قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتُمۡ مَّاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ رِّزۡقٍ فَجَعَلۡتُمۡ مِّنۡہُ حَرَامًا وَّ حَلٰلًا ؕ قُلۡ آٰللّٰہُ اَذِنَ لَکُمۡ اَمۡ عَلَی اللّٰہِ تَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُم مِّن رِّزۡقٖ فَجَعَلۡتُم مِّنۡهُ حَرَامٗا وَحَلَٰلٗا قُلۡ ءَآللَّهُ أَذِنَ لَكُمۡۖ أَمۡ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ تَفۡتَرُونَ
e. 5:104. (close)
1272. Eating and drinking are the primary needs of man and it is the first duty of a religion to guide him in this respect. It stands to reason, however, that there should be some medical, moral or religious grounds for declaring some things as lawful and others as unlawful. Islam has provided necessary teachings in this regard. (close)
b. 5:104. (close)
In v. 58, it was stated that the Holy Prophet has been given a Book which possesses the power to remove doubts and misgivings. In proof of this claim the Quran in the present verse refers to a rule of conduct which people before Islam observed with regard to eatables, merely because it came to them from their forefathers, though reason revolted against it. Eating and drinking is one of the primary needs of mankind and it is the first duty of a religion to guide men in this respect. Before the advent of Islam, however, the world possessed no right guidance on this subject. Men followed no fixed principle or law, declaring one thing lawful and another unlawful as they desired. It stands to reason, however, that there should be some medical, moral or religious grounds for the declaration of some things as lawful and others as unlawful. An arbitrary classification into clean and unclean things without valid reason is to belie God’s creation. There are sure to arise doubts in the minds of men with regard to such arbitrary classification, and only that religion can successfully remove such doubts which lays down and expounds definite laws and regulations with regard to eatables. Islam has clearly done that. So it excels other religions in this respect also that it has laid down definite laws and regulations according to which things belonging to a certain category are treated as lawful and clean and those belonging to another category as unlawful and unclean, and has not laid down its teachings in an arbitrary manner. (close)
وَ مَا ظَنُّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ الۡکَذِبَ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَذُوۡ فَضۡلٍ عَلَی النَّاسِ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَہُمۡ لَا یَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۶۱﴾
وَمَا ظَنُّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَفۡتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡكَذِبَ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَذُو فَضۡلٍ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡكُرُونَ
a. 27:74; 40:62. (close)
a. 27:74; 40:62. (close)
1336. Important Words:
یوم القیامة (of the Day of Resurrection). In this expression the particle فی (of or about) is understood before the word یوم (Day).
The verse purports to say that no man can forge lies against God, if he has any faith left in Him. So matters like eatables should not be treated lightly. In fact, forging lies against God in such matters is, as the verse hints, a sign of loss of faith in the Day of Resurrection. People dismiss such matters as of no importance, because they have no faith in God-sent guidance and prefer their own conjectures to revealed teachings.
The verse may be interpreted as containing another argument of the fact that the religion of disbelievers is based on no sound reason. That argument lies in their denial of the Day of Resurrection. The verse points out that the very thought that on a certain day sinners will have to render an account of their deeds sends a shudder through them, and so they deny the very existence of such a day. But the denial of a thing cannot disprove its existence. It is foolish to deny the infliction of punishment on the basis of fear. Moreover, the Day of Resurrection is meant to serve as an incentive to spiritual progress, and not to frighten men. It is just like an examination, the object of which is not that students should fail but that they should work hard and make themselves deserving of promotion and prizes. But those who do not work hard must fail. (close)
وَ مَا تَکُوۡنُ فِیۡ شَاۡنٍ وَّ مَا تَتۡلُوۡا مِنۡہُ مِنۡ قُرۡاٰنٍ وَّ لَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ مِنۡ عَمَلٍ اِلَّا کُنَّا عَلَیۡکُمۡ شُہُوۡدًا اِذۡ تُفِیۡضُوۡنَ فِیۡہِ ؕ وَ مَا یَعۡزُبُ عَنۡ رَّبِّکَ مِنۡ مِّثۡقَالِ ذَرَّۃٍ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَا فِی السَّمَآءِ وَ لَاۤ اَصۡغَرَ مِنۡ ذٰلِکَ وَ لَاۤ اَکۡبَرَ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۶۲﴾
وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأۡنٖ وَمَا تَتۡلُواْ مِنۡهُ مِن قُرۡءَانٖ وَلَا تَعۡمَلُونَ مِنۡ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيۡكُمۡ شُهُودًا إِذۡ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِۚ وَمَا يَعۡزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثۡقَالِ ذَرَّةٖ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا فِي ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَلَآ أَصۡغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَآ أَكۡبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَٰبٖ مُّبِينٍ
b. 57:5; 58:8. (close)
c. 34:4. (close)
1273. While some things remain hidden on account of their smallness, there are others parts of which remain hidden owing to their largeness. God’s vision is so sharp and penetrating that nothing, however small, can remain hidden from Him and it is so comprehensive that no part of a thing, however big, can escape His sight. (close)
b. 57:5; 58:8. (close)
c. 34:4. (close)
1337. Important Words:
شأن (anything) is the substantive noun from شأن. They say شأنت شأنه i.e. I pursued his way or course, doing as he did. They say ھو رجل عظیم الشان i.e. he is a man of great importance. The Arabs say من شأنه ان یفعل کذا i.e. it is his business or his way or nature to do such a thing. شأن means, a thing, an affair or a business; state, condition, quality or manner; importance attached to a person or thing (Lane & Aqrab).
یعزب (is hidden) is formed from عزب which means, he or it was or became distant or remote or absent; he or it became hidden or concealed; he or it went away or departed. They say عزبت الابل i.e. the camels went away to a distance in the pasturage not returning in the evening. عزب عن فلان حلمه means, the forbearance of such a one quitted him. عزبت الارض means, the land was or became destitute of inhabitants (Lane & Aqrab).
The present is one of the most remarkable verses of the Quran. It appears as if God is making His address from the Throne of His Majesty and Glory. Whereas on one side of Him are seated the Holy Prophet and his followers, on the other are the disbelievers. The words, And thou art not engaged in anything and thou recitest not from Him any portion of the Quran, refer to the Holy Prophet and Muslims, and the words, and you do no work but We are witnesses of you when you are engrossed therein, are addressed to disbelievers. The verse reminds believers that mere acceptance of truth or mere preaching of the word of God is not sufficient. It is the way in which one carries belief into practice and the motives behind actions that really count. A true believer, therefore, should always be subjecting his intentions and deeds to strict scrutiny. So let not those who have believed delude themselves with the idea that the mere profession of faith and the preaching of it would win them the pleasure of God and attract His help. They will have to show by the sincerity of their motives and the purity of their conduct that they really deserve it. The verse embodies the great lesson that unless good actions are performed with pure motives and done in the right manner, they cannot produce good results or win the pleasure of God. To the other side, also, the stern warning is issued that their denial of the truth and mocking and scoffing at it as well as their activities against the religion of God are not going unnoticed and they will meet with the fate they deserve.
The words اصغر and اکبر (smaller and greater) have been used to point out that whereas some things remain hidden on account of their smallness, there are others, parts of which remain hidden owing to their largeness. For instance, one can see only a part of a big mountain and not the whole. The Quran, therefore, rightly says that on the one hand God’s vision is so sharp and penetrating that nothing, however, small it may be, can remain hidden from Him; and on the other hand, His vision is so comprehensive that no part of a thing, however big it may be, can escape His sight.
Moreover, science has established the fact that both seeing and hearing depend on waves and vibrations and that there is a limit to perception by both eye and ear. The eye does not react to vibrations which fall short of a certain limit, nor to those which are beyond a certain limit. The same is the case with the ear. The ear cannot hear a sound which is communicated to it by vibrations which are less than thirty per second or which exceed forty per second. Thus, even scientifically, it is proved that certain things escape the comprehension of both the ear and the eye by reason of either their smallness or their bigness. But, says the Quran, it is not so with God, Who sees all things in their entirety. (close)
اَلَاۤ اِنَّ اَوۡلِیَآءَ اللّٰہِ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿ۚۖ۶۳﴾
أَلَآ إِنَّ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ
d. 2:63. (close)
1274. 'Fear' pertains to the future actions of man and 'grief' to his past actions. (close)
a. 2:63. (close)
The words لا خوف علیھم (shall have no fear) mean that believers do not fear that any real harm will ever befall them. The words do not mean that no danger will ever confront them. Similarly, the expression ولا ھم یحزنون (nor shall they grieve) means that believers will suffer no grief on account of what they did in the past. Thus both the future and the past have been made secure for the Faithful. This is a wonderful position, for no power on earth can guarantee true peace and security to a person regarding both his future and his past. It is God alone Who can do that. It is a pity, however, that instead of turning to God people seek security where they cannot find it.
The words (fear) خوف and حزن (grief) have indeed been used in the Quran on certain occasions with regard to Prophets, but the fear or grief of the Prophets is not about themselves, but about others, and to feel fear or grief about others is a commendable thing and not a punishment. It is in this sense that the word حزن (grief) has been used with regard to Prophet Jacob in 12:85 and the word خوف (fear) with regard to Zechariah in 19:6. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ کَانُوۡا یَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۶۴﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَكَانُواْ يَتَّقُونَ
This verse gives a description of اولیاء الله (friends of God) referred to in the preceding verse. They are (1) perfect in faith and (2) observe the highest standard of righteousness. The Holy Prophet has also given a description of the "friends of God," which may be taken as an explanation of this verse and may therefore be given here. He is reported to have said: "On the Day of Judgement the 'friends of God' will be brought in the presence of God in three classes. First of all, a person from among the first group will be presented to God Who will say to him, 'O My servant, wherefore didst thou do good works?' To this question he will reply, 'O my Lord, Thou didst create Heaven, its trees and its fruits, its flowing streams and beautiful maids, its manifold bounties and sundry other things. Thou hast prepared these for those who are obedient to Thee. So in order to attain these blessings, O my Lord, I passed my nights praying and my days fasting.' Upon this God will say to him, 'O My servant, thou didst good works in order to get Heaven. So here it is, enter it and please thyself. It is an act of grace on My part that I have saved thee from the Fire, and it is an act of grace on My part that I have granted thee Heaven. So enter it and those that are with thee.' Then a person from among the second group will be presented before God Who will say to him, 'O My servant, wherefore didst thou do good works?' To this he will reply, 'O my Lord! Thou didst create Hell and its burning fire, its hot winds and boiling water, and Thou didst prepare many other dreadful things for those who are disobedient to Thee. So out of the fear of these things, I stood up praying at night and fasted during the day.' Then God will say to him, 'O My servant, thou didst good works, fearing Hellfire; so I have liberated thee from it and it is an act of grace on My part that I caused thee to enter Heaven.' So he and those with him will enter Heaven. Then a person out of the third group will be presented before God Who will say to him, 'O My servant, wherefore didst thou do good works?' To this he will reply by saying, 'O my Lord, I did all I did solely out of love for Thee and out of a yearning to meet Thee. By Thy glory, I stood up praying at night, and fasted during the day, out of a yearning for Thee.' Then God will say to him, 'Thou didst good works out of love for Me and out of a yearning for Me. So have your reward.' Then the Lord of Glory and Majesty will manifest Himself to him and say, 'Here I am, have a look at Me,' and will say, 'As an act of grace, I liberate thee from the Fire and I grant thee Paradise. I will send to thee My angels to visit thee and will Myself greet thee with the greeting of peace.' Upon this he and his companions will enter Paradise" (Kathir, v. 5, p. 122). It is, of course, apparent that the person chosen from each group will be the best man in the group and will be presented to God as its representative.
There are also other sayings of the Holy Prophet bearing on the different grades of the "friends of God." The following saying is quoted by Abu Dawud on the authority of Abu Hurairah: "Of the servants of God there are some whom even the Prophets and the Martyrs envy." On being asked by his Companions who were those lucky people, the Holy Prophet said, "They are men who love one another only for God’s sake. The goods of this world or the ties of kinship are not the incentives of their love. Their faces will shine with light and they will be seated on luminous pulpits. When others will be fearful, they will be free from fear, and when others will bewail their past misfortunes, they will enjoy peace of mind" (Dawud).
The statement that even the Prophets envy such persons does not mean that such persons are superior to Prophets, for the Prophets are themselves the best "friends of God." It simply means that the Prophets are particularly pleased with the condition of these persons and desire that such friends of God should be found in large numbers among their own followers. (close)
لَہُمُ الۡبُشۡرٰی فِی الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا وَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ لَا تَبۡدِیۡلَ لِکَلِمٰتِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ ہُوَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ ﴿ؕ۶۵﴾
لَهُمُ ٱلۡبُشۡرَىٰ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَفِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ لَا تَبۡدِيلَ لِكَلِمَٰتِ ٱللَّهِۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ
a. 41:31. (close)
a. 41:31. (close)
In reply to a question as to what was meant by the expression, glad tidings in the present life, the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "It means a true dream or vision that a believer sees with regard to himself, or what others see with regard to him." The term بشری or مبشرات (glad tidings) is, however, of general application and may be used with regard to the revelations and visions of the Prophets as well as those of saints and other believers, and the verse under comment refers to both these kinds of visions and revelations (Jarir & Kathir).
The words, there is no changing the words of God, may mean two things: (a) that the granting of بشری (glad tidings) is an eternal law of God, and being eternal, it must prove true in the case of Muslims also; and (b) that this is a special promise meant for Muslims and God has decreed that this promise will never change. This implies that there are certain prophecies which do not belong to the category of the "words of God" as used here, and are liable to be changed, but there are certain others, which belong to the category of the "words of God" and these never fail to be fulfilled.
The expression, that indeed is the supreme triumph, may mean either that the receiving of "glad tidings" is a great achievement, or the fact that the "words of God" do not change is a great secret of success. The verse is capable of bearing both these interpretations. That the receiving of "glad tidings" is really a great triumph is self-evident. As for the immutability of the "words of God," i.e. the laws of nature, one can easily see that the whole working of the universe is based on it. Everything is governed by certain fixed and immutable laws. For example, fire burns and water assuages thirst. If these laws had been subject to change, the whole system of the universe would have gone to pieces. It is, therefore, on the unchangeability of the laws of nature that all progress depends. (close)
وَ لَا یَحۡزُنۡکَ قَوۡلُہُمۡ ۘ اِنَّ الۡعِزَّۃَ لِلّٰہِ جَمِیۡعًا ؕ ہُوَ السَّمِیۡعُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۶۶﴾
وَلَا يَحۡزُنكَ قَوۡلُهُمۡۘ إِنَّ ٱلۡعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًاۚ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ
b. 36:77. (close)
1275. In v. 10:63 it was said that the friends of God never grieve, but here the Holy Prophet is bidden not to grieve. In fact, the Prophet’s grief was not for himself but for others. He cried and wept and grieved for mankind. See 1664. (close)
a. 36:77. (close)
In v. 63, it was said that the "friends of God" never grieve, but here the Holy Prophet is bidden not to grieve. This apparent inconsistency has already been explained under v. 63, where it has been noted that the "friends of God" entertain no grief on their own account. Nor was the grief of the Holy Prophet referred to here a personal grief. It was solely due to the fact that people had made God the target of their objections. He is, therefore, asked not to grieve on that account, for those objections are futile and cannot affect the honour of God. The verse thus shows how great, on the one hand, was the love of the Holy Prophet for God, inasmuch as objections of disbelievers against Him filled him with great grief, and, on the other hand, it tells us how great was God’s love for the Holy Prophet, inasmuch as He consoles him on that account and asks him not to feel grieved at the attacks which ignorant people make against Him. (close)
اَلَاۤ اِنَّ لِلّٰہِ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَا یَتَّبِعُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ شُرَکَآءَ ؕ اِنۡ یَّـتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَ اِنۡ ہُمۡ اِلَّا یَخۡرُصُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾
أَلَآ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَن فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ شُرَكَآءَۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنۡ هُمۡ إِلَّا يَخۡرُصُونَ
c. 10:56. (close)
d. 10:37 (close)
b. 10:56. (close)
c. 10:37. (close)
1342. Important Words:
یخرصون (they guess) is derived from خرص which means, (1) he guessed or he made a conjecture; (2) he lied or he forged a lie (Taj & Aqrab).
This verse embodies a twofold consolation for the Prophet. Firstly, he has been told that, apart from a natural concern for them on account of their wrong beliefs, he need not worry or grieve over what disbelievers do, because their case is in the hands of God the Almighty Who possesses the power to punish them or to lead them to the right path. Secondly, the verse hints that the idolatrous beliefs of disbelievers have no foundation in fact and are consequently doomed to perish sooner or later. The Holy Prophet should, therefore, feel no anxiety on their account.
The word ما (not) in the clause, "do not really follow" is used both as an interrogative pronoun meaning "what" and as a negative particle meaning "no or not." In the former case the sentence would mean, "what do those who call on 'partners' beside Allah follow?" Taken in the latter sense, it would mean, "those who call on others than Allah do not really follow these 'partners.'" Thus, according to the former interpretation, the so-called 'partners' whom people worship beside God are spoken of with the contempt they deserve; while, according to the latter interpretation, their very existence is denied, hinting that truly speaking there are no 'partners' and the idolaters follow nothing but mere conjecture. (close)
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ الَّیۡلَ لِتَسۡکُنُوۡا فِیۡہِ وَ النَّہَارَ مُبۡصِرًا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾
هُوَ ٱلَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيۡلَ لِتَسۡكُنُواْ فِيهِ وَٱلنَّهَارَ مُبۡصِرًاۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَسۡمَعُونَ
e. 17:13; 27:87; 28:74; 30:24. (close)
1276. Just as night affords the fatigued and jaded physical limbs of man necessary time for recuperation, and fits him for the ensuing day’s work, so do the intervals of inactivity and stagnation in the lives of nations serve as times of rest and recuperation for them and prepare them for their future work by refreshing their spirits and infusing a new vigour into them. (close)
a. 17:13; 27:87; 28:74; 30:24. (close)
The words "night" and "day" have been used here metaphorically, the night being the time of rest and the day that of work. Just as night affords the fatigued and jaded physical faculties of man an opportunity for recuperation, and fits him for the ensuing day’s work, so do the intervals of sleep and stagnation in the lives of nations serve as time of rest and recuperation for them and prepare them for their time of day and work with refreshed spirit and renewed vigour.
In this way the people to whom the Holy Prophet gave his Message are reminded that, now that the Spiritual Sun has risen, they should avail themselves of its light and work hard to bring about a change in their condition. It is to point to this great lesson that the verse first speaks of the night and then of the day.
It seems strange that while the verse makes a reference to "the day full of light," it concludes with the seemingly incompatible words "therein are signs for a people who listen." The word "listen" in preference to the more appropriate word "see" has been used to remind the people that when they had derived no benefit from the light of the Spiritual Sun that had shone on them and had refused to use their eyes, they should at least make use of their ears so that they might receive a new life by benefiting from the experience of others. (close)
قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللّٰہُ وَلَدًا سُبۡحٰنَہٗ ؕ ہُوَ الۡغَنِیُّ ؕ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنۡ عِنۡدَکُمۡ مِّنۡ سُلۡطٰنٍۭ بِہٰذَا ؕ اَتَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾
قَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَدٗاۗ سُبۡحَٰنَهُۥۖ هُوَ ٱلۡغَنِيُّۖ لَهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنۡ عِندَكُم مِّن سُلۡطَٰنِۭ بِهَٰذَآۚ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 2:117; 4:172; 9:31; 17:112; 18:5, 6. (close)
1277. (a) God is immune to the laws of decay and death and therefore requires no son to continue His work. (b) Being Self-Sufficient He needs no son to help Him in conducting the affairs of the universe. (c) The doctrine is based on no sound ground and does not go beyond mere idle philosophical surmises and conjectures. This is the significance of this verse. (close)
a. 2:117; 4:172; 9:31; 17:112; 18:5, 6. (close)
In v. 67, it had been hinted that in the false doctrines of disbelievers lie hidden the seeds of their destruction. In the present verse, the Quran proceeds to refute the doctrine of the plurality of gods, the most heinous of all false beliefs, and of the various forms of this doctrine it selects the belief that God has a son. This doctrine differs from other known polytheistic dogmas in that, whereas in other forms of shirk, idolaters claim only that they can attain nearness to God through the instrumentality of their gods, by this doctrine a person is believed to be an actual partner in Godhead.
Four arguments have been given here in refutation of the doctrine that a person can be a Son of God. The first is contained in the words, Holy is He, which mean that God is free from all defects and imperfections. But the belief that God has a son presupposes the presence of carnal passions in Him as well as His being subject to the laws of decay and death, for only such beings or things are perpetuated in their progeny as are subject to decay and death. The earth, the sun and the moon, for instance, have no issue because they are above the familiar law of death and decay; but animals and plants wither and die. Therefore they produce their substitutes which take their place when they are gone. Thus the existence of the progeny of a thing presupposes its mortality.
The second argument is embodied in the words, He is Self-Sufficient, which mean that in His work of running the universe God does not need anybody’s help. Progeny, besides saving a person from extinction, helps him to carry on his work. But God being Self-Sufficient needs no helper in that respect either.
The third argument is contained in the sentence, To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Sometimes one can make or originate a thing but lacks the power or ability to keep it in his possession or under his control and therefore needs assistance. But God does not need anybody’s help to keep the universe in His possession or under His control.
The fourth argument is implied in the expression, You have no authority for this, which signifies that the doctrine of the plurality of gods is based on no sound or solid ground. Its whole basis lies in the fancy and caprice of men. This fact alone constitutes an argument against this foolish doctrine. All efforts to find some real evidence in support of shirk, do not go beyond mere indulgence in idle philosophical discussion, and no real basis has so far been found for it.
The argument embodied in the words, Do you say against Allah what you know not?, is given in 13:34, in the words, Would you inform Him of what He does not know in the earth? The difference in the wording is due to the fact that in the verse under comment it is pointed out that shirk springs from the ignorance of man and is not based on any sound reasoning, while in 13:34 it is said that the doctrine of shirk involves the charge of ignorance on the part of God, for it means that He failed to know and make known the existence of gods and it was left to idolaters to disclose the godhead of their deities by the force of their own knowledge. (close)