Wrong Statements of Mr. Faruqi in regard to the Khilafat
What Mr. Faruqi has written in this behalf is:
"Let it be clear that, in the entire body of the writings of the Promised Messiah, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, and his Ilhams. there is no mention, at all, of the establishment of Khilafat, after he had passed away from this world." (Truth Triumphs page 34)
For a due reply, we have only to ask Mr. Faruqi, if his view is correct, as its very first act, immediately after the Promised Messiah had passed away, what did the Anjuman decide to do, without the least delay, without any fumbling, without faltering in any way? Well, it is now an incontestable part of history, that its first and foremost act with the fullest deliberation, was to elect Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin as Khalifatul Masih, the supreme executive head in all affairs of the Movement, in the administrative field, or the academic where the intent of the Sharia
needed to be spelled out, and applied to a situation.
Today, Mr. Faruqi has ventured to make the claim that in the entire body of the writings of the Promised Messiah, his Ilhams
and his Revelation, there is absolutely no mention of the desirability of establishing the institution of Khilafat. But how can we, and other people with a sense of history, forget that following the demise of the Promised Messiah, the members of this Anjuman itself, with common consent, in the light of Al-Wasiyyat, decided that the best among the disciples should be elected Head of the Movement, as the first Successor to the Founder? It was freely and fully conceded by all that the order, the decision of the Chosen Khalifa would be obeyed, as if it were the decision of the Promised Messiah himself. This is how the directive in the statement of October 27, 1907, was fully interpreted, and fully carried out, by bringing the Islamic administrative mechanism into being, of which the need has always been so acutely felt, and yet no one had so far been able to achieve this objective, once the authority of the Khalifa had fallen a victim to the forces of disruption in the days of Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali. The Holy Prophet Mohammad proclaimed long ago that his Ummat
will never yield a consensus of opinion on a point which would lead them astray.
Thus the first consensus of opinion among members of the Ahmadiyya Movement came on the essential need for a Khalifa, to be elected as the head of the Movement, supreme in all the affairs pertaining to the activities, in whatsoever sphere of its essential duties. After this had been done, following the death of the first Khalifa, the raising of the question was inadmissible whether the successor to the authority of the Promised Messiah was the Anjuman, or the Khalifa to be elected. Nor was the idea at all acceptable, even admissible for consideration, that there was no need for a Khalifa in the administrative set up of the Movement. Raised on the occasion of the death of the first Khalifa, when the second Khalifa was due to be elected, these, and all questions of a similar import, were disruptive, and rebellious.
Besides, the Sadr Anjuman
represented the Promised Messiah even in his life, but always within the specific sphere entrusted to it, under a mandate always subject to the latent, or open, control of the Promised Messiah, just whenever he might have felt the need to exercise this supreme authority. Exactly the same would be the position of the Anjuman in the administrative set up under the Khalifa. These important points had all been decided, in principle, when the first Khalifa was elected, and his authority accepted by the entire membership of the Movement, old or new.
Moreover the Promised Messiah himself has decided these questions in Al-Wasiyyat, wherein we read:
"It is the way of the Lord God, and from the time He created man, He has always followed it, that He succours His Prophets and Apostles. He makes them dominant, as He has Himself indicated in the Holy Book - `Allah has been observing it as a settled, eternal principle, that He and His Apostles should succeed and dominate every time, in every case, for all times.' By success and domination here is meant that the aim and purpose of the Prophets and Apostles being that the existence and kingdom of God should be realised and recognised all over the earth, and no one should be foolhardy enough to take up a posture of opposition; even to all that extent, Allah makes manifest their position, and their purpose with powerful Signs; and the truths, the verities, and the righteous ways of life, which He desires should come to prevail everywhere - of all these the seed He gets sown by their hands. But the full accomplishment He defers for a time; He makes them pass away from this life at a time where it looks, at the surface, as if they had died an untimely death, with a possible touch of failure in their mission, to let the enemies laugh and jeer at them, in a false and short sighted joy. But when these foolish people have had their insane laugh, Allah makes manifest another powerful hand to create conditions and circumstances, which give an invisible impetus to their mission to push their aims and plans to the point of a miraculous success. In short the Lord God manifests two kinds of power: i) at the hands of the Prophets, themselves, He brings into play his own mighty hand; ii) then, while still the difficulties abound, and the Prophets have passed away from the scene at an immature juncture; and the enemy appears to be coming up with a surge; and many begin to think that the pitch of their progress has been queered; and, many take it for granted that their handful of followers would die, or dwindle away; and when the members of his community themselves, here and there, begin to fall a prey to various anxieties; and they come to feel as if their backbone had been broken. Some unfortunate weaklings begin to seek safety in apostasy. When matters have reached such a pass, Allah shows a second time, then, the limitless power of the invisible hand, to prevent the newly created nucleous of honesty and virtue from crumbling, and falling to pieces. Thus, whosoever remains patient to the last, he witnesses a new miracle as happened in the days of Abu Bakr, when the death of the Holy Prophet was considered to be an untimely death; many nomads turned back from Islam; and the Companions looked as if they would die of grief. Then Allah made Abu Bakr take a stand, giving another manifestation of His unbounded might, He saved Islam from utter destruction, and fulfilled the promise that Allah would make firm the Din
He had chosen for them, and He would give them a sense of security, after a period of grave danger, making them firm on their feet." (Al-Wasiyyat, page 5, 6)
Then, in another place, the Promised Messiah writes:
"Dear people, when this has been the way of the Lord God, which He has invariably followed from the earliest times, that He gives two manifestations of His unbounded might, that He should trample down two false rejoicings of the opponents - it is not possible now that He should abandon this way. Therefore, at the thing I have said to you, (in regard to the near approach of my time) do not grieve. Do not let your hearts get depressed and be confused, since it is, essential for you that you witness also the second manifestation of His might. Besides, the coming of the second manifestation is a matter of the utmost importance for you, since it is going to be of a permanent duration, of which the chain shall not come to an end, till the time of the Qiyama. That second manifestation of power cannot come unless I go. But when I am gone Allah will send this second manifestation for you, which will abide with you, for ever, and ever." (Al-Wasiyyat
These quotations indicate, very clearly, that the Promised Messiah referred to Hazrat Abu Bakr, and the verse about Khilafat, to set the mind of the Jama'at at rest over anxieties in regard to the future. The assurance is that after the death of the Founder of the Movement, Allah will give the world a manifestation of His power and might, in favour of the Movement, according to the way and method characteristic of Him from the beginning of time. This second manifestation, termed Second Qudrat
in Ahmadiyya literature, is also spoken of as Qudrat-i-Thania
; and this can be only the establishment of the Institution of Khilafat - not any Anjuman - since the Anjuman existed for some time in the lifetime of the Promised Messiah, while the second manifestation of the power and might of the Lord God, under discussion here, is something which cannot, and does not, come into play until after the Founder of the Movement has passed away from this world, as the Promised Messiah has very clearly stated in passages quoted above.
Of course, without a shadow of doubt, the Promised Son, among the sons of the Promised Messiah, who will be helped by the Holy Spirit (Ruhul Quds
) will be the manifester of the Qudrat-i-Thania
; but basically he is, first and foremost, his Successor, his Khalifa. So the first manifester of the Qudrat-i-Thania, in the first place, is Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin, Khalifatul Masih I; and the second manifester of same power and might of the Lord God, is Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih II.
Mr. Faruqi writes:
"The acceptance of Maulana Nuruddin Sahib by the Ahmadiyya Community as the successor to the Promised Messiah, after the death of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, was in reality in obedience to Hazrat Mirza Sahib's will that my mureeds
should keep on working unitedly after me." (Truth Triumphs, page 34)
In other words, from the instruction by the Promised Messiah, that "after me all should work together", Mr. Faruqi concedes that the hint was in favour of the establishment of Khilafat, that being the basis under this order why Hazrat Maulana Nuruddin was chosen the supreme head of the Movement, obedience and loyalty to whom was binding on all members of the Movement, old and new. Otherwise to work together would have been possible even under an Anjuman. But the Sadr Anjuman and the Ahmadiyya Community, according to Mr. Faruqi, did not conclude from this sentence that it referred to the succession of the Anjuman, but the succession of the Khalifa. Therefore, having conceded this, Mr. Faruqi has slipped into a position where he has admitted that following the death of the Promised Messiah, the Institution of Khilafat, came to be established; and that the Khilafat of the first Khalifa was the true Khilafat, perfectly in order, in the light of directions by the Promised Messiah in this behalf embodied by him in Al-Wasiyyat. The Anjuman accepted his Khilafat; and the election of one individual person, to be the supreme executive head of the Community, was not found in conflict with the meaning or intent of Al-Wasiyyat.
Further, Mr. Faruqi writes:
"From the Islamic point of view, the Promised Messiah who was also the Mojadded of the 14th century Hijra, could be accepted as a caliph. Now to have caliph to the caliph is meaningless. Although Maulana Nuruddin was called in common parlance Khalifatul Masih and many Ahmadies pledged themselves with him. But those who had taken pledges at the hand of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad were under no obligation to take another pledge." (Truth Triumphs, page 35)
The last sentence, which we have underlined, is entirely wrong. The decision of the Jama'at at the time when he was elected Khalifa was that all members of the Movement, old or new, should tender their allegiance. This was expressly the point where a clear consensus of opinion in the Jama'at took place, so that we find Kh. Kamaluddin, Pleader, Secretary Anjuman Ahmadiyya, writing in the Badr, June, 1908, under title "Announcement from the Anjuman Ahmadiyya" wherein there was first a description of how the body of the Promised Messiah was brought to Qadian from Lahore, followed by a declaration to the effect:
"Before the Janaza Prayer over the body of the Promised Messiah was offered, in accord with his last will and testament, and under the advice of Trustees of the Sadr Anjuman-e-Ahmadiyya, present in Qadian on the occasion, and the close relatives of the Promised Messiah, with permission from Hazrat Ummulmominin, the entire membership of the Movement present at the Centre, numbering nearly 1200, Hazrat Maulana Hakim Nuruddin was chosen successor and Khalifa,
accepted in that position by all present; and pledges of allegience and loyalty were tendered to him by all. Trustees of the Sadr Anjuman present on the occasion were the following: Maulana Hazrat Syed Mohammad Ahsan; Sahibzada Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad; Janab Nawab Mohammad Ali Khan Sahib; Sheikh Rahmatullah Sahib; Maulvi Mohammad Ali Sahib; Dr. Mirza Yaqub Beg Sahib; Dr. Syed Mohammad Hussain Sahib; Khalifa Rashiduddin Sahib; and my humble self - Kh. Kamaluddin."
"Though the sad event came as a sudden and unexpected event, and there was not sufficient time for friends in other places to be informed, still from Ambala, Jallundhar, Kapurthala, Amritsar, Lahore, Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Jammu, Gujrat, Batala. and Gurdaspur, Ahmadies converged to the Centre, so that the funeral prayer was shared in by a large number, both in Lahore, when the journey back to Qadian started, and then at Qadian itself before the burial. Members of the Movement from places mentioned above, and other Ahmadies present, of which an approximate number has been given above, accepted Hakimul
(Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin) as Khalifatul Masih
by common consent of all. This letter is being sent out now to inform all members of the Movement, and to request that immediately on reading this letter they should tender their allegience to Hakimul
Ummat, Khalifatul Masih wal
by coming to Qadian in person, for this purpose, or in writing, by mail."
The same content was also published in a special issue of Alhakm, May 28, 1908. Words chosen to embody the pledge of allegiance, commonly called "bai'at
" were: Following three recitals of the Kalima-i-Shahadat, a pledge to the effect:
"At the hand of Nuruddin, today, I take bai'at
subject to all those conditions operative in this connection when the pledge was taken by the Promised Messiah, himself, in his time. Also, I pledge that I would make special effort to study the Holy Quran, and the Hadith, listen carefully, wherever I get an opportunity to participate in gatherings where these scriptures are read, or expositions thereof are being given; and I shall do my best to live up to them; and to the best of my power and means, I shall endeavour to carry their message and teaching to others. I shall make arrangements to pay zakat, whenever, wherever it falls due on me. I shall strive to the utmost to create and maintain a relationship of sympathy, friendship, and love, with my brethern in faith. I seek forgiveness from God for my sins, my shortcomings, and my weaknesses; and I turn to Him (three times). O God, I confess that I have transgressed against my own better self. Be pleased to pardon me, since there is no one else who can save me from the consequences of mine own actions."