In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.

Love for All, Hatred for None.

Browse Al Islam

An outline of

Early Islamic History

by N. R. A. G. Soofi

Chapter 13

Prophet Marches on Mecca

After the treaty at Hudaibia, Muslims entered into a pact of friendship with Banu Khuzaa. The Quresh did the same with Banu Bakr. Trouble shot up between the two tribes. Some men of Banu Bakr, with the help of a party of Meccans, attacked a party of Banu Khuzaa at night at Vatir. They killed them in their sleep. Their chief Amr bin Salam applied to the Prophet for help. The Prophet was bound under treaty to come to their aid. He ordered Muslims to stand by.

The Prophet marched on Mecca with ten thousand men. He prayed for victory without bloodshed. The army moved with speed and was soon near Mecca. Abbas begged the Prophet for mercy on behalf of the Quresh. The Prophet did not want war. He sent Abbas to the town to work for peace. Abbas brought Abu Sufiyan to the Prophet's camp. Abu Sufiyan saw a big army there. Every tribe has its own campfire.

The sight gave him a big fright. When he faced the Prophet, he was no more the big-mouth enemy who had boasted loud at Uhud. He knew the Prophet had won. He knew the idols of the Quresh had lost. He had the sense to know what was coming. He had to save Mecca. He could do so only by making peace. He appealed to the Prophet for mercy. It was granted. Abu Sufiyan, the enemy warlord, was from that moment a Muslim. Abbas begged the Prophet for a favour for Abu Sufiyan.

"Why not?"
said the Prophet.
"Whoso enters his house shall be safe. Whoso keeps indoors shall be safe. Whoso enter the Holy House shall be safe."

A peaceful entry

Abu Sufiyan hurried to Mecca. From the top of hill, he said,
"O Quresh, Muhammad is here with what you cannot fight. Whoso enters my house shall be safe, whoso keeps indoors shall be safe, whoso enters the Kaaba shall be safe."
The Prophet then proceeded to Mecca. On the way he made a halt at Zitowa. As he saw no Meccan coming to give him battle, he gave thanks to God. Then the forces of Islam made a peaceful entry into the town. The Prophet first visited the Kaaba. There he made a short speech. He said,
"There is none worthy of worship but Allah. He made good His promises and helped His servant and defeated all the tribes."
He next said all men were equal and that all were children of Adam and Adam was made of clay. He then asked the Meccans,
"O Quresh, what kind of treatment do you expect from me?"
They said,
"Mercy."
He answered back,
"There shall be no action against you today. Go, you are all free."
Then the House of God was cleared of all idols. The Quresh saw their gods in dust. The wondered how helpless the false deities were. The Prophet then strictly forbade fighting in Mecca.

Battle with Hawazan

Tribes form everywhere started accepting Islam. Some Meccan chiefs also became Muslims. Two weeks later news came that the Hawazan were preparing to march on Mecca. The Prophet proceeded to engage the enemy with an army of twelve thousand. The Hawazan were great soldiers and expert archers. They had taken their position in the pass. When the Muslim army passed through it they rained arrows on them. Some Meccans had also joined them to fight the aggressive tribe. They had not yet accepted Islam. And as they were caught between the cross fire of enemy archers, they went into panic and ran helter skelter. The ranks of Muslims were thus broken and their mounts got out of hand. When the Prophet called them back to victory, suddenly the panic ended. Muslims were again in good spirit. They threw themselves into the fray with great courage. They had no fear of death. The Hawazan soon knew that they had no chance of victory. They fled leaving behind their families and their flocks. Their commander, Malik bin Auf, took refuge in Taif. Among the prisoners of war was a lady name Shaima. She was the daughter of Halima, the Prophet's foster mother. When Muslims captured her, she said,
"Do you know, I am the foster sister of your Lord?"
They did not believe her and brought her to the Prophet. On seeing her, the Prophet laid out his blanket for her to sit. Then he said to Shaima,
"Sister, if you want to stay with me, my house is yours."
But she wanted to go back. The Prophet sent her away with many presents. All the prisoners of her tribe were set free.

Taif Captured

Shortly after this, the Prophet started for Taif. Muslims laid siege to the fort where Malik bin Auf had taken refuge. The people of Taif had only one fear. They figured Muslims would burn down their gardens. This was their only wealth. They told the Prophet to take over all their gardens. He lifted the siege.

The Prophet later announced a reward of 100 camels for Malik bin Auf. He also promised to set free his prisoners of war. The only condition was that he should give himself up. Malik bin Auf lost no time winning the prize.

Memorable Address

Before leaving for Medina, the Prophet made grants to some chiefs of Mecca who had accepted Islam. Abu Sufiyan, his son Muavia, Harith bin Hisham, Hakim bin Hizam and Safvan bin Umayya given 100 camels each. Lesser men were granted 50 each. The Prophet gave gifts freely. This did not please some young Ansars. The complained that while they had fought the battles, the Quresh had had the rewards. On hearing this, the Prophet summoned the Ansars to a conference. He said,
"O Ansars, what is this that you have said? What is this that has come to me from you? You forget, you were on the wrong path and Allah guided you. You were poor and Allah gave you plenty. You were enemies and Allah made you brothers. By God, you could also say to me that after my people had called me a liar, I came to you and you believed me; that others harmed me and you aided me, then when I was turned out of my home, you gave me refuge.

Ansars, what I am giving away is a little wealth so that this people may have a warm heart for the faith. O Ansars, would you not like the others to take away some camels and some goats but that you should take away with you the Prophet of Allah? By Allah who holds the life of Muhammad in His hands, if I were not a Muhajir, I would have loved to be an Ansari. And if others went by one path and the Ansar by another, I would surely go by the path the Ansar took. O Allah have mercy of the Ansar and on their children and on their children of their children!"

The Ansars were moved to tears. They deeply regretted the folly of some of their raw youth. They all said with one voice,
"We are pleased with the Prophet of Allah as our share and as our lot."
After performing the Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) the Prophet left for Medina.

More tribes came to Medina to join Islam. Soon after this Zainab, a daughter of the Holy Prophet, died. The same year a son was born to the Prophet. He was named Ibrahim.

Poor-Rate Imposed

The Prophet appointed officers to collect Zakat. This tax was for the benefit of the poor. The tax is a yearly due.

[ Early Islamic History ]