لَہٗ دَعۡوَۃُ الۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ لَا یَسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ بِشَیۡءٍ اِلَّا کَبَاسِطِ کَفَّیۡہِ اِلَی الۡمَآءِ لِیَبۡلُغَ فَاہُ وَ مَا ہُوَ بِبَالِغِہٖ ؕ وَ مَا دُعَآءُ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ اِلَّا فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ ﴿۱۵﴾
لَهُۥ دَعۡوَةُ ٱلۡحَقِّۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ لَا يَسۡتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيۡءٍ إِلَّا كَبَٰسِطِ كَفَّيۡهِ إِلَى ٱلۡمَآءِ لِيَبۡلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَٰلِغِهِۦۚ وَمَا دُعَآءُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَٰلٖ
1429. The expression may be translated as: (1) God alone is worthy of worship; (2) it is praying to God alone that can be useful or beneficial for man; (3) the Voice of God alone rises in support of truth; and (4) the Voice of God alone must prevail. (close)
e. 35:14; 40:21. (close)
1430. The right way to succeed in life is to place all things in their proper places—to give God the status which is His due and to create things the position which they rightly possess. That alone is the way to success and true happiness. (close)
a. 40:51. (close)
a. 35:14; 40:21. (close)
b. 40:51. (close)
The Quranic expression له دعوة الحق rendered in the text as, Unto Him is the true prayer, may be translated in several ways (1) God alone is worthy of worship; (2) it is praying to God alone that can be useful or beneficial for man; (3) the voice of God alone rises in support of truth i.e. the teaching which is really true and useful for man and is free from defects and untruths can come from God alone; (4) the Voice of God alone must prevail i.e. no one can frustrate God’s purpose and stand in His way; for the word حق (true) also means, that which prevails and becomes established.
The words, except as he is answered who stretches forth his two hands toward water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not, embody a great principle. Just as he who ascribes lower status to a higher thing remains deprived of its higher benefits, similarly, he who ascribes higher status to a lower thing deprives himself of its true benefits. The man who looks upon a spurious coin as a genuine one will practically suffer as much as he who unwittingly treats a genuine coin as a spurious one. Idolaters think that their gods will answer their prayers and come to their help, but they can never do so.
In like manner, those who ascribe divine powers to things created by God deprive themselves of even their limited uses. How can those who look upon fire and water as gods think of bringing them under their control? And how can those who look upon Prophets as gods derive from them the real good which they could derive from them by following them as heavenly Messengers?
The verse thus says that the right way to succeed in life is to put all things in their proper places, to give God the status which is His due and to stars, rivers and mountains the position which they rightly possess. Whereas we should worship God, pray to Him and seek His blessings, we should subject created things to our service and derive those benefits from them which the Wise God has placed in them. That alone is the way of success and true happiness.
The words, the prayer of the disbelievers is but a thing wasted, mean that all prayers of disbelievers addressed to false deities will prove fruitless. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ یَسۡجُدُ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَّ کَرۡہًا وَّ ظِلٰلُہُمۡ بِالۡغُدُوِّ وَ الۡاٰصَالِ ﴿ٛ۱۶﴾
وَلِلَّهِۤ يَسۡجُدُۤ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ طَوۡعٗا وَكَرۡهٗا وَظِلَٰلُهُم بِٱلۡغُدُوِّ وَٱلۡأٓصَالِ۩
1431. The verse embodies a great truth, viz. that all creation is bound to obey God-made laws of nature, willingly or unwillingly. The tongue must perform the function of tasting and the ear cannot help hearing. This obedience to the laws of nature may be called compulsory. But man is given a certain freedom of action where he can use his volition and discretion. But even in actions in which he appears to have been granted freedom, he is subject to certain amount of compulsion, and he must obey God’s laws in whatever he does, whether he likes it or not. The words, willingly or unwillingly, may also refer to two classes of men, viz. believers who give willing submission to God and disbelievers who obey His laws grudgingly. (close)
1627. Important Words:
ظلال (shadows) is the plural of both ظل (zill) and ظلة (zullah), which are derived from ظل (zalla). They say ظل الیوم i.e. the day became shady. ظل الشیء means, the thing became long or extended. ظلله means, he shaded him. اظله means, it cast its shade upon him; or he took him into his shelter or protection. ظل means, the light of the sun without the rays; shade; blackness of the night; an apparition or phantom or a thing that one sees like a shadow; a covering; might or power of resistance protection or shelter; person or corporeal form or figure which one sees from a distance. The Arabs say السلطان ظل الله فی الارض i.e. the sovereign is God’s means of protection or defence (or His representative) in the earth. In hadith we read الکافر یسجد لغیر الله و ظله یسجد لله ای جسمه i.e. an infidel prostrates himself before deities other than God but his ظل viz. his body, prostrates itself before God (meaning that his body is subject to divine law). ظلة means, anything that shades or covers or protects one (Lane & Bihar).
الغدو (mornings) is the plural of غدوة meaning, morning or early part of the forenoon (Lane).
الآصال (evenings) is the plural of اصیل which means, evening; time from the عصر (late afternoon) Prayer to sunset. The word also means, having root or foundation; rooted, fixed, stable or permanent; having lineage or pedigree (Lane).
The verse embodies a great truth. It says that all creation whether in the heavens or on the earth obeys or is bound to obey God-made laws of nature, willingly or unwillingly. The tongue must perform the function of tasting and the ear the function of hearing. This obedience to the laws of nature may be called compulsory. But then man is also given a certain freedom of action where he can use his volition and discretion. A hungry man chooses to eat to satisfy his hunger; another man goes about sight-seeing. Both these persons are free in what they do; but even in actions in which they appear to have been granted freedom, they are subject to a certain amount of compulsion, because they must obey God’s laws in whatever they do, willingly or unwillingly. It is to this point that the verse refers.
Figuratively, the verse also hints at the subtle ways in which God was helping the Holy Prophet. Certain things happened over which the disbelievers had no control but which were meant to help the cause of Islam. The Fall of Mecca, for example, helped to subjugate the whole of Arabia to the Holy Prophet, but the disbelievers could not prevent it. On the other hand, the terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah were dictated by the disbelievers. They thought that these terms would bring disgrace to Muslims and that the cause of Islam would thereby suffer. But the treaty proved a blessing in disguise for the Muslims. Similarly, the Meccans forced the Holy Prophet to flee from Mecca and rejoiced to think that they had succeeded in driving Islam out of its Centre, but by doing so they dug their own grave and laid the foundation of the future prosperity and progress of Islam.
The words, willingly or unwillingly, may also refer to two classes of men, viz. believers who give willing submission to God and disbelievers who have to obey His laws and do it grudgingly.
Of the various meanings of ظلال given under Important Words, the word "shade" does not obviously apply here because shade, being the absence of light, is a negative thing which cannot be spoken of as submitting to God. But ظلwhich is the singular of ظلال also means, the body or corporeal substance of a thing. In this sense the verse would mean that the bodies of all things are subject to the laws of nature. Even the bodies of disbelievers have perforce to submit to God, though their hearts may rebel against Him. The word ظل also means, figuratively, the representative or follower of a thing or person. In this sense the verse would mean that not only all living things but also their followers and representatives obey the laws of God. Again as ظلال is also the plural of ظلة which means that which covers or shades or protects, the word would also signify "leaders or rulers of the people." Combining all these different senses of the word, the verse would therefore mean that the entire creation as well as leaders of men and their followers are all subject to the laws of God. What is hinted at is that disbelievers should beware of opposing the Holy Prophet because opposition to him means defiance of the whole of creation and of the very laws of nature, which is not possible to do. This interpretation of the verse is supported by 13:42.
By using the words, in the mornings and the evenings, which are the two times when the shadows of things are longest, the verse emphasizes that, however vast the power of disbelievers may grow, they cannot succeed against the Holy Prophet. (close)
قُلۡ مَنۡ رَّبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ؕ قُلۡ اَفَاتَّخَذۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اَوۡلِیَآءَ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ لِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا ضَرًّا ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوِی الۡاَعۡمٰی وَ الۡبَصِیۡرُ ۬ۙ اَمۡ ہَلۡ تَسۡتَوِی الظُّلُمٰتُ وَ النُّوۡرُ ۬ۚ اَمۡ جَعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ شُرَکَآءَ خَلَقُوۡا کَخَلۡقِہٖ فَتَشَابَہَ الۡخَلۡقُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ خَالِقُ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُوَ الۡوَاحِدُ الۡقَہَّارُ ﴿۱۷﴾
قُلۡ مَن رَّبُّ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ قُلِ ٱللَّهُۚ قُلۡ أَفَٱتَّخَذۡتُم مِّن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوۡلِيَآءَ لَا يَمۡلِكُونَ لِأَنفُسِهِمۡ نَفۡعٗا وَلَا ضَرّٗاۚ قُلۡ هَلۡ يَسۡتَوِي ٱلۡأَعۡمَىٰ وَٱلۡبَصِيرُ أَمۡ هَلۡ تَسۡتَوِي ٱلظُّلُمَٰتُ وَٱلنُّورُۗ أَمۡ جَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ خَلَقُواْ كَخَلۡقِهِۦ فَتَشَٰبَهَ ٱلۡخَلۡقُ عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ خَٰلِقُ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡوَٰحِدُ ٱلۡقَهَّـٰرُ
b. 23:87. (close)
c. 25:4. (close)
d. 11:25; 35:20. (close)
1432. The Qur’an has used two different words to express Divine Unity: (1) Ahad and (2) Wahid. Whereas the former word denotes the absolute Unity of God without relation to any other being, the latter means only 'the first' or 'the starting point,' and requires a second and a third to follow it. The Divine attribute, Wahid (One), shows that God is the real 'source' from which all creation springs, and everything points to Him just as a second or a third thing necessarily points to the first. But where the Qur’an seeks to refute the doctrine of the sonship of those who have been falsely given that status, it uses the word Ahad, i.e. He Who is and has ever been One and Alone and Who has begotten no child (112:2). (close)
a. 23:87. (close)
b. 25:4. (close)
c. 11:25; 35:20. (close)
The words, who have no power for good or harm even for themselves, spoken about false deities point to a strange coincidence. Generally, the lives of all those persons who later came to be worshipped as deities were full of hardship and privation. Jesus, Imam Husain, Rama, etc., all led very hard lives. This fact seems to entail a strong warning to their misguided worshippers that they could expect no benefit or help from those who could not even protect themselves from harm or danger.
In the words, Can the blind and the seeing be equal?, disbelievers are told that they, being spiritually and morally blind, should not be deceived by their power and their numbers against the Holy Prophet, as even an army of blind men is powerless against one person who has eyes. The Prophet and his followers possess sight, while disbelievers are blind.
The powerlessness of the disbelievers is further brought home to them in the simile of light and darkness referred to in the words, can darkness be equal to light? Disbelievers are told that as darkness possesses no independent existence, being only the negation of light, it must flee before light. So disbelievers cannot stand against the Holy Prophet. In the last part of the verse disbelievers are challenged to produce anything which they think has been created by their false deities.
The Quran has used two different words to express the Unity of God, viz. (1) احد and (2) واحد. Whereas the former denotes the absolute Unity of God without relation to any other being, the latter means only "the first" or "the starting point" and requires a second and a third to follow it. The Divine attribute of واحد (One) is thus intended to show that God is the real "source" from which all creation springs. Although none of His creatures is similar to Him in perfection and He is Independent of all, yet everything does point to Him, just as a second or a third thing necessarily points to the first. The attribute واحد (One) has therefore been used here as an evidence of the truth of the previous statement, viz. Allah alone is the Creator of all things. As against this, where the Quran seeks to refute the doctrine of the son-ship of those who have been falsely given that status, it uses the word احد i.e. He Who has ever been One and alone and has begotten no child (112:2).
The addition of the attribute of "Most Supreme" to "One" signifies that God does not need the help or assistance of any being for the control and governance of the universe He has brought into existence, because He is not only the source of all things but is also Supreme and Powerful over them. Hence it is useless and absurd for disbelievers to worship their false deities. (close)
اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَسَالَتۡ اَوۡدِیَۃٌۢ بِقَدَرِہَا فَاحۡتَمَلَ السَّیۡلُ زَبَدًا رَّابِیًا ؕ وَ مِمَّا یُوۡقِدُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِ فِی النَّارِ ابۡتِغَآءَ حِلۡیَۃٍ اَوۡ مَتَاعٍ زَبَدٌ مِّثۡلُہٗ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡحَقَّ وَ الۡبَاطِلَ ۬ؕ فَاَمَّا الزَّبَدُ فَیَذۡہَبُ جُفَآءً ۚ وَ اَمَّا مَا یَنۡفَعُ النَّاسَ فَیَمۡکُثُ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ﴿ؕ۱۸﴾
أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ فَسَالَتۡ أَوۡدِيَةُۢ بِقَدَرِهَا فَٱحۡتَمَلَ ٱلسَّيۡلُ زَبَدٗا رَّابِيٗاۖ وَمِمَّا يُوقِدُونَ عَلَيۡهِ فِي ٱلنَّارِ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ حِلۡيَةٍ أَوۡ مَتَٰعٖ زَبَدٞ مِّثۡلُهُۥۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضۡرِبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحَقَّ وَٱلۡبَٰطِلَۚ فَأَمَّا ٱلزَّبَدُ فَيَذۡهَبُ جُفَآءٗۖ وَأَمَّا مَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ فَيَمۡكُثُ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضۡرِبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡأَمۡثَالَ
a. 39:22. (close)
1433. The verse has used two very apt illustrations. In the first illustration, truth is compared to water and falsehood to foam. Falsehood in the beginning seems to prevail over truth, but in the end it is swept away by truth even as rubbish is swept away by a powerful current of water. In the second illustration, truth is likened to gold or silver which, when melted, throws off the dross leaving behind the unmixed metal, pure and bright. (close)
1629. Important Words:
جفاء (rubbish) is derived from جفأ (jafa’a) which means, it (valley flowing with water) cast forth froth or foam or particles of rubbish or refuse. جفت القدر means, the cooking-pot cast forth its froth or foam in boiling. Hence جفاء means, what is cast forth in the form of froth or foam or scum or rubbish by a torrent or a cooking-pot. Figuratively, the word also means, anything that is worthless or useless (Lane).
The verse has used two very apt illustrations. First, it says that when rain falls and water begins to flow in various directions, then so much foam and froth appears on the surface of the water in places which are quite clean that it seems to cover it altogether.
But soon the foam subsides and the water is seen rushing along. In the second illustration froth is referred to as appearing on the surface of gold or silver or any other metal when the smith melts it to make ornaments or utensils, but the smith removes the scum and then only pure metal remains behind.
In the first illustration, truth is compared to water and falsehood to foam which, in the beginning seems to prevail over truth, but in the end it is carried away even as rubbish is swept away by a powerful current of water. In the second illustration, truth is likened to gold or silver which, when melted, brings forth a foamy excretion which is cast away, leaving behind the unmixed metal, pure and bright.
The parable implies that before the mighty onrush of Islam the foam and froth of false beliefs and practices will disappear. The parable also means that through the Prophets of God a great awakening in the nature of man causes a conflict between his good inclinations and the evil customs and usages to which he has subjected himself. Those whose inner nature is good emerge from this conflict with their wrong ideas and beliefs replaced by right ones.
The words, so that valleys flow according to their measure, mean that different people benefit by the truth according to their respective capacities for assimilation. (close)
لِلَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَجَابُوۡا لِرَبِّہِمُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕؔ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یَسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡا لَہٗ لَوۡ اَنَّ لَہُمۡ مَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ جَمِیۡعًا وَّ مِثۡلَہٗ مَعَہٗ لَافۡتَدَوۡا بِہٖ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ سُوۡٓءُ الۡحِسَابِ ۬ۙ وَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ؕ وَ بِئۡسَ الۡمِہَادُ ﴿٪۱۹﴾
لِلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِرَبِّهِمُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَسۡتَجِيبُواْ لَهُۥ لَوۡ أَنَّ لَهُم مَّا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعٗا وَمِثۡلَهُۥ مَعَهُۥ لَٱفۡتَدَوۡاْ بِهِۦٓۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ سُوٓءُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ وَمَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمِهَادُ
a. 5:37; 39:48. (close)
a. 5:37; 39:48. (close)
1630. Important Words:
الحسنی (eternal good) being the feminine of الاحسن means, that which is better; or that which is best; victory; the good, final or ultimate state or condition ordained for the Faithful; Paradise; the view or vision of God (Lane). See also 10:27.
The verse says that those who accept the Message of God will finally achieve success and victory and will meet their Lord. Their intellectual powers will become sharpened. On the contrary, those who reject it will decline materially and morally till failure and ruin encompass them and no ransom will save them from the punishment of God.
The expression, that shall have an evil reckoning, means that the actions of disbelievers will result not to their liking. They will not be able to render a good account of the faculties with which God had endowed them to make spiritual progress but which they abused. (close)
اَفَمَنۡ یَّعۡلَمُ اَنَّمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ الۡحَقُّ کَمَنۡ ہُوَ اَعۡمٰی ؕ اِنَّمَا یَتَذَکَّرُ اُولُوا الۡاَلۡبَابِ ﴿ۙ۲۰﴾
۞أَفَمَن يَعۡلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ٱلۡحَقُّ كَمَنۡ هُوَ أَعۡمَىٰٓۚ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُواْ ٱلۡأَلۡبَٰبِ
1631. Important Words:
الباب (understanding). See 2:180.
In this verse we are told that although success lies in following the teachings of the Quran, only those who make proper use of their reasoning faculties can benefit by it. It is noteworthy that as the teachings of Islam make an irresistible appeal to human reason, the Quran constantly exhorts men to make use of their understanding and reasoning faculties. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یُوۡفُوۡنَ بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا یَنۡقُضُوۡنَ الۡمِیۡثَاقَ ﴿ۙ۲۱﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَنقُضُونَ ٱلۡمِيثَٰقَ
b. 6:152; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
a. 6:153; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
In the preceding verse it was pointed out that only those gifted with understanding can benefit by the Quran. In the present verse some marks of the men of understanding are given:
(1) They are true to the pledge they have made with God. As men of understanding they know that all blessing is from God. So they accept only that which is from God and is useful and reject what is calculated to bring them no benefit. (2) They do not break God’s covenant and subordinate all other things to it. This is indeed a sure mark of those who understand and realize the truth and who are not satisfied with the shell in preference to the kernel; the word لب (the plural of which is الباب), as used in the previous verse, also meaning kernel or pith or choice part. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَصِلُوۡنَ مَاۤ اَمَرَ اللّٰہُ بِہٖۤ اَنۡ یُّوۡصَلَ وَ یَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ وَ یَخَافُوۡنَ سُوۡٓءَ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿ؕ۲۲﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦٓ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّهُمۡ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
1434. After faithfully discharging their duties to God, the believers fulfil the obligations they owe to His creatures. The observance of these two duties constitutes the basis on which the whole fabric of religion stands. (close)
This verse contains a few more signs of "the men of understanding" mentioned in v. 20. After fulfilling their covenant with God and establishing a true and real connection with Him, they turn to His creatures and form a true connection with them also, in the manner and to the extent prescribed by God. Thus, after faithfully discharging their duties to God, they fulfil the obligations they owe to His creatures; and for the performance of this double duty and the fulfilment of the twofold covenant, they make use of the means created by Him.
The expression, fear their Lord, means that after having established a true relationship with God and man, they are ever on their guard lest it should be broken through negligence on their part.
The verse thus embodies another sign of "the men of understanding." Whereas, on the one hand, they are watchful and anxious lest they should be deprived of the nearness of God after they have once attained it, on the other, they fear lest they should incur the displeasure of God by showing laxity in the performance of their duty to their fellow beings. See also 2:28. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَبَرُوا ابۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡہِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اَنۡفَقُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ سِرًّا وَّ عَلَانِیَۃً وَّ یَدۡرَءُوۡنَ بِالۡحَسَنَۃِ السَّیِّئَۃَ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عُقۡبَی الدَّارِ ﴿ۙ۲۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡهِ رَبِّهِمۡ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقۡنَٰهُمۡ سِرّٗا وَعَلَانِيَةٗ وَيَدۡرَءُونَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ ٱلسَّيِّئَةَ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ
c. 2:4; 8:4; 14:32; 27:4. (close)
a. 41:35. (close)
1435. The believers follow the course best suited for the eradication of evil. They resort to punishment where it serves a useful purpose and to forgiveness if forgiveness is calculated to bring about the desired result. In short, they cut at the very root of evil by whatever method is appropriate in the circumstances. (close)
a. 2:4; 8:4; 14:32; 27:4. (close)
b. 41:35. (close)
1634. Important Words:
وجه (favour). See 2:113, 116 & 6:53.
عقبی الدار (reward of the final abode). عقبی is derived from عقب for which see v. 7. عقبی means, end; the last or latter part or state; consequence, result or issue; recompense or requital or reward; that which is given in exchange for something (Lane).
The verse gives four more signs of the men endowed with understanding referred to in v. 20: (1) They observe صبر i.e. they abstain from sin, are steadfast in virtue and do not give way to impatience and wailing, which, as explained under 2:156, is the meaning of this word. They do all this with a view to winning the favour and pleasure of God, and not in the pursuit of any selfish or sectional interest, or from natural weakness i.e. their patience is not born of cowardice, but is due to a desire to please God even when they have the power to take revenge. (2) They observe Prayers regularly and with all the necessary conditions, which means that their connection with God does not lack permanence and constancy. (3) They spend out of what God has given them openly and in secret to meet the needs of the poor and the destitute. (4) They repel evil with good, which means that they do good deeds so that others may imitate their example and forsake evil. They are not content with the mere preaching of good, but themselves set a good example and thus seek to undermine evil. An alternative meaning is that they preach the doing of good, and in this way make evil die and disappear.
The words, repel evil with good, also mean that men of understanding do "good" deeds with the object of removing "evil" i.e. they neither insist on retaliation regardless of the nature of the offence or the suitability of the punishment nor do they persist in unqualified forgiveness but follow the course best suited for the eradication of evil. They resort to retaliation if it serves the purpose and to forgiveness if forgiveness is calculated to bring about the desired result. In short, they cut at the very root of "evil" by whatever method is "good" in the circumstances. The words repel evil with good, may also mean that they do not meet "evil" with "evil," but always observe justice and never forsake the path of equity and justice in dealing with evil.
The word عقبی (reward) is generally used in a good sense. The word الدار (the abode) refers to the next world; for it is the next world that is the real abode of man, the present world being only a temporary place of residence. Hence the expression لھم عقبی الدار means, "they shall have a good end in the life to come." (close)
جَنّٰتُ عَدۡنٍ یَّدۡخُلُوۡنَہَا وَ مَنۡ صَلَحَ مِنۡ اٰبَآئِہِمۡ وَ اَزۡوَاجِہِمۡ وَ ذُرِّیّٰتِہِمۡ وَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ یَدۡخُلُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ کُلِّ بَابٍ ﴿ۚ۲۴﴾
جَنَّـٰتُ عَدۡنٖ يَدۡخُلُونَهَا وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنۡ ءَابَآئِهِمۡ وَأَزۡوَٰجِهِمۡ وَذُرِّيَّـٰتِهِمۡۖ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ يَدۡخُلُونَ عَلَيۡهِم مِّن كُلِّ بَابٖ
b. 40:9. (close)
1436. This verse enunciates a great principle. Any good act that a man does, is done with the intentional or unintentional help or cooperation of his relatives and kinsmen. Therefore, they all are made to participate, proportionately to their share, in the reward he wins. (close)
1437. The various categories of good deeds of believers will, in the next world, be represented as so many gates of Heaven. (close)
a. 40:9. (close)
This verse enunciates a great truth which has been mentioned by the Quran only viz. any good or bad act that a man does is shared by many other persons. The success of a tradesman in his trade or of a farmer in his farming or of an industrialist in his industry is due to the intentional or unintentional cooperation of a good many other individuals. It is for this reason that the Quran has laid down the institution of Zakah and has thereby given to the poor what is due to them in the property of the rich. What is true of a tradesman or an industrialist or an agriculturist is also true of others. Similarly, the wife of a religious missionary who goes to preach in a foreign country is a sharer in his work, for she looks after his children and performs his sundry other duties connected with his household. In the same way his parents and children rightfully have a share in his good work. As, therefore, a man does good works or wins credit with the intentional or unintentional help of his relatives and kinsmen, they all are made to participate proportionately in his rewards, and the Wise and Merciful God has laid down the law that in Heaven all members of the family of a person who has excelled others in virtue, will be placed with him, provided, of course, they have earned a place in Heaven, by their own righteous deeds.
The words, angels shall enter unto them from every gate, are not here used to point out that there will be many gates of Heaven but that the various classes of good deeds of the believers will, in the next world, be represented as so many gates. (close)