled Mustahibbat of the Prayer. The
term Mustihibbat means preferable and praiseworthy. Of course,
they are not compulsory, essential or Sunnat parts of the Prayer.
They are as follows:
- To fix one's gaze
on the spot which will be touched by the head during prostration.
- To place one's hands
on the knees with spread fingers while performing Ruku.
- To leave one's hands
by one's sides in Qauma position.
- To prostrate in
such a manner that the knees touch the ground first, then the hands,
the nose and the forehead.
- To get up from the
second Raka'at after Prostration without any support.
- To place one's hands
on one's lap near the knees so that the fingers are spread towards the
- To sit on the left
foot in Qa'dah and Jilsa position, and to plant the right
foot in a way that the toes are towards the Qibla.
- After the recitation
of Sura Fatiha, the Quranic verses which are recited should
be longer in the first Rak'at as compared to the verses recited
in the second Rak'at.
- For the worshipper
who is following the Imam, to say Ameen in an audible voice and
to say Rabbana wa lakal Hamd in an inaudible voice.
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