اَفَاَمِنُوۡۤا اَنۡ تَاۡتِیَہُمۡ غَاشِیَۃٌ مِّنۡ عَذَابِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡ تَاۡتِیَہُمُ السَّاعَۃُ بَغۡتَۃً وَّ ہُمۡ لَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۸﴾
أَفَأَمِنُوٓاْ أَن تَأۡتِيَهُمۡ غَٰشِيَةٞ مِّنۡ عَذَابِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡ تَأۡتِيَهُمُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ بَغۡتَةٗ وَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡعُرُونَ
e. 10:51; 22:56; 43:67. (close)
b. 10:51; 22:56; 43:67. (close)
1607. Important Words:
غاشیة (an overwhelming punishment) is derived from غشی. They say, غشیه i.e. it covered or concealed him; it overcame or overwhelmed him, etc. غاشیة means, a covering; a calamity or misfortune; a certain disease attacking the belly or the chest; a punishment that overwhelms and is general in its extent (Lane). See also 7:42.
The verse purports to say that as disbelievers refuse to accept anything but a sign of punishment, they will indeed have a sign of punishment. But as is the way of God, they will have smaller punishments before they are visited with the final or decisive one. And so it happened in the case of the Meccan idolaters. After a series of small reverses, Mecca, which was in those days temporarily the citadel of disbelief and infidelity, fell to the victorious arms of the Muslims. This was the decisive and real sign for which they had clamoured. (close)
قُلۡ ہٰذِہٖ سَبِیۡلِیۡۤ اَدۡعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ ۟ؔ عَلٰی بَصِیۡرَۃٍ اَنَا وَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَنِیۡ ؕ وَ سُبۡحٰنَ اللّٰہِ وَ مَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۹﴾
قُلۡ هَٰذِهِۦ سَبِيلِيٓ أَدۡعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِۚ عَلَىٰ بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا۠ وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَنِيۖ وَسُبۡحَٰنَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنَا۠ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
a. 6:58. (close)
1417. Blind and unthinking faith which is not based on sound reasons and firm conviction carries no weight in the sight of God. (close)
a. 6:58. (close)
In this verse the Holy Prophet is represented as saying that his wont is to benefit by the signs of God, to believe in Him alone, and to eschew all forms of idolatry, because he has received clear proof and sure knowledge from God. This shows that a blind and unthinking faith which is not based on sound arguments carries no weight. A true Muslim, like his Master, the Holy Prophet, should possess clear and irrefutable proofs and evidence to support and substantiate all his beliefs and doctrines. Mere hearsay or traditional belief is nothing. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ اِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوۡحِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡقُرٰی ؕ اَفَلَمۡ یَسِیۡرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَیَنۡظُرُوۡا کَیۡفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَۃُ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ؕ وَ لَدَارُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ خَیۡرٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اتَّقَوۡا ؕ اَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۰﴾
وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ إِلَّا رِجَالٗا نُّوحِيٓ إِلَيۡهِم مِّنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡقُرَىٰٓۗ أَفَلَمۡ يَسِيرُواْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡۗ وَلَدَارُ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ خَيۡرٞ لِّلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوۡاْۚ أَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُونَ
b. 16:44; 21:8. (close)
b. 16:44; 21:8. (close)
It is clear from this verse that only men, not women, can become Prophets. In fact, men and women have their specific spheres of work, the office of prophethood being outside the sphere of women. All other spiritual favours and blessings, however, are as open to women as to men.
The verse also warns disbelievers that their present pomp and power should not deceive them into thinking that they will indefinitely continue to enjoy these things. The time was fast approaching when their power and glory would depart and the people would see the truth and accept Islam. Their days would end in adversity and degradation, unlike those of the believers, whose condition would continue to improve, though sincere believers always enjoy perfect peace of mind even in adversity. (close)
حَتّٰۤی اِذَا اسۡتَیۡـَٔسَ الرُّسُلُ وَ ظَنُّوۡۤا اَنَّہُمۡ قَدۡ کُذِبُوۡا جَآءَہُمۡ نَصۡرُنَا ۙ فَنُجِّیَ مَنۡ نَّشَآءُ ؕ وَلَا یُرَدُّ بَاۡسُنَا عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡمُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۱۱﴾
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا ٱسۡتَيۡـَٔسَ ٱلرُّسُلُ وَظَنُّوٓاْ أَنَّهُمۡ قَدۡ كُذِبُواْ جَآءَهُمۡ نَصۡرُنَا فَنُجِّيَ مَن نَّشَآءُۖ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأۡسُنَا عَنِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
1417A. The particle hatta is sometimes used as a conjunction like wa signifying 'and' or 'even' as in Akaltus-Samaka hatta Ra’saha, i.e. I ate the fish and (even) its head (Lane). (close)
c. 2:215. (close)
1418. The enemies of Prophets of God continue to increase in wickedness and opposition to them till a stage is reached when the Prophets begin to feel that those who were destined to believe had already believed and as for the rest they despair of their believing in them. But God’s Prophets never despair of God’s mercy and help (15:57). Their opponents, on the other hand, owing to the delay in the coming of Divine punishment, begin to feel secure in the thought that they will never be visited with any punishment and that the prophecies about the Prophets’ final success and about the discomfiture of their enemies were nothing but false utterances. (close)
a. 2:215. (close)
1610. Important Words:
کذبوا (they had been told a lie) is the passive plural from کذب (kadhaba) which means, he lied; or he uttered a falsehood; or he said what was untrue whether intentionally or unintentionally; he found his hopes to be false or vain. کذبه الحدیث means, he gave him a false account of the thing and said what was untrue. They say کذب الرأی i.e. he imagined the thing contrary to its real state. An Arab would say کذبتك عینك i.e. thine eye showed thee that which had no reality i.e. thou wast deceived in the vision. They say کذبته نفسه i.e. his soul made him desire things and conceive hopes that did not come to pass. کذب الرجل(kudhiba) means, the man was told a lie or a falsehood or an untruth (Lane & Aqrab).
Like the preceding verse, the verse under comment speaks of both the Prophets and their opponents. The first sentence speaks of the Prophets of God, and the second of their enemies. The verse purports to say that the enemies of Prophets so continue to increase in wickedness and opposition to them that a stage is reached when the Prophets begin to think that those who were destined to believe had already believed and they despair of the rest. Their opponents, on the other hand, owing to the delay in the coming of Divine punishment, begin to feel secure in the thought that they will never be visited with any punishment and that the prophecies of the Prophets about their own final success and about the discomfiture of their enemies were so many pieces of falsehood. When matters come to such a pass, God’s help comes to the Prophets and the leaders of disbelief are destroyed.
This is exactly what happens at the advent of every Prophet. The hour of final reckoning is delayed so long that disbelievers begin to have a false sense of security. Then God comes to the succour of His Prophets and makes their cause prevail.
The words, when the Messengers despaired, cannot be taken to mean that the Prophet despair of the help of God. This inference is obviously wrong and is belied by v. 88 of this very Surah wherein we have, none despairs of Allah’s mercy save the unbelieving people. As a matter of fact, Prophets never despair of God’s help. They only sometimes despair of their people believing in them, and this happens when the latter continue turning a deaf ear to their preaching.
Similarly, the words, they thought that they had been told a lie, do not mean that the Prophets thought so. The words only mean that their enemies thought so. The Prophets cannot entertain any doubt about the truth of their prophecies and of the promises of ultimate success made to them by God. Their faith in God is invincible; it stands on the firm rock of certitude. The pronoun "they" thus refers, not to the Prophets, but to their opponents mentioned in the previous verse. According to Arabic idiom it is allowable to use in the same sentence pronouns referring to different antecedents when the nouns to which they refer are clear from the context. But if the pronoun "they" be taken to refer to the Prophets, the sentence, they thought that they had been told a lie, would mean that wishful thinking and overconfidence in the help of God had made the Prophets interpret the Word of God containing promises of success in such a way as to believe in the very early triumph of their cause which, however, was not so ordained by God. Thus their own minds, as it were, lied to them or held out to them false hopes, by placing on the Word of God an interpretation which it did not bear.
The words, they thought that they had been told a lie, may also mean that the hopes that the Prophets had entertained about the repentance of their opponents turned out to be false. When at a certain stage the hostility of their opponents temporarily slackened, the Prophets began to entertain the hope that they would repent of their past misdeeds and would accept the truth, but that hope turned out to be a delusion. Taken in this sense, these words also serve as an explanation of the words "the Messengers despaired." See the different meanings of the word کذبوا under Important Words. (close)
لَقَدۡ کَانَ فِیۡ قَصَصِہِمۡ عِبۡرَۃٌ لِّاُولِی الۡاَلۡبَابِ ؕ مَا کَانَ حَدِیۡثًا یُّفۡتَرٰی وَ لٰکِنۡ تَصۡدِیۡقَ الَّذِیۡ بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ تَفۡصِیۡلَ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۲﴾٪
لَقَدۡ كَانَ فِي قَصَصِهِمۡ عِبۡرَةٞ لِّأُوْلِي ٱلۡأَلۡبَٰبِۗ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثٗا يُفۡتَرَىٰ وَلَٰكِن تَصۡدِيقَ ٱلَّذِي بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَتَفۡصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
a. 10:38. (close)
b. 16:90. (close)
a. 10:38. (close)
This verse, which is the last one of the present Surah, means that a careful study of the histories of ancient Prophets leads one to the definite conclusion that the Holy Prophet is a true Messenger of God; for he not only bears a close resemblance to most of them, but in his person are fulfilled the prophecies of some of the previous Scriptures. If he be a liar or an impostor, these prophecies would prove to be false, for, if they are not taken as applying to the Holy Prophetthere is no other person to whom they apply particularly when the Signs that were to appear at the advent of the Promised Prophet have already come to pass. This is what is hinted at in the words, a fulfilment of that which is before it.
The second reason given in this verse about the truth of the Holy Prophet is that the Book revealed to him fully satisfies all the needs and requirements of humanity, being a detailed exposition of all things. When such is the case, what purpose will any Law given to a Prophet in some future time serve? This argument throws overboard the claim of any person who should lay claim to having come with a new Law after the Holy Prophet.
Moreover, the Quran is also "a guidance" i.e. it is a book that not only guides man to truth but also leads and guides him in all the different stages of his moral and spiritual development, till his faith which is at first based only on reason and common sense becomes converted into absolute conviction through personal experience. In this connection see the meaning of ھدی under 1:6. The Quran goes even further, in that its followers not only attain nearness to God but also become recipients of Divine "mercy" when they find the light of God actually descending on them and see God’s help and assistance attending them in all their undertakings. (close)