Introduction of Al-Falaq
(Revealed before Hijrah)
This and the next Surah are so closely linked as regards their subject matter that though they are complete in themselves and independent of each other, the Surah that follows, viz. An-Nas, may be regarded as complementary to the present Surah. This Surah deals with one aspect of the same subject while the next Surah deals with the other. Both the Surahs together are called Mu‘awwidhatan meaning, "the two Surahs that afford protection," because both of them open with the expression "I seek refuge in the Lord."
There is a wide divergence of opinion among scholars regarding the place where these Surahs were revealed. In view of this divergence it is rather difficult to determine the exact date of their revelation. Some scholars, including Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, assign them to Medina while according to Hasan, ‘Ikrimah, ‘Ata’ and Jabir, they were revealed at Mecca. Among western scholars Nöldeke and Muir hold no definite opinion, but Weil thinks that they belong to Mecca. Taking all relevant facts and historical data into consideration, the majority of Muslim scholars and commentators of the Quran are inclined to place them among the Meccan Surahs. The present Surah is entitled Al-Falaq (the Dawn).
The connection of these two Surahs with Surah Al-Ikhlas consists in the fact that in that Surah believers were enjoined to proclaim to the whole world that God is One and Unique, that He is far above anything or any person being a partner in His Divinity. In these two Surahs the believers are told that they should not be afraid of any tyrant, dictator or ruler in the discharge of this sacred duty and should hold the firm belief that God is the sole Director and Controller of the whole universe and that He has the power to protect His votaries from any harm or injury which the forces of darkness might seek to do them.
Though constituting an integral part of the Quran, these two Surahs may be regarded as forming a sort of epilogue to it. The main body of the Quran seems to end with Surah Al-Ikhlas, which recapitulates, as it were, in a nutshell, the basic Quranic principles, and in these two Surahs believers are enjoined to seek Divine protection against deviating from the right path and against the mischief and evils which might adversely affect their material well-being and spiritual development. The Holy Prophet used to recite these two Surahs regularly before going to bed.
یہ مدنی سورت ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی چھ آیات ہیں۔
اس سورت میں خبردار کیا گیا ہے کہ ہر تخلیق کے نتیجہ میں خیر کے علاوہ شرّ بھی پیدا ہوتا ہے پس ان کے شرّ سے اللہ کی پناہ مانگتے رہو۔ اور اس اندھیری رات کے شرّ سے بھی اللہ تعالیٰ کی پناہ مانگو جو ایک دفعہ پھر دنیا پر چھاجانے والی ہے۔ اور ان قوموں کے شرّ سے پناہ مانگو جو انسان کو انسان سے اور قوموں کو قوموں سے پھاڑ کر الگ کردیتی ہیں۔ گویا ان کا اصول ہی یہ ہے Divide and Rule کہ اگر حکومت کرنا چاہتے ہو تو قوموں میں افتراق پیدا کردو۔ یہ تمام Imperialism کا خلاصہ ہے جس نے دنیا پر قبضہ کرنا تھا۔ اس کے باوجود اسلام ضرور ترقی کرے گا ورنہ ایسی حالت میں کہ وہ نیست و نابود ہوجائے اس پر حسد تو پیدا نہیں ہوسکتا۔ حسد کا مضمون بتاتا ہے کہ اسلام نے ترقی کرنی ہے اور جب بھی وہ ترقی کرے گا دشمن اس سے حسد کرے گا۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
قُلۡ اَعُوۡذُ بِرَبِّ الۡفَلَقِ ۙ﴿۲﴾
قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ
b. 6:97. (close)
3470. Falaq meaning dawn; Hell; whole creation (Lane), a Muslim is enjoined to pray that (1) when the night of darkness over Islam has passed away and the morning of its bright future dawns, its sun should continue to shine till it reaches the Meridian; (2) that God might protect him from the hidden and manifest evil of all that He has created, including the evil influences of heredity, bad environment, defective education, etc. and (3) that God should save him from the torments of hell in this life and in the Hereafter. (close)
b. 6:96. (close)
4871. Important Words:
الفلق (dawn) is subs. noun from فلق. They say فلق الصبح i.e. He (God) made the dawn to break. ‘Ali, the Holy Prophet’s Fourth Successor used generally to swear by the words والذی فلق الحبة و برأ النسمة i.e. By Him Who clove the grain, making it to germinate and Who created man or the soul. فلق among other things means, the daybreak or dawn; the whole creation; Hell; the plain appearance of the truth after it had been dubious; a low or depressed place of the earth between two hills; an elevated ground (Lane & Aqrab).
A believer is enjoined to invoke the protection of God, the Lord of فلق. In view of different meanings of the word, he is told to pray:
(1) That when the night of darkness over Islam has passed away and the morning of its bright future dawns, its sun should continue to shine till it reaches the Meridian.
(2) That God might protect him from the hidden and manifest evil of all that He has created, including the evils of heredity, bad environment, defective education or other corrupting influences.
(3) That God should save him from the torments of Hell in this life and in the Hereafter.
(4) That God should enable him to avoid extremes and to adopt the middle course in all things which is the safest course, since the idea implied in ربوبیة is development by degrees and in stages. See also v. 6 below. (close)
مِنۡ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ ۙ﴿۳﴾
مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ
وَ مِنۡ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ اِذَا وَقَبَ ۙ﴿۴﴾
وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
3471. The verse may refer to the evils of the time when the light of Truth becomes extinguished and the darkness of sin and iniquity spreads over the entire face of the earth. Or, it may refer to the evils of the time when one is overwhelmed by distress and privation, and it is darkness all around him and the last ray of hope disappears. (close)
غاسق (darkness) is derived from غسق which means, it became dark or intensely dark. غسقت العین means, the eyes flowed with water. غسق اللبن means, the milk poured fourth from the udder. الغاسق means, the night; darkness; the Pleiades when it sets; the moon when it is eclipsed; the sun when it sets; the day when it enters upon the night, etc. (Lane & Aqrab).
وقب (overspreads). They say وقب الظلام i.e. the darkness overspread. وقبت الشمس means, the sun set. وقب الرجل means, the eyes of the man sank. وقب القمر means, the moon became eclipsed (Aqrab).
The verse may refer to the evils of the time when the light of truth becomes extinguished and the darkness of sin and iniquity spreads over the entire face of the earth. Or it may refer to the evils of the time when one is overwhelmed by distress and privation, when it is darkness all around him, and the last ray of hope disappears. See also last verse of the Surah. (close)
وَ مِنۡ شَرِّ النَّفّٰثٰتِ فِی الۡعُقَدِ ۙ﴿۵﴾
وَمِن شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَٰتِ فِي ٱلۡعُقَدِ
3472. The reference in the verse seems to be to those whisperers of evil suggestions who cause solemn contracts and friendships to break down and inspire people with a spirit of defiance of the established authority, or with violating the oath of fealty, and thus seek to create discord and dissension among the Muslim Community and encourage fissiparous tendencies among them. This Surah deals with the material side of man’s life as the next does with its spiritual side. Man is confronted with various kinds of dangers and difficulties in life. When he is engaged in an undertaking of a serious import, particularly when he takes it upon himself to spread the light of Truth, forces 1of darkness surround him on all sides; and when he appears to succeed, men of evil designs bar his way and create all sorts of impediments and difficulties for him. But when at last success dawns on him, persons of jealous nature seek to deprive him of the fruits of his labour. As protection against all these obstacles, difficulties and perils in life, a believer is enjoined to invoke the help and assistance of the Lord of Falaq to give him light when darkness is all round; and to protect him from the evil designs of mischief-makers and the nefarious machinations of jealous persons. (close)
4873. Important Words:
النفاثات (who blow) is derived from نفث which means, he spat. نفثت الحیة الدم means, the serpent emitted poison. نفث الله الشیء فی القلب means, God inspired him with a thing. نفاثات means; those groups that spit or emit much poison; those who whisper evil suggestions (Aqrab).
The reference in the verse is to those whisperers of evil suggestions who cause solemn contracts and friendships to break down, and who inspire people with a spirit of defiance of established authority or with violating the oath of fealty, and thus seek to create discord and dissension in the Muslim Community and to encourage fissiparous tendencies among them. For a detailed note on the whole Surah see next verse. (close)
وَ مِنۡ شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ اِذَا حَسَدَ ٪﴿۶﴾
وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ
The Surah deals with the material side of man’s life as does the next Surah with its spiritual side. Man is confronted with various kinds of dangers and difficulties in life. When he is engaged in an undertaking of a serious import, particularly when he takes upon himself to spread the light of truth, forces of darkness surround him on all sides; and when he proceeds further men of evil designs bar his way and create all sorts of impediments and difficulties. When at last success dawns on him, persons of a jealous nature seek to deprive him of the fruit of his labour. As protection against all these difficulties, obstacles and perils in life, a believer is enjoined to invoke the help and assistance of the Lord of فلق (dawn) to give him light when there is darkness all around; to protect him from the evil designs of mischief-makers and the nefarious machinations of jealous persons. What a complete and comprehensive prayer!
The last two Surahs of the Quran may also specially refer to the time of the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. Verse 4 of the present Surah may refer to the eclipses of the sun and the moon which, according to a well-known saying of the Holy Prophet were to take place in the time of the Mahdi (Qutni), and the last two verses may refer to his enemies who will create all sorts of difficulties for him and will burn with rage as they will see his mission making rapid progress.
حاسد (the envious one) may also refer to the Dajjal, the Arch Envier who will give the Promised Mahdi an obstinate fight. (close)