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Those people are to be pitied who, by being affected by the darkness of false philosophy, deny the existence of angels and satans and reject the clear texts and proofs comprised in the Holy Quran, and foolishly fall into the pit of heresy. This problem is one of those for proof of which, from the verities comprised in the Holy Quran, God Almighty has chosen me alone. All praise is due to Allah for this {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, p. 89}.

God Almighty, Who in His Transcendence and Holiness is above everything, employs appropriate agencies for His manifestations. Bodies and material things being confined to their personal characteristics and being conscious of their existence, and being characterized by their designs and natural actions, and having a permanent existence, which comprises self and excludes non-self, have drawn far away from the Cause of causes and the Absolute Benevolent and are shut off by a thick veil of their own existence and ego and their having been created. They are not worthy that those graces of the Almighty should descend upon them directly which can only descend if the veils that have been mentioned did not intervene and their existence wholly resembled nonexistence. As their existence does not resemble non-existence, everything of this kind of creation loudly proclaims its existence. The sun proclaims that it is a body that is the source of heat and cold that affects the world in three hundred and sixty-five days and creates heat by its rays and causes cold by their diversion and rules over bodies and their matter and their shapes. The earth proclaims that it is a body divided into a thousand countries, that it produces vegetation of diverse types, that it prepares various types of minerals inside it and that it accepts heavenly effects like a woman. The fire proclaims that it is something that burns and possesses the quality of combustion and is a substitute for the sun in the dark. Thus everything in the earth praises itself....

All these things proclaim their praise and are veiled in the screen of their characteristics and have drawn away from the Source of Grace and, without the intervention of such things as are free from these veils, no design of the Fountainhead of Grace can establish a relationship with them inasmuch as the veil steps in between. The Wisdom of God Almighty, therefore, demanded that to be the primary manifestation of His designs, there should be a form of creation which should not be veiled by self, but should possess a form which, contrary to other things, should by its nature be free from intervening self and should serve God Almighty as His limbs, and its numbers should correspond to the designs of God Almighty which are related to the whole of creation. That external creation should possess a nature like transparent mirrors and should be ever present before God Almighty. It should have two directions. One direction should be that of uniqueness and transcendence and, being imperceptible and free from veils, it should be different from the other forms of creation and should resemble completely by way of reflection the Being of God Almighty and should not be veiled by self. The other direction should be that of being created, on account of which they should have a relationship with the rest of creation and should be able to approach them. Thus, through this design of God Almighty, this strange form of creation came into being which is called angels. They are so lost in obedience to God that they have no will or fashion or design of their own, and no personal faculties whereby they could be kind to anyone on their own, or could be angry with anyone on their own, or could desire something on their own, or could dislike something on their own; they are wholly like the limbs of the Divine. All the designs of God Almighty are first reflected in their transparent mirrors and through their mediation are spread in the whole of creation. As God Almighty, on account of His Perfect Holiness, is in extreme uniqueness and transcendence, therefore, those that are not free from ego and from the opaqueness of veiled existence and are conscious of their existence have no relationship with the Fountainhead of Grace; and thus the need arose of a form of creation which on the one side should be related to God Almighty and on the other to His creation so that they should obtain grace from one side and communicate it to the other {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 16I-170, footnote}.

Angels Are External Means Of The Fulfillment Of Our Spiritual Needs

In order to accept the existence of angels, the easiest way is that we should direct our reason to the following. It is admitted that for the training and perfection of our bodies, and in order that the desired actions of our senses should be carried into effect, God Almighty has promulgated the law of nature that the elements and the sun and the moon and all the stars have been pressed into service, that they should help our bodies and faculties to perform all their functions in the best manner possible; we cannot, therefore, escape from the verity that our eyes cannot perform their function by their own light unless they are aided by the light of the sun, and our ears cannot hear anything by their faculty of hearing unless they are aided by the air. Does this not prove that Divine law has ordained that the perfection of our faculties should be achieved through external means and that our nature cannot dispense with the help of external means? If we will observe carefully we will find that not in one or two matters, but for the perfection of all our senses and faculties and powers, we are dependent upon external help. As this law and system of God Almighty, Whose works display unity and appropriateness, operates firmly and compulsorily with reference to our external faculties and senses and our material needs, then does it not follow necessarily that there should be some system for our spiritual perfection and spiritual performances so that the identity of the two systems should prove the Unity of the Creator? It is obvious that the All Wise One Who has instituted this external system and has chosen that through the effect of the external means like the heavenly bodies and elements, etc., our bodies and faculties and senses should be perfected, the same All-Wise and All-Powerful One would have chosen that system for our spiritual perfection, for He is One without associate and there is unity in all His wisdom and works. Thus the external means which affect our spirituality and fulfill our spiritual needs, as the sun and the moon and the elements help us with regard to our physical needs, are known by the name of angels. This proves the existence of angels and, observing the law of nature as a whole, we are compelled to acknowledge their existence though we may not be able to penetrate to their reality, nor is this necessary. When we have accepted the external law, there is no reason why in the same way we should not accept the internal law. We shall have to accept it in the same way as we have accepted the external law. That is the reason why God Almighty in His Holy Book has set forth these two laws in the same words, as for instance: We call to witness the winds that waft the vapors, and carry the load of moisture, and blow gently and distribute the command of Allah (51:2-5); that is to say, God puts forward the testimony of the winds that separate the vapors from the oceans and other waters and carry them inside like pregnant women and waft them in the shape of clouds to their goal and the testimony of the angels that put into effect all these matters. This indicates that the winds have no power in themselves to lift the vapors from the oceans and to convert them into clouds and to cause them to send down rain where it is needed and thus administer these matters. All this is the function of angels. In these verses God Almighty first indicated, like philosophers, the cause of rain descending from the clouds and set out how water becomes vapor and then becomes clouds, then in the last verse: 'distribute the command of Allah'; disclosed the reality that no one should imagine that the system of material causes and effects is adequate for the Divine dispensation, but that a system of spiritual causes is behind this physical system which supports this visible system. At another place it is said: We cite in evidence those who proceed slowly, and then they push on fast, spreading the Message abroad discriminating between truth and falsehood, announcing the Exhortation (77:2 6). This means that God Almighty puts forth the testimony of the winds and angels which proceed slowly and then proceed fast, and the winds that raise the clouds, and the angels which are appointed over them, and the winds that carry the Message to the ears, and the angels who carry the Divine Word to the hearts. In this way, God Almighty has combined the angels and stars in the verse: That administer the affairs of the earth (79: 6). The seven planets have been referred to as arranging the affairs of the earth externally and the angels are referred to as arranging them internally. The commentary Fathul Bayan sets forth both these views on the authority of Muaz bin Jabal and Qashiri. Ibn Katheer has reported on the authority of Hasan that all arrangements that are carried out between heaven and earth are carried out through angels, and Ibn Katheer writes that this is an agreed interpretation. IbnJareer has interpreted the verse: Distribute the command of God; as meaning that the angels carry out the arrangements of the universe, that is to say, that though on the surface, stars and the sun and the moon and the elements carry out their functions, yet in reality it is carried out by angels {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. I33-I37. Footnote) }

Of Independent Existence

Our observation and our reflection and intelligence and thinking clearly show that for every grace there are intervening causes between God Almighty and ourselves, through whose intervention every faculty receives grace according to its need. This establishes the existence of angels and jinns. We have only to prove that for the performance of good or ill our faculties alone are not enough and that we are in need of external help and assistance which has external effect. These helpers and assistants do not operate directly without any mediation. There are some mediatory means. The observation of the law of nature has established conclusively and certainly that those helpers and assistants exist outside of us. We may not be aware of their true reality, but we know for certain that they are neither the Almighty Himself operating directly, nor are they our own faculties and capacities. They are a species of creation which have independent existence. When we name any of them as calling to good, we would describe him as the Holy Spirit or Gabriel, and when we name him as calling to evil we will describe him as Satan or Iblees. It is not necessary that we should exhibit the Holy Spirit or Satan to every dark heart, though those who have insight can see them and they become visible in visions {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 86-88).}

Angels Carry Out Appropriate Duties

May Allah guide you, the Holy Quran nowhere says that God is changeable, but it does say that man is changeable. Therefore, God carries out changes appropriate to him. When a child is in the womb it is nourished on blood, and when it is born, for a time it is nourished on milk and thereafter takes other food. God Almighty makes appropriate provision for it from time to time. When a child is in the womb God Almighty commands the internal particles to manufacture blood for it. When it is born that command is canceled. The angels of the mother's breasts, which are their particles, are commanded to produce milk. When a child finishes its nurture through milk, that command is also canceled and the angels of the earth, who are its particles, are commanded to produce food and water for it till the end. We admit, therefore, that there are such changes in God's commandments....

God has taught us in the Holy Quran that this natural system does not run by itself and that all the particles of these things hear the voice of God and are His angels, who are appointed by Him to carry out certain functions and they do so according to His will. The particles of gold manufacture gold, and the particles of silver manufacture silver, and the particles of pearls manufacture pearls, and the particles of the human body prepare the human child in the womb. These particles do not function on their own, but hear God's voice and act in accordance with it That is why they are called His angels. Angels are of many types These are angels of the earth. The angels of heaven exercise their influence from heaven as the heat of the Sun is an angel of God which ripens the fruits and performs other functions. The winds are God's angels which assemble the clouds and influence the fields in different ways, and then above them there are other angels which exercise their influence Physics bears witness that angels are essential beings We observe them with our own eyes (Naseeme Dawat, pp. 94-95)

Three Types Of Angels

The Holy Quran mentions three types of angels. First, the particles of earthly bodies and the faculties of souls. Secondly heaven, the sun, the moon and the clouds of the earth that are in operation. Thirdly, the higher powers above all these like Gabriel and Michael and others which are called Jinn in the Vedas.... The Holy Quran uses the word angel very frequently. Everything that hears God s voice is His angel. Thus every particle of the world is an angel of God for it hears His voice and obeys Him (Naseeme Dawat, pp. 89-90).

Angels Do Not Move From Their Appointed Places

Islamic scholars do not affirm that angels descend upon the earth in person walking on their feet. This notion is obviously false for had it been necessary for the angels to descend upon the earth in their proper person for the performance of their functions it would have been impossible for them to carry out anything to its end. For instance, the angel of death takes possession in one second of the souls of thousands of people who dwell in different countries and towns at long distances from each other. Were it necessary for him to travel on his feet to each country or town or home to take possession of the soul of each person, it would require not only one second to accomplish his task, but a period of many months would not be sufficient. Is it possible that someone moving like human beings should go round the world in the twinkling of an eye? Angels do not move an inch from the places appointed for them by God Almighty. God Almighty says on their behalf in the Holy Quran: Everyone of us has an appointed station. We are all standing in rows (37: I65-I66). As the sun occupies its station and its heat and light spreading upon the earth benefit everything, in the same way, the heavenly spirits whether they are called heavenly bodies according to the concept of the Greeks, or they are called the spirits of the planets in the terms of the Vedas, or we should call them in a straightforward way the angels of God, this wonderful creation occupies its appointed place and by the perfect Wisdom of God Almighty is occupied in carrying everything that is eager, to its desired goal. This creation performs external services as well as internal services. As our bodies and our overt faculties are influenced by the sun and the moon and other planets, in the same way, our hearts and minds and all our spiritual faculties are influenced by these angels according to our diverse capacities. Whatever possesses the capacity to become something excellent - even if it is a speck of dust, or is a drop of water which enters a pearl-oyster, or is a drop of water which enters the womb- by the spiritual training of the angels of God becomes a pearl, or a ruby, or an emerald, or a sapphire, or a man of superior heart and mind.

Angels Are The Life Of The Planets

The manner in which the Holy Quran has expounded the subject of angels is straightforward and reasonable and there is no escape from accepting it. Deep reflection over the Holy Quran discloses that for the development of man, and indeed for the external and internal development of the whole universe, some intermediaries are needed. It appears clearly from certain indications in the Quran that some of the pure beings that are called angels have distinct relationship with heavenly bodies. Some of them drive the wind and some cause the rain to descend and some others cause other influences to descend upon the earth. There is no doubt that those pure creations would be related to the bright and illumined stars that are in heaven, but this relationship should not be deemed to be the relationship that exists between every animate and its soul. Those pure spirits have, on account of the brightness and light that they possess, spiritually an indeterminate relationship with the bright stars which is so strong that, if it were to be supposed that those pure spirits had departed from those stars, the faculties of the latter would be upset. It is through the hidden power of those spirits that the stars carry out their functions. It might be said that as God Almighty is, as it were, the life of the universe, those illumined spirits are, as it were, the life of the planets and stars and by their departure the condition of the planets and the stars is bound to be disrupted. No one has ever differed that all the stars and planets in heaven are occupied all the time in the development and perfection of the earthly universe. It is a proved verity that all vegetables, minerals and animals are influenced day and night by heavenly planets. Even an ignorant peasant believes that the light of the moon fosters the size of fruits and that sunshine helps to ripen and sweeten them and certain winds increase their quantity. As the visible universe is developed through the influence of heavenly bodies, there can be no doubt that the invisible universe is, by the command of God Almighty, influenced by the bright spirits which have such a strong relationship with the bright heavenly bodies as the soul has with the body.

Angels Sometimes Appear In Human Form

Apparently it appears disrespectful that there should be a mediator between God Almighty and His holy Prophets for the conveyance of the lights of revelation, but reflection would show that there is here no disrespect but that this is in accord with the general law of God Almighty which is in operation with regard to everything and which can be clearly perceived, for we observe that the Prophets also depend upon mediators in the matter of the operation of their bodies and their faculties. However illumined and blessed is the eye of a Prophet, yet like the eyes of the common people he cannot see anything without the help of the light of the sun or some substitute for it, and his ear cannot hear without the mediation of the air. Thus one is compelled to admit that the spirituality of a Prophet must be affected by the bright spirits of the stars even more than the spirituality of the common man for the clearer and more perfect is the capacity the clearer and more perfect is the influence. The Holy Quran shows that the stars and the planets each possess a spirit and as each of them has characteristics which influence everything in the earth according to their capacity, in the same way, their illumined spirits also possess diverse qualities which by the command of the All Wise One influence the spirit of the earthly universe. These bright spirits appear in human form to perfect servants of God. These are not mere words but it is an authority which must be accepted by a seeker after truth and wisdom {Tauzihi Maram ( Amritsar, Riyaz Hind Press) , Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 3 pp. 30-41}.

We do not deny the descent of angels and if anyone were to offer proof that the angels descend in such manner that they depart from heaven, we would be prepared to examine this proof and to accept it if it were established. The existence of angels is part of faith. The descent of God towards the heaven of the world and the descent of angels are both realities which we cannot comprehend. So much is established by the Book of God that angels appear on the earth as a new creation. The appearance of Gabriel in the form of Dehya Kalbi was a new creation, or what else was it? It is not necessary that to admit the possibility of a new creation, we should destroy the first creation. The first creation is established and settled in heaven and the second creation is a result of God Almighty's wide power. Is it beyond the power of God Almighty that He should exhibit one being at two places in two bodies? Certainly not. Know you not that Allah has power to do all that He wills? (2: 107) { Sirrul Khilafah ( Amritsar, Riyadh Hind Press 1312 A.H.) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 8 pp.81-82})

Ascent And Descent Of Angels

I believe that to Allah belong angels and that they are close to Him. For everyone of them there is an appointed place. None of them descends from that place or ascends from it. Their coming down that is mentioned in the Holy Quran is not like the descending of a man from a higher to a lower level, nor is their ascending like the ascending of a man from a lower level to a higher level, inasmuch as the descending of a man involves a change in his position and is achieved by effort and involves fatigue; whereas angels do not suffer any fatigue nor have they to make any effort, nor are they subject to any change. Therefore, do not imagine that their descent and scent resembles the descent and ascent of other bodies; their descent and ascent resembles the descent and ascent of Allah from and to His Throne to and from the heaven of the earth. Allah has made their existence a part of faith, and has said: None knows the hosts of thy Lord but He (74:32). Then believe in their descent and their ascent and do not seek to penetrate into their reality, that is best and closest to righteousness. Allah has described them as standing, in prostration, arranged in rows, glorifying God and occupying their appointed places. He has bestowed these attributes upon them eternally and permanently and has made them characteristic of them. It is not, therefore, permissible that the angels should give up their prostration and their standing and should disrupt their rows, or should interrupt their glorification of God and their proclaiming His Holiness and should descend from their appointed places to the earth and should depart from the high heaven. Indeed they move in accord with their nature while still keeping to their appointed places like the King Who has settled Himself on the Throne (20: 6) .You know that Allah descends to the heaven of the earth in the latter part of the night, but it cannot be said that He departs from His Throne and then ascends back to it later. The same is the case with the angels who reflect the attributes of their Lord as the shadow reflects the original. We do not realize the reality of it but we believe in it. We cannot describe their condition in the terms of the conditions of man, the reality of whose attributes and the limits of whose qualities and whose movements and whose stillness we recognize and understand. Allah has forbidden us that and has said: None knows the hosts of thy Lord but He (74: 3 2) . Then mind your duty to Allah, O men of wisdom (Ayenae Kamalate Islam pp. 384-- 387).

Angels Are The Cause Of Every Change And Development

Now that it is clearly established that by the Divine law of nature for the spiritual system there are, like the physical system, external influences which are called angels, it remains to show that whatever is happening in the physical system also does not take place without the mediation of angels. God Almighty has called angels regulators and distributors and they are the cause of every change and development. They bear aloft the Throne of God Almighty. The verse: There is no being but has a guardian over it (86: 5); proves the appointment of angels over everything. The following verse also indicates this: The heaven will cleave asunder and appear very frail that day. The angels will be standing on its sides, and above them eight of them will that day bear the Throne of thy Lord (69:I7-I8). This means that on the Day of Judgment heaven will be rent asunder and will lose its faculties, or the angels who were like the soul of the heavens and heavenly bodies will give up all the connections and will retire to the edges and on that day eight angels will bear aloft the Throne of God Almighty. In his commentary on this verse Shah Abdul Aziz writes that the continuation of heaven is through the spirits, that is to say, the angels who are like spirits of the heaven and heavenly bodies, and as the soul safeguards the body and controls it, in the same way some angels control heaven and heavenly bodies and all heavenly bodies exist through them and the action of the planets takes place through their means. When the angels will depart from that body as the soul departs from the physical body the whole system of heaven will be upset as the physical system is upset by the departure of the soul. Another verse of the Holy Quran also indicates this: We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps and we have made them the means of driving away satans (67:6). It has been established by the Quranic text that the regulators and distributors of all matters from the heaven to the earth are angels, and in this verse it is said that the shooting stars are the stars which are in the lower heaven. This might appear to contradict the verses relating to the angels, but if we consider carefully there is no contradiction. The Holy Quran teaches that the angels are like the souls of heaven and heavenly bodies and it is obvious that the soul of anything is not apart from it. That is why God Almighty has in some places in the Holy Quran mentioned the angels as the cause of shooting stars and at other places has mentioned the stars as their cause, inasmuch as angels influence the stars as the soul influences the body. That influence proceeds from the stars and affects the earthly vapors that have the capacity to become shooting stars and they are set aflame by the power of Almighty God. In another way, the angels establish a connection with the shooting stars and direct them to the right and left with their light. No philosopher will deny that whatever happens on the earth or in the atmosphere its originative cause are the stars and heavenly influences. Not everyone can penetrate the mystery that the faculties of the stars derive grace from the angels. This mystery was disclosed by the Holy Quran and those possessing insight paid attention to it (Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. I37-- I43, footnote).

Everything that has a spirit is safeguarded by angels. Thus, according to this verse, we have to believe with regard to the spirit of the planets that all stars, the sun, the moon, mercury and mars, etc., are under the protection of angels, that is to say, everyone of them has an angel appointed who safeguards it and enables it to perform its functions properly (Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, p. 77, footnote).

Two Systems For The Proper Functioning Of The Universe

Angels safeguard against physical calamities also, but this safeguarding is in a spiritual manner. For instance, if a person is standing at a place where a wall is about to fall down, no angel will lift him up with his hands and take him away from the place. If that person is destined to be saved, an angel would convey to him the warning that he should move away. But the protection of stars and elements, etc., is physical (Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, p. 99, note).

The All-Powerful One has not confined the events of the world to a visible system, but there is also an invisible system which is in operation all the time. The sun and the moon and the earth, and the vapors that become rain, and the winds that blow fiercely, and the hail that descends upon the earth and the shooting stars have physical causes for all their actions and changes and revolutions and occurrences which are set out in books on astronomy and physics, yet those who possess insight know that behind these causes there are other causes which regulate them and which are called angels. Whatever they are connected with, they carry it to its goal and in their functions they keep in mind the spiritual objects that God Almighty has committed to them. Their action is not vain but in all that they do they have in mind great objectives. It is an established verity which we have set out in some detail in our booklet Tauzeeh Maram that the All-Wise One has instituted two systems for the proper functioning of the universe. The invisible system is related to the angels and there is no branch of the visible system which has not behind it the invisible system. It can be easily understood, therefore, that the causes of the visible system of shooting stars do not stand in the way of the causes of the spiritual system. The spiritual system is that an angel is appointed on every shooting star, who moves it in whatever direction it desires. The movement of shooting stars bears witness to this. It is obvious that the function of the angel cannot be without purpose. Behind it must be some object which is of benefit for the faith and the world, but it is not possible to apprehend the purpose of the function of angels without the mediation of angels. Thus through the mediation of Gabriel it was disclosed to the Holy Prophet that the object of the angels in the shooting of the stars is to drive away satans.

Shooting Stars And Satan

The mystery how the satans are driven away by the shooting of stars appears to be that there is enmity between satans and angels. At the time of the release of these shooting stars, whom they influence by the heat of the stars, the angels spread their bright power in the atmosphere and every shooting star that moves has an angelic life as it comes with the blessing of angels and it possesses a quality which consumes satans. It cannot, therefore, be objected that as jinns are created from fire, they cannot be harmed by fire. For the harm that is inflicted upon the jinns by the shooting stars is not caused by fire but by the light which accompanies the shooting star which is lit by the angel and which by its nature consumes the satans. So long as a person believes in the existence of God and is not an atheist, he would have to acknowledge that all this system is not in vain and that everything that happens issues from the wisdom and appropriate design of God Almighty, and that design is manifested in accordance with the system through physical means. As God Almighty has not invested bodies with knowledge and intelligence, therefore, for the achievement of that which needs knowledge and intelligence, the mediation of such things was needed which are invested with knowledge and intelligence and they are angels.

As angels do not operate in a vain and purposeless way, but have a purpose in all that they do, it would have to be acknowledged that they have a purpose in the release of shooting stars and, as reason is unable to perceive that purpose, it is useless to question reason for the solving of this mystery.... Reason is dependent for this perception on some other means which is beyond the limit of reason. That means is revelation which is bestowed upon man so that it should carry him to those insights and verities to which reason alone has no access and so that it might disclose to him those fine mysteries which cannot be solved through reason. Here by revelation we mean the revelation of the Quran which has disclosed to us that the purpose of the angels in releasing shooting stars is to drive away satans. This is the type of spreading of the light by the angels which affects the darkness of the jinns and reduces their activity, and if the spreading of this light is in a high degree, then on account of its magnetic attraction perfect manifestations of light are created from among men, otherwise, this spreading of the light on account of its angelic quality pulls the hearts towards light and righteousness and this is a quality the proof of which has always been displayed in the world.
The Divine system is that what is happening in the bodies and the atmosphere, or becomes manifest on occasion, is not the result of the purposeless action of the bodies. The Wise and Powerful One has committed the direction of all these into the hands of the angels, who are occupied with various types of action every moment under the command of the All Powerful One. They do not act in vain, but cause various types of movement in heaven and earth in an altogether wise way for the achievement of grand purposes, and no action of theirs is useless or meaningless (Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp.I24-133, footnote).

Man Ranks Higher Than Angels

It should be remembered that in Islamic law special angels do not rank higher than special persons. Indeed, the latter rank higher than the former. Their being mediators in the physical or the spiritual system does not indicate their superiority. According to the Holy Quran they are assigned this function as servants; as it is said: He has constrained to your service the sun and the moon . . . (14: 34). A postman conveys the letters of a Ruler to a Governor, or a Governor-General, but that does not mean that the postman who acts as an agent between the Ruler and the Governor-General ranks higher than the Governor- General. The same is the case with the mediators, who convey the designs of the All-Powerful in the physical and spiritual systems to the earth and occupy themselves in carrying them out. God, the Glorious, has made it clear at several places in the Holy Quran that whatever has been created in earth and heaven is for the benefit of man and man ranks higher and above all of them and is served by them, as it is said: He has constrained to your service the sun and the moon performing their functions constantly (14:34).

At another place it is said:

Call to mind when thy Lord said to the angels: I am about to bring into being a man from clay, so when I have perfected him and have breathed into him My spirit, do ye all fall down in prostration before him. The angels all fell down in prostration, but Iblees did not (38:72- 75).

The True Meaning Of Prostration To Man

The angels were commanded to serve man humbly and to devote themselves to his service as if they were prostrating themselves before him. So the angels all fell into prostration before the perfect man, but Satan was deprived of this good fortune.

This command to the angels to fall into prostration did not relate to the time when Adam was brought into being; it was a separate command that when a man attains his full stature as a human being and achieves a balance, and the spirit of God Almighty takes up its dwelling in him, they should fall into prostration before such a perfect man, that is to say, they should descend upon him with heavenly lights and should call down blessings upon him. This is an indication of the eternal law which God Almighty puts into force with regard to His elect, that when any person achieves spiritual balance in any age and the spirit of God Almighty takes up its dwelling in him, that is to say, he loses his ego and achieves the rank of immortality in God, angels begin to descend upon him in a special manner. Though in the early stages of his search angels also occupy themselves with his help and service, yet this special descent of angels is so perfect and complete that it can be described as prostration. Prostration indicates that angels are not superior to perfect man, but like royal servants they pay reverence to perfect man by prostrating themselves before him (Tauzihi Maram ( Amritsar, Riyaz Hind Press) , Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 3, pp. 49-50).

Every Angel Performs A Different Duty

Angels do not all have the same status and rank and do not all perform the same kind of function. Every angel is assigned a different task. Whatever changes take place in the world, and whatever emerges as action out of latent power, and whatever success is achieved by souls and bodies in their goals are all affected by heavenly influences. Sometimes the same angel influences different types of capacities in different ways. For instance, Gabriel, who is a grand angel and is related to a very bright heavenly body, is assigned many forms of service in accordance with the services performed by that heavenly body. Though he descends upon every person who is honored with Divine revelation, the circle of the effect of his descent assumes small or great proportions according to different capacities. The largest circle of his spiritual effects is that which is related to the revelation that was sent down to the Holy Prophet. For this reason the insights and verities and the excellencies of wisdom and composition which are found in their perfection and completeness in the Holy Quran are not found to the same degree in any other book. It should be borne in mind that the effect of an angel on a human spirit is of two types. First, the effect which by the command of Allah influences different types of seed in diverse manners in the womb. Secondly, the effect that comes into operation after his coming into being for the purpose of carrying to their perfection the hidden capacities of that being. This second effect, when it is related to a Prophet or perfect saint, is called revelation. It appears that when an eager spirit through the excellence of its light of faith and light of love establishes a friendly relationship with the Fountainhead of grace, and the life-giving love of God Almighty casts its reflection on his love, then whatever ability is conferred upon him to move forward is the manifestation of the hidden effect which God's angel produces in him while he is in the womb. When the person concerned attains to this rank by the attraction of the first effect, then the same angel casts his influence afresh on him which is filled with light. The angel does not do this on his own but in his capacity of a mediatory servant; like a pipe which draws water from one side and conveys it to the other, this pipe draws into itself the light of Divine grace and, when man on account of the union of two loves places himself next to the pipe of the holy spirit, the grace of revelation flows through that pipe into him. In other words, at that time Gabriel casts his bright shadow on that eager heart and inscribes a reflected picture of himself in it. As the name of the angel who is stationed in heaven is Gabriel, the name of this reflected picture is also Gabriel. If the name of the angel is the Holy Spirit, the name of the reflected picture also is the Holy Spirit. It is not that the angel enters into the man, but his reflection appears in the heart of the man. For instance, when you place a very clear mirror opposite to your face then according to the size of the mirror your features will be reflected in the mirror. It is not that your face and your head being separated from your body are placed in the mirror. hey will retain their place in your body. What will be reflected in the mirror is their picture and the size of the reflection will be in accord with the size of the mirror of the heart. For instance, if you look at your face in a small mirror in a ring you will see the whole of your face but every feature will appear very small, but if you look at your face in a large mirror, which is sufficient for the reflection of all your features, you will behold the reflection of all your features and limbs at their proper size. The same is the case with the effect of Gabriel. It is Gabriel who casts the effect of revelation on the heart even of a minor saint, and the same Gabriel used to cast the effect of revelation on the heart of the Holy Prophet. But the difference between the two revelations is like the difference in the reflection in the mirror of the ring and in a large mirror. Though it is the same Gabriel and he has the same effects yet not all matter that is affected has the same extent and the same clearness. The difference of the effects of Gabriel is not only in their quantity but is also with regard to their quality. That is to say, the purity of heart which is the condition of reflection is not of the same degree in all recipients of revelation. As you can observe not all mirrors possess the same degree of transparency. Some are so clear and bright that the reflection of the beholder is seen in its perfection in them, and some are so opaque and dusty and smoky that the reflection cannot be seen clearly in them. Indeed, some are so distorted that if the lips are visible in the reflection the nose is not, and if the nose is visible the eyes are not. The same is the case with the mirrors of the hearts. In a heart that is of the utmost purity the reflection is very clear and in a heart which is dusty, to some degree, the reflection is also vague to the same degree. This purity was possessed to a complete and perfect degree by the heart of the Holy Prophet, peace be on him; no other heart possessed such purity (Tauzihi Maram ( Amritsar, Riyaz Hind Press) , Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 3 pp. 67-72).

I wonder at the intelligence of people who consider the mediation of vapors as essential for rain which comes down from the clouds and deem it impossible for rain to descend without clouds, but for the rain of revelation which falls upon pure hearts, they laugh out of their ignorance at the mediation of angels which is essential according to the law, and they inquire whether God Almighty could not send down revelation direct without the mediation of angels. They admit that it is contrary to the law of nature that a sound should be heard without the mediation of air, but they are unaware of the law of nature whereby that air is needed which would spiritually carry the voice of God Almighty to the hearts of the recipients of revelation. They agree that to enable physical eyes to see the light of the sun is necessary, but they do not concede the need of any heavenly light for spiritual eyes.

Now we know the Divine law, that this universe with all its physical and spiritual faculties is like the limbs of God and everything in its place and time operates as such limbs, and that every design of God Almighty is manifested through these limbs, and no design is manifested without their mediation. It should be realized that the relationship of Gabriel to Divine revelation that descends upon pure hearts, which is recognized as essential in Islamic law, depends upon the true philosophy that we have just mentioned. According to the law of nature that we have mentioned for the communication of revelation or for the bestowal of the capacity to receive revelation, it is necessary that some creation should serve as a limb for the manifestation of the Divine design of revelation as is the case with the fulfillment of physical Divine designs. That limb is, in other words, called Gabriel, who following a movement of the Divine, immediately comes into motion like a limb. When God Almighty turns with love towards a heart that loves Him, then according to the law that we have just mentioned Gabriel, who is related to God Almighty like the air of the breath, or the light of the eye, has also to move simultaneously. In other words, with the movement of God Almighty Gabriel also comes into motion involuntarily as the shadow moves with the movement of the original. When the light of Gabriel comes into motion under the power of attraction and motion of the illumined breath of God Almighty, then simultaneously a reflection of it, which should be called the Holy Spirit, is inscribed in the heart of the sincere lover and becomes a necessary part of his true love. Then this power bestows the capacity of an ear for hearing the voice of God and becomes a substitute for eyes for beholding His wonders and works like inspiring heat for causing His revelation to flow from the tongue and guides the tongue forcefully along the lines of the revelation. Till this faculty is created man's heart is blind and his tongue is like a railway wagon which is disconnected from the locomotive. It must, however, be borne in mind that this faculty which is called the Holy Spirit is not produced to the same degree in every heart, but according to the degree of a man's love this light of Gabriel affects him.

It should also be remembered that this power of the Holy Spirit, which by the meeting of the two loves is produced in the heart of man by the reflection of the light of Gabriel, does not mean that a person should constantly hear the word of God Almighty or should constantly behold something through visions. It is a means for the absorbing of heavenly lights. In other words, it is a spiritual light to enable spiritual eyes to see, or is spiritual air for conveying sound to spiritual ears from God. It is obvious that unless there is something within sight mere light cannot exhibit anything, and that unless words issue from the mouth of a speaker no voice can be carried to the ears. This light or air is a heavenly aid which is bestowed for spiritual senses, as for physical eyes the light of the sun and for physical ears air have been appointed as a medium. When God Almighty designs to convey His word to the heart of a recipient of revelation then instantaneously a wave of light or a wave of air or a wave of heat for moving the tongue of the recipient of revelation is created in the light of Gabriel for conveyance, and in consequence of this wave or heat simultaneously that text appears before the eyes of the recipient of revelation in writing, or its sound reaches his ears, or its words flow from his tongue. Spiritual senses and spiritual light, which are bestowed as a faculty before revelation, are so bestowed so that before its descent the capacity to receive it should be created. Had it descended at a time when the heart of the recipient did not possess spiritual senses, or the light of the Holy Spirit had not reached his eye or his heart, then through the pure light of what eyes could he have perceived the Divine revelation? It is on account of this need that these two faculties are bestowed in advance upon the recipients of revelation.

Three Functions Of Gabriel

Gabriel has three functions relating to revelation. First, when the womb receives the seed of such a person whose nature God, out of His Rahmaniyyat - with which human action has no connection - desires to make a nature capable of receiving revelation, He casts the shadow of the light of Gabriel on him in that very condition. Then such a person's nature develops, under Divine direction, the capacity for receiving revelation and he acquires senses for the receipt of revelation. Secondly, when the love of a servant falls under the shadow of Divine love then, on account of the providential movement of God Almighty, a movement is produced in the light of Gabriel and that light falls on the heart of the true lover. That is to say, a reflection of that light falls on his heart and produces in it a reflection of Gabriel which operates as light or air or heat and dwells within him as a faculty for the receipt of revelation. One end of it is sunk in the light of Gabriel and the other enters into the heart of the recipient of revelation. This, in other words, is called the Holy Spirit or its reflection. Thirdly, it is the function of Gabriel that when Divine word manifests itself he comes into motion like a wave and carries the word to the ears of the heart, or being illumined like light presents it to the eyes or, in the guise of heat, causes the tongue to utter the words of the revelation {Tauzihi Maram ( Amritsar, Riyaz Hind Press) , Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 3, pp. 77-83}.

When Divine love descends upon human love, then by the meeting of the two a bright and perfect shadow of the Holy Spirit is created in the heart of man and at this stage of meeting the light of the Holy Spirit is very bright. Extraordinary feats of power, which we have just mentioned, proceed from such people because the light of the Holy Spirit is ever present with them and dwells within them and this light never departs from them and they are never separated from it. That light issues from them every moment with their breath and falls upon everything with their look and exhibits its brightness in their words. The name of this light is the Holy Spirit, but this is not the Holy Spirit itself for the Holy Spirit itself is in heaven. This Holy Spirit is a reflection which dwells for ever in pure breasts and hearts and brains and does not depart from them even for a moment. Anyone who thinks that at any time the Holy Spirit with all its effects departs from them is entirely based upon falsehood and insults the holy elect of God Almighty by his dark thought. It is true, however, that the Holy Spirit itself remains at its station, but its reflection which is metaphorically called the Holy Spirit, enters into the breasts and hearts and brains and limbs of those people who, having arrived at the stage of meeting God and immortality, become worthy that the perfect love of God Almighty with its blessings should descend upon their clear and bright love. When that Holy Spirit descends it establishes a relationship with that person like the relationship of the soul with the body. It becomes the faculty of sight and works in the eyes, and putting on the garment of the faculty of hearing bestows spiritual sense on the ears, it becomes the power of speech of the tongue and the righteousness of the heart and the intelligence of the brain and flows through the hands and affects the feet. In short, it lifts all darkness from the body and illumines it from the hair of the head to the nails of the toes. Were it to depart for a moment, darkness would immediately take its place. It is such a good companion for the perfect people that it does not depart from them for a moment and to imagine that it can depart from them would be a confession that after entering into light they fall again into darkness, and that after having been protected and made secure their evil-directing minds revert to them and that after they are bestowed spiritual senses, those senses are rendered useless and are suspended..

Every light and comfort and satisfaction and blessing and steadfastness, and every spiritual bounty, is bestowed upon the elect through the Holy Spirit. As for the disbelievers and the wicked, Satan has been appointed their evil companion for all time so that he might spread darkness over them every moment and should not leave them alone in their standing and sitting and movement and rest and sleep and waking, and so for those who are close to God, the Holy Spirit has been appointed as a good companion for all time so that it should constantly rain down light upon them and should support them every moment and should not depart from them at any time.

It is obvious that in contrast with the evil companion who is the servant and colleague of the wicked, it is necessary that the good companion should always keep company with those who are close to God, and the Holy Quran confirms this. Our opponents, however, imagine and assert that the Holy Spirit is the name of Gabriel who sometimes descends from heaven and is in close contact with the elect, so much so, that he enters into their hearts, and sometimes he leaves them alone and separates himself from them and ascends to heaven at a measureless distance, and cutting off altogether from the elect conceals himself in his station. They are then deprived altogether of the light and blessing which at the time of his descent pervades their hearts and brains and their very hair. If such should be the case, would it not follow that after the departure of the Holy Spirit those elect are again surrounded by darkness and in place of the good companion they are subjected to the influence of the evil companion? Now keep in mind the fear of God and reflect whether it is consistent with respect and faith and insight and the love of the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, to imagine that he was subject to this defective condition that the Holy Spirit departed from him for days, and that during such periods he was deprived of the holy lights which are a reflection of the Holy Spirit. Is it not an irony that the Christians should believe firmly that from the moment that the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus it never departed from him and that he was supported every moment by the Holy Spirit, so much so, that it did not depart from him even in his sleep and that it never ascended to heaven leaving him alone and deserted and that the light of the Holy Spirit never departed from him for a moment; and that the Muslims should believe that the Holy Spirit some- times separated himself from the Holy Prophet, peace be on him {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 72-75}.

Angels Descend With The Advent Of A Khalifah

Someone might wonder what is the meaning of the descent of angels? It is the way of Allah that when a Messenger or a Prophet or a Muhaddas descends from heaven for the reform of people, such angels descend with him who convey guidance to eager hearts and incline them towards good, and they continue their descent till the darkness of disbelief and misguidance is removed and the dawn of faith and righteousness appears. As is said in the Holy Quran: Therein descend angels and the Spirit by the command of their Lord with the decrees of their Lord concerning every matter. It is all peace, till the break of dawn (97: 5-6). Thus the descent of angels and of the Holy Spirit from heaven takes place when a great personality invested with the robe of khilafat and honored with the Word of God descends to the earth. Such a one is specially bestowed the Holy Spirit and the angels who accompany him descend on the eager hearts of the whole world. Then, wherever people possessing appropriate capacity are found, the reflection of that light falls upon them and a glow spreads over the whole universe. Through the holy influence of the angels good ideas surge up in the hearts and the Unity of God becomes dear and a spirit of truth-loving and truth-seeking is breathed into hearts that are straightforward, and the weak are strengthened and a wind begins to blow which helps the purpose and goal of that reformer. By the urging of a hidden hand, people begin to move towards goodness and a movement starts among nations. Then the ignorant ones imagine that the ideas of the world have of themselves taken a turn in the direction of truth, but in reality it is the doing of the angels who descend from heaven with God's Khalifah and bestow extraordinary powers for accepting and understanding the truth. They awaken those who are asleep, and alert those who are heedless, and open the ears of the deaf, and breathe the spirit of life into the dead and pull out those who are in the graves. Then suddenly, people begin to open their eyes and their hearts begin to perceive those matters which were previously hidden. These angels are not something separate from God's Khalifah. They are the light of His countenance and they are the bright signs of His resolve who, by their magnetic power, draw to themselves everyone who is in accord with them whether physically he is near or far, or whether he is known or is a stranger, and is even unaware of the name of the Khalifah. Whatever movement towards good takes place at the time and whatever eagerness for the acceptance of truth is generated, whether in the peoples of Asia, or of Europe, or of America, is manifested through the urging of the angels that descend with God's Khalifah. This is Divine law which never changes and is easy to understand (Fateh Islam, pp. 19-21, footnote).

This humble one knows from his own experience that the holiness of the Holy Spirit operates all the time without cessation in all the faculties of the recipient of revelation, and that without the influence of the holiness of the Holy Spirit, he cannot safeguard himself against impurities for a moment. The cause of permanent lights and steadfastness and love and sinlessness and blessings is that the Holy Spirit is with him always and all the time. Then how can it be imagined with regard to the Holy Prophet that at any time he was left without these blessings and purity and lights {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 93-94, footnote}.

It is worthy of note that these Maulvis have raised Jesus high in everything and have insulted our lord and master the Holy Prophet. It is to be deplored that with regard to Jesus they believe that the Holy Spirit never departed from him and that he was free from the touch of Satan, and that these two characteristics were special to him, but with regard to the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, their belief is that neither the Holy Spirit remained with him all the time, nor was he free (God save us) from the touch of Satan. Despite such beliefs they are called Muslims. In their estimation our lord and master Muhammad, the chosen one, peace be on him, is dead, but Jesus is still alive and that the Holy Spirit is a permanent companion of Jesus, but that the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, is God save us) deprived of this bounty and that Jesus is safeguarded against the touch of Satan, but that the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, is not thus safeguarded. Who can estimate the harm that is being done to Islam in this age by people who have such beliefs? They are hidden enemies of the Holy Prophet and every Muslim and true lover of the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, should avoid them {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 110-111}.

The same is the case with a deductive error of a Prophet. The Holy Spirit never departs from a Prophet, but on some occasions for some purpose of His own, God Almighty takes possession of the intelligence and perception of a Prophet and in such a condition some word or action proceeds from him in forgetfulness or error and then the Divine design becomes apparent. The river of revelation then flows in strength and the error is erased as if it never existed. Jesus advanced towards a fig tree to eat of its fruit and though he was accompanied by the Holy Spirit, it failed to warn him that the tree bore no fruit at the time. It must, however, be understood that that which is rare is as if it did not exist. In a million words and actions of our lord and master Muhammad, the chosen one, peace be on him, is observed the manifestation of the Divine and the shining lights of the Holy Spirit are seen in all his movements and words and actions. Then of what consequence is it if his humanness is displayed in one or two matters. Indeed it was necessary that this should sometimes happen so that his humanness might be confirmed and people should not get involved in shirk {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 115-116}.

The Holy Spirit Descends According To One's Degree Of Love And Sincerity

A question is raised that if the Holy Spirit is bestowed only upon those Divine favorites who arrive at the stage of survival (baqa) and meeting (laqa), then how can it safeguard everyone? The answer is that the perfect descent of the Holy Spirit takes place upon Divine favorites, but its general support is enjoyed also by others according to their degree of love and sincerity. The higher manifestation of the Holy Spirit takes place when, at the stage of survival and meeting, Divine love descends upon human love and the meeting of the two loves produces that manifestation of the Holy Spirit compared with which other manifestations are as nothing, but this does not mean that other manifestations do not take place at all. God Almighty does not let go waste even a particle of sincere love and when His love descends upon the love of man, the Holy Spirit shines to the same degree. It is a firm Divine law that Divine love descends according to the degree of everyone's love, and when the river of human love flows a river of love descends from the other side, and when the two rivers meet a great light is generated which in our idiom is called the Holy Spirit. You will notice that if a tea-spoonful of sugar is added to a jug of water, the water will not taste sweet, but it cannot be said that no sugar was added to it. This is the case with the Holy Spirit that descends in a deficient way upon deficient people. Its descent is not to be doubted for the idea of good is generated in the mind of the lowest person by the Holy Spirit. Sometimes a wicked evil-doer also sees a true dream and that is the effect of the Holy Spirit as is proved by the Holy Quran and true ahadeeth, but as compared with its great relationship to the holy ones and favorites of God, it amounts to nothing and is as if it did not exist {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 77-80, footnote}.

Angels Can Be Seen

Why angels are not visible is a useless speculation. The angels, like God Almighty, are imperceptible beings. Then how can they be visible to our physical eyes? Is God Almighty, whose existence is admitted by even these philosophers, visible to physical eyes? Besides, it is not true that angels cannot be beheld in any way. Those who possess insight behold angels with their spiritual eyes in their visions which they experience very often in a state of wakefulness. They talk to the angels and learn many things from them. I call God to witness that I am telling the truth when I say that I have, on many occasions, seen angels in my visions and have learnt things from them and have been told of past or future events which turn out to be facts. Then how can I say that angels are not visible? They are doubtless visible, but with other eyes. As these people laugh at these things, those who possess insight weep at their condition. If they were to keep company with me they could be satisfied through visions, but the trouble is that they suffer from arrogance which does not permit them to come over in humility as seekers after truth {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 181-183), footnote}.

Angels Are Mediators For The Spiritual Development Of Man

A question is raised why does God Almighty need angels for putting His designs into effect? Does His kingdom depend upon His staff like human governments and does He need armies as they need them? The answer is that God Almighty does not need anything, angels or sun or moon or stars, but He desired that His powers should be exhibited through the mediation of means so that thereby wisdom and knowledge should spread among people. If there had been no mediation of means, there would have been no astronomy, or physics, or medicine, or the science of vegetables. It is the employment of means that gave rise to these sciences. If you will reflect you will find that if there is any objection to the employment of angels, the same objection applies to putting the sun and moon and stars and vegetables and minerals and elements into service. Anyone who possesses insight knows that every particle works in accordance with the Divine design and that a drop of water that goes inside us cannot produce any favorable or unfavorable effect upon our body without the command of God. Thus all particles and heavenly bodies are in reality types of angels, who occupy themselves day and night with service; some serve the human body and others serve the human soul. The All-Wise, Who chose the mediation of means for the physical development of man and created many physical mediators to influence the human body in diverse ways, the same One without associate, Whose works have unity and relativity, chose that man's spiritual development should also follow the system which has been adopted for his physical development so that the two systems, the external and the internal, and the physical and the spiritual, through their unity and relativity, should point to the One Creator, Who regulates everything by His will. This is the reason why for the spiritual and physical development of man angels were appointed as mediators. All these mediators are under the control of God Almighty like a machine which is run by His holy hand. They have no will of their own, nor do they exercise any control. As the air influences our body by Divine command and goes out of it by His command, the same is the case with angels. They do that which they are commanded (I 6: 5 I ) . It is a pity that Pandit Daya Nand has raised an objection against the system of angels. Would that he had knowledge of God's physical and spiritual systems so that instead of raising objections he would have been convinced of the excellencies of the teaching of the Quran, which presents a correct and true picture of the law of nature {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 85-88, footnote}.

Angels Distribute And Regulate Matters

It is asked that if angels are the regulators and distributors of matters, then how is it that our plans succeed and most matters are concluded according to our will through our projects and plans? The answer is that our projects and plans are not independent of the mediation of angels and their suggestions and revelation. The functions that the angels perform by the command of God Almighty, they perform through persons who are naturally inclined towards acceptance of the suggestions of angels. For instance, when the angels desire to bring down rain upon a field, or a village, or a country with God's command, they cannot themselves become water nor can they make fire to perform the function of water, but they guide the clouds to the goal and, becoming regulators, cause rain to descend in accord with the quantity and to the limit that has been determined. The clouds possess all those faculties which are possible in a lifeless article which has no will and no intelligence and which are in accord with its condition and the character of its elements. The function of the angels is distribution and regulation. That is why they are called distributors and regulators. The suggestion and revelation that the angels communicate are according to the nature of the person concerned. The revelation that they communicate to God's elect they cannot communicate to others. Every person receives grace from the suggestions of angels according to his capacity. The help of angels is received in respect of the art or science to which one is inclined. For instance, when it is the Divine design that someone's constipation should be overcome by a medicine, an angel suggests to the physician the medicine that should be administered to him. The physician prescribes the medicine and with the help of angels the system of the patient accepts it and does not throw it out and the angels influence the action of the medicine and create a reaction in the body and the undesirable matter is expelled from the body by the command of God. By His extreme Wisdom and perfect Power, God Almighty does not let go waste the system of external arts and sciences and does not suspend his Divine control and possession. Had God Almighty not possessed this minute control over the conditions of His creation and its continuation and destruction, He would not have been God, nor would His Unity have been established. It is true, however, that God Almighty has not desired that all these mysteries should become obvious and visible to the eyes of the world for if they had been obvious there would have been no merit in believing in them {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. I85-I88, footnote}.

The Functions Of The Holy Spirit And Of Satan

A question is raised that if the Holy Spirit is appointed to restrain a person from evil conduct, then why does he commit sin and why is he involved in disbelief and disobedience and vice? The answer is that God Almighty has for the purpose of testing man appointed two spiritual callers; one caller to good whose name is the Holy Spirit and the other caller to vice, whose name is Iblees and Satan. These two callers only call to good or evil but do not exercise any compulsion as is indicated in the verse: He revealed to it the right and wrong of everything (91: 9). This means that God revealed the wrong and the right. The means of revealing the wrong is Satan, who makes evil suggestions, and the means of revealing the right is the Holy Spirit, who puts pure thoughts in the heart. As God Almighty is the Cause of causes He has attributed both these types of revelation to Himself because all this system is instituted by Him. Otherwise, what power would Satan have to make evil suggestions to anyone's heart and what power would the Holy Spirit have to guide anyone along the paths of righteousness? Our opponents the Aryas, the Brahmos and the Christians, out of their short-sightedness, raise an objection to the teaching of the Holy Quran that according to it God Almighty has Himself set Satan after man and thus He desires to mislead mankind, but this is a mistake. They ought to know that the Holy Quran does not teach that Satan can exercise compulsion for leading anyone astray. Nor is it the teaching that Satan is appointed only for the purpose of calling to evil. The teaching is that this is a trial and a test. Man has been equally bestowed the touch of angels and the touch of Iblees, one calling to good and the other to evil so that being confronted with this trial man should acquire merit or should become subject to chastisement. If only one type of means had been provided, for instance, if all man's external and internal emotions had drawn him only towards good, or if his nature had been such that he would not have been capable of doing anything except good, then there was no reason that he could have been awarded any rank of nearness to God on account of his good actions, inasmuch as all his means and emotions would have been for doing good and the desire of evil would from the beginning have been absent from his nature. In such case by what right could he have deserved merit for avoiding vice? For instance, if a person who from the beginning lacks sexual power and has no desire for women, should claim that he passed a certain time in the company of young beautiful women, but that he is so pious that he did not look upon hem with desire even once and feared God all the time, here is no doubt that everyone would laugh at him and would inquire from him when did he possess such power for restraining which he could take pride in himself or could hope for merit. It should be realized that in his elementary and intermediary conditions all hopes of merit of a seeker are created by opposing emotions and if in those stages his nature should be such that he cannot commit any vice, he cannot deserve any merit either. For instance, our systems do not secrete, like scorpions and snakes, a kind of poison through which we could hurt anyone like scorpions and snakes. We cannot, therefore, deserve any merit in the estimation of Allah by refraining from causing such hurt. This shows that opposing emotions which pull a person towards vice are the cause of merit for him, for when out of fear of God he discards such emotions, then he becomes worthy of praise in the estimation of God and wins His pleasure. He who arrives t the extreme point of virtue and is rid of all opposing motions as if his Satan had become a Muslim, would still deserve merit for he has traversed the stages of trial with great courage. A righteous person who in his youth has accomplished many great works receives merit for them even in his old age {Ayenae Kamalati Islam (Qadian, Riyadh Hind Press 1893) Now prited in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol.5, pp. 80- 85, footnote}.

Some foolish people object to the existence of Satan, as if God Himself desired to lead people astray. This is not so. Every intelligent person can understand that everyone has two faculties, one is called the touch of Satan and the other is called the touch of angels. That is to say, human nature displays that sometimes through unknown means a good idea is generated in a person's mind and his heart inclines towards good works, and then sometimes an evil idea rises in his mind and he is inclined towards vice and wickedness and wrong and evil. The power that is the source of evil thoughts is, according to the Quranic teaching, Satan and the power that is the source of good ideas is an angel {Article attached to Chashmai Ma’arafat ( Qadian, Anwar Ahmadiyyah Press, 1908) Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 23, p. 68}.

If it is asked: Does Satan disobey God when he believes in His existence and Unity?, the answer is that his disobedience is not like the disobedience of man. but that he has been created like that for the trial of man. This is a mystery the details of which have not been disclosed to man. It is the character of man that mostly he is guided aright by acquiring knowledge about God Almighty, as is said in the Holy Quran: Of the servants of Allah, it is those who possess knowledge that fear Him (35:29); but those who have a satanic character are outside this rule {Haqiqatul Wahi (Qadian, Magazine Press 1907) , Now published in Ruhani Khazain (London, 1984) vol. 22., p.119, footnote}.

The Highest And Lowest Points Of God's Creation

We have already stated that the possessor of extreme perfection whose being is situated at the highest point of the line of creation is the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, and in contrast with him the meanest being who is situated at the extreme lowest point is called Satan. The being of Satan is not apparent and felt, but observing this system of the line of creation, we have to confess that as at the highest point of exaltation is a being who is good personified who appeared in the world as a guide towards good, in contrast with him there should be at the extreme lowest point a being who incites towards evil and pulls towards it. For this reason in the heart of every person there is found internally the effect of both these beings. The holy effect of Muhammad, the chosen one, peace be on him, the pure being who is also called the Spirit of Truth and Light calls every heart to goodness and virtue through holy emotions and inner attention. To the degree to which anyone develops love and relationship with him to that degree he is bestowed the faculty of faith and light spreads in his heart so that he takes on his color and acquires by way of reflection all those excellencies that belong to him. The influence of the being who incites towards evil, that is to say, Satan, whose station is the extreme lowest point, pulls everyone, whose heart has any relationship with him, towards shirk. To the degree to which anyone establishes a relationship with him, to that degree his thinking turns to disbelief and wickedness so that when he acquires a complete resemblance to him he takes on his color and becomes a complete Satan and acquires all the grades of wickedness which belong to Satan. In the same manner the friends of Rahman and the friends of Satan are pulled in different directions according to their relationship (Surma Chashm Arya, pp. 200-203, footnote).

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