اَلَاۤ اِنَّ لِلّٰہِ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَا یَتَّبِعُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ شُرَکَآءَ ؕ اِنۡ یَّـتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَ اِنۡ ہُمۡ اِلَّا یَخۡرُصُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾
أَلَآ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَن فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ شُرَكَآءَۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَإِنۡ هُمۡ إِلَّا يَخۡرُصُونَ
c. 10:56. (close)
d. 10:37 (close)
b. 10:56. (close)
c. 10:37. (close)
1342. Important Words:
یخرصون (they guess) is derived from خرص which means, (1) he guessed or he made a conjecture; (2) he lied or he forged a lie (Taj & Aqrab).
This verse embodies a twofold consolation for the Prophet. Firstly, he has been told that, apart from a natural concern for them on account of their wrong beliefs, he need not worry or grieve over what disbelievers do, because their case is in the hands of God the Almighty Who possesses the power to punish them or to lead them to the right path. Secondly, the verse hints that the idolatrous beliefs of disbelievers have no foundation in fact and are consequently doomed to perish sooner or later. The Holy Prophet should, therefore, feel no anxiety on their account.
The word ما (not) in the clause, "do not really follow" is used both as an interrogative pronoun meaning "what" and as a negative particle meaning "no or not." In the former case the sentence would mean, "what do those who call on 'partners' beside Allah follow?" Taken in the latter sense, it would mean, "those who call on others than Allah do not really follow these 'partners.'" Thus, according to the former interpretation, the so-called 'partners' whom people worship beside God are spoken of with the contempt they deserve; while, according to the latter interpretation, their very existence is denied, hinting that truly speaking there are no 'partners' and the idolaters follow nothing but mere conjecture. (close)
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ الَّیۡلَ لِتَسۡکُنُوۡا فِیۡہِ وَ النَّہَارَ مُبۡصِرًا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾
هُوَ ٱلَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيۡلَ لِتَسۡكُنُواْ فِيهِ وَٱلنَّهَارَ مُبۡصِرًاۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَسۡمَعُونَ
e. 17:13; 27:87; 28:74; 30:24. (close)
1276. Just as night affords the fatigued and jaded physical limbs of man necessary time for recuperation, and fits him for the ensuing day’s work, so do the intervals of inactivity and stagnation in the lives of nations serve as times of rest and recuperation for them and prepare them for their future work by refreshing their spirits and infusing a new vigour into them. (close)
a. 17:13; 27:87; 28:74; 30:24. (close)
The words "night" and "day" have been used here metaphorically, the night being the time of rest and the day that of work. Just as night affords the fatigued and jaded physical faculties of man an opportunity for recuperation, and fits him for the ensuing day’s work, so do the intervals of sleep and stagnation in the lives of nations serve as time of rest and recuperation for them and prepare them for their time of day and work with refreshed spirit and renewed vigour.
In this way the people to whom the Holy Prophet gave his Message are reminded that, now that the Spiritual Sun has risen, they should avail themselves of its light and work hard to bring about a change in their condition. It is to point to this great lesson that the verse first speaks of the night and then of the day.
It seems strange that while the verse makes a reference to "the day full of light," it concludes with the seemingly incompatible words "therein are signs for a people who listen." The word "listen" in preference to the more appropriate word "see" has been used to remind the people that when they had derived no benefit from the light of the Spiritual Sun that had shone on them and had refused to use their eyes, they should at least make use of their ears so that they might receive a new life by benefiting from the experience of others. (close)
قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللّٰہُ وَلَدًا سُبۡحٰنَہٗ ؕ ہُوَ الۡغَنِیُّ ؕ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنۡ عِنۡدَکُمۡ مِّنۡ سُلۡطٰنٍۭ بِہٰذَا ؕ اَتَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾
قَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَدٗاۗ سُبۡحَٰنَهُۥۖ هُوَ ٱلۡغَنِيُّۖ لَهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنۡ عِندَكُم مِّن سُلۡطَٰنِۭ بِهَٰذَآۚ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 2:117; 4:172; 9:31; 17:112; 18:5, 6. (close)
1277. (a) God is immune to the laws of decay and death and therefore requires no son to continue His work. (b) Being Self-Sufficient He needs no son to help Him in conducting the affairs of the universe. (c) The doctrine is based on no sound ground and does not go beyond mere idle philosophical surmises and conjectures. This is the significance of this verse. (close)
a. 2:117; 4:172; 9:31; 17:112; 18:5, 6. (close)
In v. 67, it had been hinted that in the false doctrines of disbelievers lie hidden the seeds of their destruction. In the present verse, the Quran proceeds to refute the doctrine of the plurality of gods, the most heinous of all false beliefs, and of the various forms of this doctrine it selects the belief that God has a son. This doctrine differs from other known polytheistic dogmas in that, whereas in other forms of shirk, idolaters claim only that they can attain nearness to God through the instrumentality of their gods, by this doctrine a person is believed to be an actual partner in Godhead.
Four arguments have been given here in refutation of the doctrine that a person can be a Son of God. The first is contained in the words, Holy is He, which mean that God is free from all defects and imperfections. But the belief that God has a son presupposes the presence of carnal passions in Him as well as His being subject to the laws of decay and death, for only such beings or things are perpetuated in their progeny as are subject to decay and death. The earth, the sun and the moon, for instance, have no issue because they are above the familiar law of death and decay; but animals and plants wither and die. Therefore they produce their substitutes which take their place when they are gone. Thus the existence of the progeny of a thing presupposes its mortality.
The second argument is embodied in the words, He is Self-Sufficient, which mean that in His work of running the universe God does not need anybody’s help. Progeny, besides saving a person from extinction, helps him to carry on his work. But God being Self-Sufficient needs no helper in that respect either.
The third argument is contained in the sentence, To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Sometimes one can make or originate a thing but lacks the power or ability to keep it in his possession or under his control and therefore needs assistance. But God does not need anybody’s help to keep the universe in His possession or under His control.
The fourth argument is implied in the expression, You have no authority for this, which signifies that the doctrine of the plurality of gods is based on no sound or solid ground. Its whole basis lies in the fancy and caprice of men. This fact alone constitutes an argument against this foolish doctrine. All efforts to find some real evidence in support of shirk, do not go beyond mere indulgence in idle philosophical discussion, and no real basis has so far been found for it.
The argument embodied in the words, Do you say against Allah what you know not?, is given in 13:34, in the words, Would you inform Him of what He does not know in the earth? The difference in the wording is due to the fact that in the verse under comment it is pointed out that shirk springs from the ignorance of man and is not based on any sound reasoning, while in 13:34 it is said that the doctrine of shirk involves the charge of ignorance on the part of God, for it means that He failed to know and make known the existence of gods and it was left to idolaters to disclose the godhead of their deities by the force of their own knowledge. (close)
قُلۡ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ الۡکَذِبَ لَا یُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿ؕ۷۰﴾
قُلۡ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَفۡتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡكَذِبَ لَا يُفۡلِحُونَ
b. 4:51; 16:117. (close)
b. 4:51; 16:117. (close)
مَتَاعٌ فِی الدُّنۡیَا ثُمَّ اِلَیۡنَا مَرۡجِعُہُمۡ ثُمَّ نُذِیۡقُہُمُ الۡعَذَابَ الشَّدِیۡدَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۷۱﴾
مَتَٰعٞ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيۡنَا مَرۡجِعُهُمۡ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابَ ٱلشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡفُرُونَ
c. 3:15, 198; 9:38; 16:118; 28:61; 40:40. (close)
وَ اتۡلُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ نَبَاَ نُوۡحٍ ۘ اِذۡ قَالَ لِقَوۡمِہٖ یٰقَوۡمِ اِنۡ کَانَ کَبُرَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّقَامِیۡ وَ تَذۡکِیۡرِیۡ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ فَعَلَی اللّٰہِ تَوَکَّلۡتُ فَاَجۡمِعُوۡۤا اَمۡرَکُمۡ وَ شُرَکَآءَکُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا یَکُنۡ اَمۡرُکُمۡ عَلَیۡکُمۡ غُمَّۃً ثُمَّ اقۡضُوۡۤا اِلَیَّ وَ لَا تُنۡظِرُوۡنِ ﴿۷۲﴾
۞وَٱتۡلُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ نَبَأَ نُوحٍ إِذۡ قَالَ لِقَوۡمِهِۦ يَٰقَوۡمِ إِن كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيۡكُم مَّقَامِي وَتَذۡكِيرِي بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ فَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ تَوَكَّلۡتُ فَأَجۡمِعُوٓاْ أَمۡرَكُمۡ وَشُرَكَآءَكُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُنۡ أَمۡرُكُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غُمَّةٗ ثُمَّ ٱقۡضُوٓاْ إِلَيَّ وَلَا تُنظِرُونِ
1278. A careful perusal of the accounts of the three Prophets—Noah, Moses and Jonah, mentioned in the following verses shows that their life story is epitomized in the life of the Holy Prophet. He played the part of Noah at Mecca, that of Moses at Medina and that of Jonah on his re-entry into Mecca. This is enough to show that the accounts of the Prophets given in the Qur’an are not mere stories but constitute great prophecies about important events that were to occur in the life of the Holy Prophet. (close)
a. 71:8. (close)
1345. Important Words:
غمة (obscure) is the noun-infinitive from غم. They say غمه i.e. he covered it or concealed it; he or it grieved him or caused him to mourn. غم الھلال عن الناس means, the new moon was veiled or concealed from the people by clouds, or otherwise, so that it was not seen. غم علیه الامر means, the affair was or became obscure, confused, dubious, or vague to him such as it could not be understood. غمة means, perplexity, obscurity, dubiousness or confusedness. They say ھو فی غمة من امره i.e. he is in a state of perplexity or darkness in respect of his affair. امر غمة means, a dubious, obscure, confused or vague case (Lane & Aqrab).
As already pointed out, the Surahs which open with the abbreviated letters الر (I am Allah Who is All-Seeing) deal chiefly with historical events in the lives of various Prophets and draw inferences therefrom (see note on v. 2). This Surah also begins with الر and we find that the Quran here follows a rational discussion with particular reference to the case of Noah in order to remind people that, although Noah’s opponents did all sorts of mischief and left no stone unturned to bring him to naught, yet God did not destroy them at once but granted them respite for a long time, and it was only when their wickedness exceeded all limits and when those who were destined to believe in him had believed, that God sent down His punishment on them and brought about their destruction.
The case of three Prophets—Noah, Moses and Jonah—has been mentioned in this Surah by way of illustration. Noah’s history constitutes an illustration of the total destruction of the enemies of truth; that of Moses illustrates the destruction of one people and the salvation of another; while that of Jonah forms an example of the complete deliverance of an iniquitous people from God’s punishment when they repented and prayed for His forgiveness. By citing these three distinct examples with reference to the Holy Prophet, the Quran intends to point out that there are three ways of God’s dealings with the enemies of His Prophets: (1) that sometimes He brings about their total destruction, as was the case with the people of Noah when all his enemies were destroyed with the exception of only a few; (2) that sometimes He destroys some and saves others who believe in His Prophet, as was the case in the time of Moses when Pharaoh and his army were drowned and the Israelites were saved; (3) that sometimes He saves all when they repent and beg for His mercy, as happened with the people of the Prophet Jonah. By citing these examples the Quran means to exhort the people of the Holy Prophet to follow the example of the people of Jonah and be saved and not to court destruction like the opponents of Noah and Moses.
From the above it will also be seen that the accounts of the lives of the various Prophets as given in the Quran are not simply interesting stories. A careful perusal of the accounts of the three Prophets mentioned above, in the order in which they are given in this Surah, clearly shows that their life story is epitomized in the life of the Holy Prophet. Many of the incidents in his life bear a striking resemblance to those in the lives of these Prophets. He played the part of Noah at Mecca, that of Moses at Medina and that of Jonah on his re-entry into Mecca. This is enough to show that the accounts of the Prophets as given in the Quran are not mere stories but constitute great prophecies about important events in the life of the Holy Prophet.
Incidentally, the verse lays down five rules which lead to the completion and consummation of a plan and which if carefully observed must lead to success: (1) to "muster one’s designs" i.e. to decide upon a course of action after mutual consultation and full deliberation; (2) to organize in a well-knit and disciplined body all "partners" or confederates, i.e. those who hold analogous views and have faith in the success of the programme decided upon; (3) to chalk out a detailed and clear programme leaving no "obscurity" or dubiousness, about it; (4) to carry out the agreed design collectively by collating all available resources so that the full strength of the community may be brought to bear upon the enemy at the same time; and (5) to "give no respite" to the enemy to recuperate and recover after the attack is launched. These are the means of success to which Noah has drawn the attention of his enemies in this verse. But at the same time he warns them that even if they employed all these methods against him, they would not succeed, for they did not possess the sixth and the most important ingredient of success, which was certainty of faith in God and trust in Him, without which all these methods were of no avail against a Divine Messenger.
Marvellous indeed is the faith which Prophets of God have in the truth of their mission and in the unfailing character of the promises and assurances which they receive from God! Not only do they not mind the hostility of their enemies but they even challenge the latter to use all their power and employ all their resources to destroy them, because they are perfectly convinced that success will come to them in the end, and such invariably happens to be the case. This fact alone should establish their truth; but the blind will not see nor will the deaf hear. (close)
فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّیۡتُمۡ فَمَا سَاَلۡتُکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَجۡرٍ ؕ اِنۡ اَجۡرِیَ اِلَّا عَلَی اللّٰہِ ۙوَ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۷۳﴾
فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَمَا سَأَلۡتُكُم مِّنۡ أَجۡرٍۖ إِنۡ أَجۡرِيَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِۖ وَأُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
b. 6:91; 11:30. (close)
1279. It is a common objection against the Prophets of God that they seek to gain ascendancy over their compatriots by raising the standard of revolt against the existing order of things with a view to establishing a new order under their own leadership. It is this baseless charge which is refuted in this verse. God’s Prophets never seek self-aggrandizement. On the contrary, they choose the path of suffering and service. (close)
a. 6:91; 11:30. (close)
It is a common objection against the Prophets of God that they seek to gain ascendency over men by raising the standard of revolt against the existing order of things with a view to establishing a new order under their own leadership. It is this baseless charge that is refuted in this verse. God’s Prophets never seek self-aggrandizement. On the contrary, they choose the path of suffering and service. They pass their days in hardship and privation. Their life is a model of rigid discipline willingly undergone. Had their activities been prompted by a desire to gain power and dominion over men, they would not have subjected themselves to a hard and disciplined life, a life of prayer, fasting and renunciation. They do demand obedience of others, but they themselves are always the first to forego their desires and their ambitions in the service of their Lord and of humanity. It is not the desire for power but the passion for service and self-abnegation that has mastery of them. This is not an empty assertion, unsubstantiated by the established facts of history; for though the Prophet Noah, in whose mouth are put the words, I have not asked of you any reward, did not get the opportunity to subjugate his enemies, yet the Holy Prophet of Islam who was, like Noah, a Prophet of God, did show by actual practice that God’s Prophets desire no reward for their service in the form of riches or dominion. The fact is too well-known to need a reference that when Mecca lay prostrate at the Prophet’s feet, he forgave his most inveterate enemies with a magnanimity unparalleled in the history of the world. He demanded no fine and asked for no indemnity from the defeated Meccans or their allies. The only words he uttered were: "Go, you are a free and forgiven people." (close)
فَکَذَّبُوۡہُ فَنَجَّیۡنٰہُ وَ مَنۡ مَّعَہٗ فِی الۡفُلۡکِ وَ جَعَلۡنٰہُمۡ خَلٰٓئِفَ وَ اَغۡرَقۡنَا الَّذِیۡنَ کَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا ۚ فَانۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الۡمُنۡذَرِیۡنَ ﴿۷۴﴾
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَنَجَّيۡنَٰهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُۥ فِي ٱلۡفُلۡكِ وَجَعَلۡنَٰهُمۡ خَلَـٰٓئِفَ وَأَغۡرَقۡنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَاۖ فَٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُنذَرِينَ
c. 29:16. (close)
b. 29:16. (close)
This verse tells us that there is a basic difference between the punishment of those who are given a previous warning and that of those who have had no such warning. The words, how evil was the end of those who had been warned, point to this difference. Those warned of the coming punishment of God never escape except by removing the cause of punishment.
The words, We made them inheritors of Our favours, contain a veiled warning for believers. When one people have been destroyed, those who take their place must prove themselves to be deserving of God’s favours, if they wish them to continue. (close)
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ رُسُلًا اِلٰی قَوۡمِہِمۡ فَجَآءُوۡہُمۡ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ فَمَا کَانُوۡا لِیُؤۡمِنُوۡا بِمَا کَذَّبُوۡا بِہٖ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ نَطۡبَعُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِ الۡمُعۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۷۵﴾
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ رُسُلًا إِلَىٰ قَوۡمِهِمۡ فَجَآءُوهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ فَمَا كَانُواْ لِيُؤۡمِنُواْ بِمَا كَذَّبُواْ بِهِۦ مِن قَبۡلُۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَطۡبَعُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدِينَ
a. 30:48; 40:24. (close)
1280. God does not arbitrarily seal up the hearts of disbelievers; it is the disbelievers who, by their own stubborn and unjustified refusal to listen to the Word of God, deprive themselves of the ability to see and accept the truth. They are themselves the architects of their evil destiny. (close)
a. 30:48; 40:24. (close)
This verse makes it quite clear that it is not God Who arbitrarily seals up the hearts of disbelievers but it is the disbelievers themselves who, by their stubborn and unjustified refusal to listen to the word of God, become deprived of their power to see and accept the truth. They themselves are the architects of their evil destiny and not God Who only proclaims the things already brought about by their own persistent transgression. The act of sealing up the hearts of disbelievers is attributed to God because He is the Final Judge Who pronounces the verdict. (close)
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ مُّوۡسٰی وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ اِلٰی فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَ مَلَا۠ئِہٖ بِاٰیٰتِنَا فَاسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا وَ کَانُوۡا قَوۡمًا مُّجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۷۶﴾
ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِم مُّوسَىٰ وَهَٰرُونَ إِلَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَمَلَإِيْهِۦ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا فَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوۡمٗا مُّجۡرِمِينَ
b. 7:104. (close)
b. 7:104. (close)
A Prophet of God is rejected for two reasons. Either the people to whom he preaches his Message look upon his claim as too big, thinking that God cannot speak to a man; or, behaving arrogantly, they think it to be beneath their dignity to follow his lead. This happened with Moses. Some of those to whom he delivered his Message rejected his claim because they thought it impossible that God should have condescended to speak to a mortal; others thought it incompatible with their dignity to obey a man of no consequence like Moses.
The clause, they were a sinful people, may have two meanings: (1) They were already a sinful people and therefore they rejected Moses. Taken in this sense, the words furnish the reason why they behaved with arrogance and paid no heed to the truth. (2) They became sinful in consequence of their rejection of Moses. Both interpretations explain why people reject the truth. Evil is born of evil and also leads to it; and therefore those who lead a sinful life cannot accept the truth. Again, the goodness and godliness of a person sometimes make him proud and prompt him to reject the truth. The rejection of truth is therefore no light matter, and one should think a thousand times before one rejects a claimant to prophethood. (close)