What are the means to achieving knowledge by reason?
It should be known that the source of the first type of knowledge, that is to say knowledge by the certainty of inference, is reason and information. One can obtain the certainty of knowledge by inference through one's ears also. The books of the Prophets are also a source of knowledge through hearing, provided there should be no contradiction in the account that is heard.
The Holy Quran is not confined merely to knowledge gained through continuity of hearing, it contains well reasoned arguments which carry conviction. It is called a Reminder meaning that the Blessed Quran does not set forth anything that is new but is a reminder of that which already exists in man's nature and in the book of nature (21:51). Thus intellectual arguments which have a sound basis undoubtedly lead a person to the certainty of knowledge by inference.
Human conscience is also a source of knowledge which has been named human nature in the Book of God: Follow the nature designed by Allah, the nature according to which He has fashioned mankind (30:31).
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