وَ لَا تَرۡکَنُوۡۤا اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا فَتَمَسَّکُمُ النَّارُ ۙ وَ مَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مِنۡ اَوۡلِیَآءَ ثُمَّ لَا تُنۡصَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۴﴾
وَلَا تَرۡكَنُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ فَتَمَسَّكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ
1354. As man is influenced by his environments and, if his surroundings are corrupt, the corruption thereof is sure to affect him sooner or later, so, in the present verse the believers are enjoined to sever all connections with the wicked and the unjust even though they are their own kith and kin. (close)
In the previous verse we were told that we should not only reform ourselves but also our fellow-men because man is influenced by his environment, and if our surroundings are corrupt, the corruption thereof is sure to affect us sooner or later. So in the present verse we are enjoined to sever all connexion with the wicked and the unjust even though they may be our own kith and kin.
The present verse is also connected with the words, exceed ye not the bounds, occurring in the previous verse. In the light of the verse under comment these words do not mean that we exceed the bonds only when we have actually committed an act of injustice, but we are equally guilty of injustice if we are accessory to another man’s unjust act in any way or if we defend him when he happens to commit an offence. (close)
وَ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ طَرَفَیِ النَّہَارِ وَ زُلَفًا مِّنَ الَّیۡلِ ؕ اِنَّ الۡحَسَنٰتِ یُذۡہِبۡنَ السَّیِّاٰتِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ ذِکۡرٰی لِلذّٰکِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۵﴾ۚ
وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ طَرَفَيِ ٱلنَّهَارِ وَزُلَفٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِۚ ذَٰلِكَ ذِكۡرَىٰ لِلذَّـٰكِرِينَ
c. 17:79. (close)
a. 17:79. (close)
1495. Important Words:
طرفی النھار (two ends of the day). طرف means, the extremity or end of anything; a side; a lateral, or an outward, or adjacent part or portion of a thing; a region, district, quarter or tract; a part, portion, piece or bit of a thing. کریم الطرفین means, generous or noble in respect of both male and female ancestors. اطراف (plural of طرف) means a man’s father and mother and brothers and paternal uncles and any near relations whom it is unlawful for him to marry; noble or exalted men. اطراف الارض means, the noble or exalted men or the learned men of the earth or land. طرفی النھار means, two ends of the day i.e. morning and afternoon or the morning as well as afternoon and late afternoon (Lane & Aqrab).
زلفا من اللیل (hours of the night that are nearer the day). زلفا is derived from زلف. They say زلف الشیء i.e. he did the thing previously or beforehand. ازلفه means, he made or brought or drew him or it near. They say ازلف الاشیاء i.e. he collected the things together. زلفا which is the plural of زلفة means, nearness with respect to rank, degree or station; or simply rank or grade; a portion of the first part of the night, whether small or large. It also means, hours or periods of the night commencing from the daytime, and the hours or periods of the daytime commencing from the night; or hour or period joining day and night at both ends (Lane & Aqrab).
The preceding verse spoke of the responsibilities of the Holy Prophet and those of his followers. As full acquittal of such heavy and onerous responsibilities is beyond human power, the verse under comment suggests some methods which can help a Muslim successfully to discharge them. The first method suggested is Prayer and worship of God, because one urgently needs God’s help for discharging such heavy tasks. By Prayer favourable Divine decrees come into operation.
The words, Surely good works drive away the evil ones, suggest effective ways by which evils can be overcome and eradicated. The setting of a good example is one of them. It wins the hearts of men and makes them copy it. In this way the emulation of good makes evil gradually disappear. It is actions and not words that can overcome evil and efface it. Very few persons follow an independent line of action. A vast majority of them only follow and imitate others. Therefore a good example is an excellent way of establishing virtue in the world.
Another method implied in these words is that we should exhort people to virtue. The proper preaching of good greatly helps men to shun evil ways.
The doing of good to people and treating them with kindness is yet another method which goes a long way to inclining the hearts of men to good works. A kindly and beneficent deed done to a person in need makes him give ear to advice. This is the third way suggested in this verse.
In addition to these methods for the preaching and propagation of good, the words, Surely good works drive away the evil ones, also contain a sure guidance for the spiritual progress of the workers themselves. If a person desires to get rid of an evil habit, he should begin to practise a corresponding virtue. In this way he will soon get rid of his evil habit. The words also tell us that to avoid the evil consequences of our misdeeds we should practise more and more virtue. The more virtue we practise, the more secure will we become from the consequences of our evil deeds.
Incidentally, the verse also hints at the different times of Prayer prescribed for the Faithful. They are deducible from the words طرفی النھار (two ends of the day) and زلفا من اللیل (hours of the night that are nearer the day). (close)
وَ اصۡبِرۡ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُضِیۡعُ اَجۡرَ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۶﴾
وَٱصۡبِرۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
a. 12:91. (close)
a. 12:91. (close)
This verse tells us another great secret of individual and national success. This consists in constancy and steadfastness, which are essential conditions for success. (close)
فَلَوۡ لَا کَانَ مِنَ الۡقُرُوۡنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ اُولُوۡا بَقِیَّۃٍ یَّنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡفَسَادِ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا مِّمَّنۡ اَنۡجَیۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا مَاۤ اُتۡرِفُوۡا فِیۡہِ وَ کَانُوۡا مُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۷﴾
فَلَوۡلَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡقُرُونِ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ أُوْلُواْ بَقِيَّةٖ يَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡفَسَادِ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا مِّمَّنۡ أَنجَيۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡۗ وَٱتَّبَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مَآ أُتۡرِفُواْ فِيهِ وَكَانُواْ مُجۡرِمِينَ
b. 13:34. (close)
b. 13:34. (close)
1497. Important Words:
اولوا بقیة (persons possessed of understanding). بقیة it is derived from بقی which means, he or it remained, lasted, endured and was or became permanent or perpetual. They say بقی من الشیء بقیة i.e. a remnant, relic or residue of the thing retained. The Arabs say فلان من بقیة القوم i.e. such a one is of the best of people, for it is the best that lasts. اولوا بقیة means, persons possessed of excellence, or persons possessing a relic of judgement and intelligence, or persons of understanding and discrimination, or persons possessing a quality of watching or observing and, hence, of guarding and preserving (Lane & Aqrab). See also 11:87.
اترفوا (they were afforded ease and comfort) is derived from ترف which means, he enjoyed or led a plentiful and a pleasant or an easy and delicate life; or a life of ease and plenty. They say اترفه المال i.e. wealth made him behave exorbitantly; or to be excessively disobedient or rebellious; or to exalt himself; be inordinate in infidelity; or to be extravagant in acts of disobedience and in wrongdoing. اترف الرجل means, the man persisted in, resolved upon, transgression, wrongdoing and deviation from the right way (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse makes a fleeting reference to a serious but general mistake. It purports to say that, when experience had shown that man has a tendency to become corrupt, why did not the wise men among past generations recognize this responsibility about their own people and at the outset warn them of the evil consequences of their bad deeds and thus nip the evil in the bud. But instead of doing this they allowed the evil to grow, with the result that their people became totally corrupt and depraved. These people, instead of learning a lesson from the fate of their predecessors, lost themselves in pursuit of the paltry things of the world and the result was that they ranged themselves with wrongdoers and became estranged from God. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ رَبُّکَ لِیُہۡلِکَ الۡقُرٰی بِظُلۡمٍ وَّ اَہۡلُہَا مُصۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۸﴾
وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ لِيُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ بِظُلۡمٖ وَأَهۡلُهَا مُصۡلِحُونَ
c. 6:132; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
a. 6:132; 20:135; 26:209; 28:60. (close)
The verse clearly shows that it is unjust to punish any people unless they make themselves deserving of it by their misdeeds. It is a pity that in spite of the fact that various kinds of afflictions and miseries have fallen upon present-day Muslims, they persist in thinking that they are following the right path. This, in other words, means that they look upon God as unjust and themselves as righteous. The important lesson that we learn from this verse is that as punishment comes only when people become corrupt, therefore when people see signs of an impending punishment they should take a warning from it and should at once set about eschewing evil practices and reforming themselves.
As the word مصلحون (righteous) also means "making peace among themselves", the verse also shows that the way to avert Divinepunishment is that people should make peace among themselves and there should be unity and concord among them. In fact, decline and degradation overtake a people only when they are rent by dissensions and discord and fall victim to various kinds of moral and spiritual maladies. (close)
وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ رَبُّکَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً وَّ لَا یَزَالُوۡنَ مُخۡتَلِفِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۹﴾ۙ
وَلَوۡ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ ٱلنَّاسَ أُمَّةٗ وَٰحِدَةٗۖ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخۡتَلِفِينَ
d. 2:214; 10:20; 42:9. (close)
a. 2:214; 10:20; 42:9. (close)
See 2:214 & 10:20. (close)
اِلَّا مَنۡ رَّحِمَ رَبُّکَ ؕ وَ لِذٰلِکَ خَلَقَہُمۡ ؕ وَ تَمَّتۡ کَلِمَۃُ رَبِّکَ لَاَمۡلَـَٔنَّ جَہَنَّمَ مِنَ الۡجِنَّۃِ وَ النَّاسِ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۰﴾
إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَۚ وَلِذَٰلِكَ خَلَقَهُمۡۗ وَتَمَّتۡ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمۡلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ أَجۡمَعِينَ
e. 15:44; 32:14; 38:85, 86. (close)
b. 15:44; 32:14; 38:85-86. (close)
The words, for this has He created them, mean that it is for mercy that God has created men. This interpretation is supported by 7:157.
The words, the word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled, show that it is only the followers of Satan and evildoers that will be cast into Hell. The verse does not at all mean that all men will be thrown into Hell. In the words, the word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled, God mentions a promise, so the verse must be interpreted in harmony with that promise. But no promise is to be found in the Quran to the effect that all men will be cast into Hell. On the contrary, there is a definite promise in which it is said that Hell will be filled with those who follow Satan (7:19). It is to this promise that the verse under comment refers, for the Quran makes mention of no other promise except this.
So the verse means only that those who follow Satan will be thrown into Hell.
It was stated in the previous clause that God had created man for mercy. Now the question naturally arose, if man had been created for mercy, why were men to be cast into Hell? The present verse answers this question by saying that it is true that man has been created for mercy, but it was also declared that this promise of mercy would not be fulfilled immediately with regard to people who followed Satan. These companions of Satan will first be thrown into Hell on account of their affinity with him, and after they have been purged of their sins, they will go to Heaven. Moreover, the preceding verse speaks of disbelievers "who would not cease to differ". So the jinn and men spoken of here are none but the wicked among them. For a discussion of the jinn see 15:28. (close)
وَ کُلًّا نَّقُصُّ عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ اَنۡۢبَآءِ الرُّسُلِ مَا نُثَبِّتُ بِہٖ فُؤَادَکَ ۚ وَ جَآءَکَ فِیۡ ہٰذِہِ الۡحَقُّ وَ مَوۡعِظَۃٌ وَّ ذِکۡرٰی لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۱﴾
وَكُلّٗا نَّقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ مِنۡ أَنۢبَآءِ ٱلرُّسُلِ مَا نُثَبِّتُ بِهِۦ فُؤَادَكَۚ وَجَآءَكَ فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَمَوۡعِظَةٞ وَذِكۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
a. 25:33. (close)
a. 25:33. (close)
This verse clearly proves that the accounts of the previous Prophets have not been narrated in the Quran merely as simple facts of history, but contain prophetic allusions to similar incidents that were to occur in the life of the Holy Prophet. If it had not been so, how could these accounts be said to bring satisfaction to his mind and "make his heart firm." It was only when these accounts were to be taken as future incidents of his own life, that they could bring satisfaction to the Holy Prophet. In these accounts he saw how his enemies were to behave towards him, how they were to be discomfited and how his cause was to triumph in the end. As he was the representative of all previous Prophets, therefore, more or less, he was to pass through all the experiences through which his predecessors in the prophetic office had passed. (close)
وَ قُلۡ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ اعۡمَلُوۡا عَلٰی مَکَانَتِکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّا عٰمِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۲﴾ۙ
وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱعۡمَلُواْ عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمۡ إِنَّا عَٰمِلُونَ
b. 6:136; 11:94; 39:40. (close)
1355. Makanah is derived from Kana or Makana and means, station or power (Aqrab). The verse means that though the great prophecies made in this Surah about the ultimate triumph of Islam and the defeat and discomfiture of disbelievers appear to be incredible and impossible of fulfilment at the present time, yet nothing is impossible with God and these prophecies will surely come to pass. (close)
b. 6:136; 11:94; 39:40. (close)
The Holy Prophet is here commanded to say to disbelievers that bootless quarrelling and fighting serves no useful purpose. Time will show who is in the right and who in the wrong by the results that the actions of Muslims and their opponents produce. (close)
وَ انۡتَظِرُوۡا ۚ اِنَّا مُنۡتَظِرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۳﴾
وَٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ
c. 10:103; 32:31. (close)
c. 10:103; 32:31. (close)
The verse hints that it is believers who, being the aggrieved party, have reason to show impatience and demand the speedy arrival of Divinepunishment and not disbelievers; but actually it is the latter who are getting impatient. (close)