MAKROOHAT OF THE
These are acts which
are undesirable, and are below the dignity of the Prayer. Prayer should
always be offered with a consciousness that one is standing before one's
Lord. The Makroohat are:
- To fiddle with one's
- To glance sideways
or to the sky.
- To keep the eyes
- To offer Prayer
without any head dress.
- Not to place one's
feet with toes towards the Qibla during Prostration or to lift
the feet from the ground in this position.
- To start Prayer
when one is hungry whilst food is laid on the table.
- To continue the
Prayer in spite of an urge to go to the toilet.
- To pray in a cemetery
while facing a grave.
- To offer Prayer
in very tight clothes so that one feels uncomfortable during the Prayer.
- To pray in an unsuitable
environment, e.g., in a stable, goat's pen or in a noisy market place.
- To stand with one's
weight shifted on to one leg alone or to do things which are below the
dignity of the Prayer.
- To pray in an open
place without a Sutra. A Sutra is an object placed before
the worshipper to mark the boundary of his Prayer.
- To nod when someone
says Assalamo Alaikum during the Prayer.
- To pray without
washing one's mouth after eating.
- To change the order
of Suras in the Prayer, i.e; to recite Suras which come
later in the Quran in the first Rak'at and the Suras which
appear earlier in the Holy Quran, in the follow ing Rak'at.
- To place hands under
the forehead while in prostration.
- To rest one's belly
on things during prostration.
- To spread one's
forearms on the ground while performing Sajdah.
- To recite Quranic
verses during Ruku or Sajdah.
- To go ahead of the
Imam, i.e; to go into the next posture before the Imam.
Note 1: A worshipper
is allowed to remove or kill any harmful insect in case he finds it close
to where he is praying.
Note 2: The place
of worship should be neat and clean and the air, as far as possible, should
be free of any unpleasant odour. Every Muslim is enjoined to respect the
dignity of the Prayer even if he is not praying himself. No one should
in any way, e.g. by words of mouth or by his action, cause any worshipper
discomfort or distraction. That is why it is not allowed to cross the
path of a worshipper. This means that one should wait until the worshipper
finishes his Prayer.
ACTIONS WHICH MAKE PRAYER
NULL AND VOID
The following acts are
incompatible with Prayer and invalidate Prayer if done:
- When the ablution
- Eating or drinking
while offering Prayer.
- To speak or to respond
to anyone during Prayer.
- To laugh during
- To turn the face
to the right or to the left while praying.
PROSTRATIONS OF CONDONEMENT
If a person commits
a mistake during Prayer, which affects the validity of the Prayer, e.g;
if he is in doubt whether he has offered the prescribed number of Raka'at,
the Prostrations of condonement are necessary.
The Prostrations are
offered after the recitation of At'tashahud, and Durood, and other
prescribed prayers in the Final Qa'dah of the Prayer. Thus, after
saying Allahu Akbar, two prostrations are performed, in which Subhana
Rabbi yal A'alaa is recited, then the Imam reverts back to
Qa'dah position and says Assalamo Alaikum wa Rahmatullah
turning his face towards the right and then towards the left, to mark
the end of the Prayer.
If the Imam commits
such a mistake which can be condoned by the Prostrations, then the whole
congregation will have to perform those Prostrations of condonement, But
if one of the followers commits a mistake while following the Imam,
he is not required to perform the Prostrations of condonement.
If there is a doubt
as to how many Raka'at have been performed, then one should observe
the rule of certainty, i.e; if the doubt is whether one has offered three
or four Raka'at, for instance, one should offer the fourth Rak'at
to be on the safe side though one might have offered it before.
PRAYER DURING SICKNESS
The performance of Salat
is of prime importance in Islam. A sick person who cannot stand for Prayer,
should offer his Prayer while sitting; and if he cannot even sit, he should
offer his Prayers while lying down. If he cannot bow down or prostrate,
he is allowed to make symbolic gestures to that effect, and if he is so
sick that he cannot move his head or hand, he can fulfill this obligation
by making gestures in his mind.
SALAT DURING A JOURNEY
If a person is travelling
by any means of transportation which precludes his standing up for Prayer,
nor can he get off from the vehicle, he can offer his Prayer while seated
and the condition of facing towards the Qibla would not be mandatory
in this situation. He should face in the direction in which the mount,
vehicle, boat or airplane, etc., is moving, if possible.
In the early days of
Islam, the Zhuhr 'Asr and Isha'a congregational Prayer
services had only two Raka'at, just like Fajr Prayer but
subsequently they continued to be of two Raka'at length only for
a person who is on a journey. In normal circumstances, the number of Raka'at
were doubled. Hence, normally, one has to perform four Raka'at
Fardh each, for Zhuhr, 'Asr and Isha'a Prayers
while a traveller offers only two Raka'at for each of the above
If a traveller reaches
a place where he intends to stay less than 15 days, then this concession
will apply and he will shorten his Prayers as mentioned above.
However, this concession
does not apply to the Fardh part of the Fajr and Maghrib
If a person is staying
with a close relative whose house he regards as his own, e.g; his parents'
home, the home of his in-laws, or a religious headquarter such as Makkah,
Madina, Qadian or Rabwah, etc., he can shorten his Prayer as outlined
above but it would be preferable for him to offer the full four Raka'at
While one is on a journey,
the Sunnat part of every Prayer is dropped, with the exception
of the Vitr Raka'at in the Isha'a Prayer and the
two Raka'at Sunnat of the Fajr Prayer.
To offer Nawafil
during a journey, i.e; optional Prayers, are entirely up to each individual.
Moreover, it is also
permissible to combine two Prayer services during a journey. Zhuhr
Prayer can be joined with the 'Asr Prayer and can both be offered
either at the Zhuhr Prayer time or at 'Asr Prayer time.
Similarly the Isha'a Prayer can be joined with the Maghrib
Prayer and can be offered either at Maghrib Prayer time or Isha'a
If travellers are offering
their congregational Prayer behind an Imam who is a local inhabitant,
they have to follow the Imam and offer four Raka'at for
Zhuhr, 'Asr and Isha'a Prayers. The rule of concession
would not apply in that case. But if the person leading the Prayer, i.e.
the Imam, is a traveller, then he will shorten his Prayer accordingly
and the travellers in the congregation will also finish their Prayer with
the Imam, while those who are not on a journey will stand up when
the Imam has recited the salutations to mark the end of Prayer
and complete their Prayer.
SALAT DURING DANGER
It is permissible to
shorten one's Prayer when one is facing life-threatening danger, e.g.,
war. The act of Q'Asr, which means shortening of Prayer, can be
applied to Prayer in eleven different ways that have been mentioned in
the Holy Quran and in the Traditions. In essence, when heavy fighting
breaks out in the battlefield, or one anticipates a surprise attack from
the enemy, or if the army is forced to take up positions in trenches,
Prayers are shortened because of the intensity of the situation. If the
situation permits one to offer two Raka'at, one should offer two
Raka'at, otherwise one Rak'at would be acceptable. In case
it is too dangerous to offer Prayer in congregation, individual Prayers
should be offered but if the situation does not allow even this, then
one can offer Prayer while on the move, on foot or on a mount, whether
or not facing the Qibla. If the danger is even of a greater degree,
the Prayers can be offered through mere gestures, or by declaring the
intention to pray and with a few gestures reciting some portion of the
prescribed verses. It is also permissible to combine several Prayers at
a time during such conditions. (Sahih Bukhari, Kitabul-Maghazi, Bab
Ghazwah Khandaq, Sahih Muslim, Kitab-us-Sa-tat Bab Salat-ul-Khauf)
QADA (MISSED) PRAYERS
If one misses the timely
performance of a daily Prayer service, e.g; due to forgetfulness, falling
asleep, or becoming unconscious, etc., then such missed Prayers, when
offered later on, are known as Qada Prayers. One has to offer the
obligatory part of the Prayer services which have been missed. Whenever
a person realises that he has missed the obligatory Prayers or Prayer,
he should offer them immediately keeping in view the natural sequence
of those Prayers.
Some religious leaders
have given decrees that one may offer one substitute Prayer to compensate
all Prayers missed in one's lifetime. They have coined the term Qada
-i-Umri for it. Because of such teachings people have become less
attentive in the observance of Prayers.
Prayer is the daily
sustenance of the spirit. How can a person stay hungry for ten years and
then eat ten years worth of food in one go? It, therefore, demeans the
institution of Prayer to suggest that a person may neglect the duty of
offering Prayer all his life and then simply offer Qada-i-Umri
one day to compensate the loss. This is not the teaching of the Holy Prophet
of Islam, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
According to Islamic
jurisprudence, if someone has missed a Prayer knowingly and deliberately,
no Qada can compensate that and the Prayer is lost for ever, but
the true judge in such cases is God Almighty.
To go to bed soon after
the Isha'a Prayer and to get up in the late hours of the night
for the observance of the optional Tahajjud Prayer is a source
of great blessing. Although it is not obligatory, it is very strongly
emphasised by the Holy Quran. It has always been the practice of the pious
people to perform this Prayer regularly in order to gain Allah's special
favours. The time for Tahajjud Prayer finishes when the time for
Fajr Prayer starts. The supplications made during Tahajjud
Prayer are granted acceptance by God Almighty readily. It is also a vehicle
for achieving nearness to God, because at that hour, one gives up sleep
and forsakes the comfort of one's bed, to fall prostrate before one's
Lord. Tahajjud Prayer consists of eight Raka'at. The Holy
Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, always offered Tahajjud
Prayer, dividing it into two Raka'at units. He used to recite long
passages from the Holy Quran in the Qiyam position and prolong
Ruku and Sajdah with supplications. His Tahajjud
Prayer was followed by three Raka'at of Vitr Prayer. Thus he used
to offer eleven Raka'at every night before dawn.
is the special Prayer ordained for the month of Ramadhan. It has
to be performed each night during the month of Ramadhan. It is
in fact offered at Tahajjud time. The observance of Taraveeh
Prayer after the Isha'a Prayer was allowed during the caliphate
of Hadhrat Umar, may God be pleased with him, to enable such people, who
for unavoidable reasons could not perform Taraveeh Prayer at Tahajjud
time to still offer this Prayer. However, it is preferable to offer this
Prayer in pre-dawn hours. The recitation of long passages from the Holy
Quran during the Taraveeh Prayer has been in vogue among Muslims,
following the practice of the Companions of the Holy Prophet, peace and
blessings of Allah be upon him.
consists of eight Raka'ats, but one can offer as many as twenty
or more Raka'at if one wants to. It seems appropriate to take a
little rest each time after offering four Raka'at.
PRAYER WHEN SOLAR AND
LUNAR ECLIPSES OCCUR
The solar eclipse is
called Kusoof and the lunar eclipse is called Khusoof. This
visual change in the heavenly bodies reminds the faithful that just as
the sun and the moon appear to have lost their light to a considerable
extent during the eclipses, so can various kinds of spiritual ills result
in a reduction of the spiritual light that illuminates the believer's
heart. Only God's mercy can protect one from such a spiritual eclipse.
Hence a two Raka'at Prayer is precribed on the occasion of solar
or lunar eclipses as a reminder to believers that they should seek God's
blessings and God's mercy if they want to scale spiritual heights.
The inhabitants of a
town or city offer two Raka'at in congregation, either in a mosque
or outside in the open. Sura Fatiha and long passages from
the Holy Quran should be recited aloud in this Prayer. In every Rak'at,
two Ruku' are performed. After the recitation of some passages
of the Holy Quran, a Ruku should be performed, then the Imam
should go back in Qiyam position and recite some other passages
from the Quran and then go into Rake or the second time. Some Traditions
even tell us that the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon
him, performed three Ruku in one Rak'at. Then the Imam
should go into Sajdah position. Lengthy supplications should be
made in Ruku as well as in Sajdah of this Prayer. At the
end of the Prayer, the Imam should deliver a sermon, in which he
should draw the attention of people to the subject of asking forgiveness
from God Almighty and he should discuss ways and means of reforming society.
PRAYER TO INVOKE RAIN
When there is a drought
due to lack of rain, people might invite the mercy of God Almighty by
gathering in an open field for Prayer, during the day. The Imam
should wear a sheet of cloth as his outer garment and lead a two Raka'at
Prayer. The recitation in this Prayer should also be aloud. After the
Prayer, the Imam should lead the congregation by raising his hands
in Prayer and he should recite the following:
******** Arabic text
Allahummas qina ghaitham
mughitham muree'am murree-an-nafi-an ghaira dhaarin, 'ajilan ghaira 'ajil.
Allahummasqi 'ibadaka wa bahaimaka wanshur rahmataka wa ahyi baladakal
mayyita. Allahummasqina, Allahummasqina. (Sunanu Abi Dawud, kitabus-salah)
O Allah, give
us rain, abundant, widespread, producing herbage, benefiting without
doing injury, soon, without delay. O Lord send water for Thy servants,
and Thy animals, and extend Thy Mercy and revive the land that lies
dead. O Lord send us water! O Lord send us water. O Lord send us water.
Then, the Imam
should recite Durood and continue to pray, expressing his humility
and extolling his humility and extolling the greatness of God. Then he
should turn his sheet of cloth inside out. This amounts to a good omen
and, in a way, depicts the plight of the people to the Creator, making
a plea to Him that as the Imam has overturned his outer garment,
God Almighty should accept their supplications and overturn the existing
suffering caused by drought.
It is a Prayer to seek
guidance from God Almighty when one intends to embark upon any important
task or project, e.g; trade, journey, marriage, etc. The matter may be
religious or otherwise. The purpose of this Prayer is also to seek God's
help so that the outcome of the task in hand is successful.
A two Rak'at
Prayer is offered, before one goes to bed at night, in which Sura Fatiha
is followed by Sura Al-Kafiroon in the first Rak'at
and Sura Fatiha followed by Sura Ikhlas in
the second Rak'at. During Qa'dah position after reciting
At'tashahud, and Durood and some other Prayers, the following
should be recited:
******* Arabic text
Allahumma inni astakhiruka
bi'ilmika wa astaqdiruka biqudratika wa as' aluka min fadlikal 'azhim.
Fa innaka taqdiru wala aqdiru, wa ta 'lamu wala a'lamu wa anta 'allamul
ghuyub. Allahumma inkunta ta'lamu anna hathal amra khayirn li fi dini
wa ma 'ashi wa 'aqibati amri faqdirhu li wa yassirhu li thumma barik li
fih. Wain kunta ta 'lamu anna hathal amra sharrulli fi dini wa ma 'ashi
wa 'aqibati amri f'Asrifhu 'anni w'Asrifni 'anhu, waqdir
liyal-khaira haithu kana thumma ardini bih.
O Allah, I seek
good from Thee out of Thy knowledge and seek power from Thee out of
Thy power and I beg of Thee out of Thy boundless Grace, for Thou hast
power and I have no power, and Thou hast knowledge and I have no knowledge,
and Thy knowledge encompasses the unseen.
O Allah! If it
be within Thy knowledge that this task is for my good, both materially
and spiritually, and in respect of my ultimate end, then make it possible
for me and bless me therein, but if it be withinThy knowledge that
it is harmful for me in my spiritual and material life and in respect
of my ultimate end, then turn me away therefrom, and enable me to
attain good wherever it may be and cause me to be blessed therewith.
(Bukhari, Kitabud Da'waat Babud-Dua indal Istakhara; Also Tirmidhi,
Sharah Alsanat Vol. 4 page 153).
This sequence of Prayer
recitation is derived from the practice of the Holy Prophet, peace and
blessings of Allah be upon him.
SALATUL HAJAAT- i.e;
PRAYERS OFFERED WHEN IN NEED OF HELP
This Prayer is performed
when one is in need or in difficulty. The Holy Prophet, peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him, said that whoever is in need of something, should
perform Wudhu and then say two Rak'at of Prayer. After the Prayer,
one should recite Thanaa or glorification and praise of God Almighty,
Durood and then recite the prayer given below. It is hoped that
the particular need will be fulfilled and God would show the way for the
achievement of that goal.
***** Arabic text **********
La ilaha illallahul
Halimul Karim, Subhanallahi Rabbil 'arshil 'azhim. Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil
'alamin. As' aluka mujibati rahmatika wa 'azaima maghfiratika, walghanimata
min kulli birrin wassalamata min kulli ithm. la tada li thambanilla ghafartahu
wa la hamman illa farrajtahu wala hajatan hiya laka ridhan illa qadaitaha
ya Arhamar Rahimeen.
There is none
worthy of worship except Allah. He is the Compassionate, the Kind.
Allah is free of all blemishes and holds the great Heavenly Throne.
All praise belongs to Allah alone, Lord of the worlds. Lord! I seek
from Thee the instruments of Thy Mercy and the ways and means of Thy
forgiveness. I implore Thee to grant me abundantly from Thy virtue
and I beg Thee to keep me away from every sin. O Most Merciful God!
Eliminate all my sins by forgiving them, and all my grief by dispelling
it, and fulfil all my needs which Thou art pleased with.
(optional) Prayer consists of two phases; offering two Raka'at
when the sun has risen for a while but not enough to have heated up the
environment. Once the latter has occurred, this is the second phase, in
which one may offer four or eight Raka'at. The first phase is known
as Salat-ul-Ishraq and the second Salat-ul-Zoha.
It has also been named Salat-ul-Awwabeen.
In some Traditions,
however, the six Raka'at Prayer offered in between Maghrib
and Isha'a Prayers is called Salat-ul-Awwabeen.
When it seems that someone
is approaching his time of death, the recitation of Sura Yaaseen
(Ch. 36 of the Holy Quran) is recommended. The reason for this choice
is that the topics dealt with in this Sura are of a nature which
alleviate the suffering of the person concerned and give him a kind of
spiritual comfort. One should also recite, in low but audible tone, the
Takbeer, and Kalima Shahadah near the person concerned.
Once the person dies, all those who are present and all who come to know
of the death later, should recite:
** Arabic text ********
Inna lillahi wa inna
ilaihi raji 'un.
Indeed we are
for Allah and it is to Him that we return.
The eyes of the deceased
should be closed by hand and a cloth band should be used round his chin
and head so that his mouth is closed. Instead of bewailing, one should
remain calm and patient and attend to the funeral and burial arrangements.
The body should be bathed
in the following manner:
Fresh or lukewarm water
should be used to wash the body three times. The practise of the Holy
Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was to put some leaves
of a Beri tree in the water for washing the dead body. First of all, those
limbs, which are washed during normal Wudhu (Ablutions) should be washed
though it is not required to pour water in the mouth or nostrils to clean
them or to wash the feet. Next the body should be washed, first the right
side and then the left. Private parts of the body should remain covered
by a cloth. Men alone can bathe male persons and women alone can bathe
female persons. The body should then be wrapped in a shroud, which normally
is made of an inexpensive white cloth.
The shroud for men consists
of three pieces of cloth; a top sheet to cover the top part of the body,
a bottom sheet to cover the lower part and a large sheet to cover the
whole body from head to feet.
For a female, however,
two additional pieces of cloth are used, one for her chest and the other
for her head. Islam instructs that one should arrange the burial with
A martyr does not need
either bathing or the shroud to wrap his body. He should be buried in
the clothes he was wearing at the time of death.
After bathing and wrapping
the body in a shroud, the body should be carried on shoulders to the place
where the Funeral Prayer is to be performed. The Funeral Prayer is held
in the open or in a place built for that purpose called Janaza
Gah. Those present for the funeral service should arrange themselves in
rows behind the Imam. The number of rows should be odd. The Imam
should occupy a position ahead of the first row and in the middle, with
the body of the deceased resting in front of him. The position of the
dead body should be such that the right side of the body should be towards
The Imam commences
the Prayer by saying Allahu Akbar, i.e; Allah is the Greatest,
loudly. The followers say the same in a low tone. The Imam then
recites Thanaa and Sura Fatiha silently. He then says Allahu
Akbar without raising his hand. The followers say Allahu Akbar
too but in a low tone. Then, the whole congregation recites Durood
silently. After that the Imam says Allahu Akbar for the
third time audibly and the particular prayers for the deceased as given
below, are recited. The Imam then says Allahu Akbar for
the fourth time and, turning his face towards the right says Assalamo
Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, And turning his face towards the left repeats
the same to mark the end of the Prayer.
The followers, too,
say Assalamo Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, in a low tone and also turn their
faces to the right and left.
There is no Ruku
or Prostration in the Funeral Prayer. Funeral Prayer in absentia can also
be offered for a deceased person, specially for prominent people or in
a case when few Muslims have offered the original Funeral Prayer. To offer
a Funeral Prayer for a Muslim is obligatory for the body of all Muslims.
It is called Fardh-i-Kifaya. Thus if only a few people offer the
Funeral Prayer they are deemed to have done it on behalf of all Muslims.
The rest of the Muslim Community is therefore absolved from the obligation
of performing the Funeral Prayer.
If the deceased is an
adult, male or female, the following Prayer is recited:
****** Arabic text **********************
wa mayyitina wa shahidina wa ghaibina wa saghirina wa kabirina, wa Thakarina
wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyaitahu minna fa ahyihi 'alal Islam, wa man
tawaffait-tahu minna fa tawaffahu 'alal-Iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu
wala taftinna ba'dah.
O. Allah, forgive
our living ones and our deceased ones and those of us who are present
and those who are absent, and our young ones and our old ones and
our males and our females.
O Allah those
of us whom Thou grantest life, keep them firm on Islam, and those
of us whom Thou causest to die, cause them to die in the faith. Deprive
us not, O Allah, of the benefits relating to the deceased and subject
us not to trial after him. (Ibn Maja Kitabul-Janaiz, Bab-ud-Dua fis-Salati
alal janazah page 107).
PRAYER FOR A DECEASED
**** Arabic text *************
salafan wa faratan, waj'alhu Iana ajran wa thukran,waj'alhu lana shafi'an
O Allah make
him our forerunner, and make him, for us, a reward and a treasure,
and make him for us a pleader and accept his pleading.
PRAYER FOR A DECEASED
******* Arabic text
Allahumj 'alha lana
salafan wa faratan wa dhukhran wa' mushffa'ah.
O Allah make
her our forerunner, and make her, for us, a reward and a treasure,
and make her for us a pleader and accept her pleading.
After the Funeral Prayer,
the body should be taken to the cemetery for burial without any delay.
The coffin should be carried on shoulders and all those who accompany
the coffin should take turns in shouldering the coffin. If the body is
to be carried to a considerable distance for burial, a vehicle may be
used. Those who follow the funeral procession should continue the remembrance
of God as well as pray for the forgiveness of the deceased in a low tone.
The grave may be prepared
either as a dug up area which contains a further niche land inside for
the body to rest on or it may be just a dug up area. However, it is essential
for the grave to be wide and spacious. In extreme cases more than one
body can be buried in one grave. If the burial at a particular location
is meant to be temporary, or if the burial ground is likely to be affected
by flood waters, then it is permissible to use an iron or wooden box for
the corpse so as to protect the body from decaying too early.
The body must be lowered
into the grave with care and caution.
The following should
be recited when the body is being lowerd into the grave:
*********** Arabic text
In the name of
Allah and with his blessings, upon the path set by the conduct of
the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him).
In the name of Allah
and with his blessings, upon the path set by the conduct of the Messenger
of Allah, peace be upon him.
As the body is placed
in the grave, the sheet wrap should be loosened a bit at the opening and
the face tilted a little towards the Qibla. Some bricks or stone
slabs should be used to cover the niche (Lahd) and then sand or loose
earth should be heaped. The following should be recited on this occasion:
******* Arabic text
wa fiha nu idukum wa minha nukhrijukum taratan ukhra.
We have created
you out of this (dust) and we shall return you to it and it is out
of the same that we shall revive you in the end.
It is in keeping with
the practice of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon
him, to make the heap of the grave somewhat raised from the ground i.e;
a slight hump-like form.
When the burial ceremony
is complete, a brief silent congregational Prayer with raised hands should
be made for the forgiveness of the deceased. Then the mourners should
leave the cemetery reciting the following:
******** Arabic text
wa inna insha Allahu bikum la-lahiqun.
Peace be upon
you and God willing we are certainly bound to join you.
Condolences must be
offered to those related to the deceased.
It is commendable for
the near and dear ones, or neighbours, to provide meals to the bereaved
family for one time at least.
One must not give in
to any superstitions. The condolences and conditions of bereavement should
be maintained for three days. After that life should come back to normal.
However, the period of bereavement as applicable to the widow of the deceased
is four months and ten days. According to the Holy Quran, this is a period
to stabilise her mentally and emotionally as women are under a great stress,
more so than men in this situation, and they need protection from those
who sometimes exploit their helplessness by sympathising at the time when
such women are more vulnerable. During this period, a widow should not
leave her house except for unavoidable needs. In case the woman is the
only earning hand in the family and she has to keep up her job obligations,
then she is allowed to go out for the purpose of performing her essential
professional responsibilities, without socialising herself.
She may further abstain
from wearing make-up, dressing up festively, using perfume or taking part
in festive ceremonies. This period should be spent by her in the remembrance
of Allah and with patience and gratitude to her Creator.
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