اَفَمَنۡ یَّعۡلَمُ اَنَّمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ الۡحَقُّ کَمَنۡ ہُوَ اَعۡمٰی ؕ اِنَّمَا یَتَذَکَّرُ اُولُوا الۡاَلۡبَابِ ﴿ۙ۲۰﴾
۞أَفَمَن يَعۡلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ٱلۡحَقُّ كَمَنۡ هُوَ أَعۡمَىٰٓۚ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُواْ ٱلۡأَلۡبَٰبِ
1631. Important Words:
الباب (understanding). See 2:180.
In this verse we are told that although success lies in following the teachings of the Quran, only those who make proper use of their reasoning faculties can benefit by it. It is noteworthy that as the teachings of Islam make an irresistible appeal to human reason, the Quran constantly exhorts men to make use of their understanding and reasoning faculties. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یُوۡفُوۡنَ بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا یَنۡقُضُوۡنَ الۡمِیۡثَاقَ ﴿ۙ۲۱﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَنقُضُونَ ٱلۡمِيثَٰقَ
b. 6:152; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
a. 6:153; 16:92; 17:35. (close)
In the preceding verse it was pointed out that only those gifted with understanding can benefit by the Quran. In the present verse some marks of the men of understanding are given:
(1) They are true to the pledge they have made with God. As men of understanding they know that all blessing is from God. So they accept only that which is from God and is useful and reject what is calculated to bring them no benefit. (2) They do not break God’s covenant and subordinate all other things to it. This is indeed a sure mark of those who understand and realize the truth and who are not satisfied with the shell in preference to the kernel; the word لب (the plural of which is الباب), as used in the previous verse, also meaning kernel or pith or choice part. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَصِلُوۡنَ مَاۤ اَمَرَ اللّٰہُ بِہٖۤ اَنۡ یُّوۡصَلَ وَ یَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ وَ یَخَافُوۡنَ سُوۡٓءَ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿ؕ۲۲﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦٓ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّهُمۡ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
1434. After faithfully discharging their duties to God, the believers fulfil the obligations they owe to His creatures. The observance of these two duties constitutes the basis on which the whole fabric of religion stands. (close)
This verse contains a few more signs of "the men of understanding" mentioned in v. 20. After fulfilling their covenant with God and establishing a true and real connection with Him, they turn to His creatures and form a true connection with them also, in the manner and to the extent prescribed by God. Thus, after faithfully discharging their duties to God, they fulfil the obligations they owe to His creatures; and for the performance of this double duty and the fulfilment of the twofold covenant, they make use of the means created by Him.
The expression, fear their Lord, means that after having established a true relationship with God and man, they are ever on their guard lest it should be broken through negligence on their part.
The verse thus embodies another sign of "the men of understanding." Whereas, on the one hand, they are watchful and anxious lest they should be deprived of the nearness of God after they have once attained it, on the other, they fear lest they should incur the displeasure of God by showing laxity in the performance of their duty to their fellow beings. See also 2:28. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ صَبَرُوا ابۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡہِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اَنۡفَقُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ سِرًّا وَّ عَلَانِیَۃً وَّ یَدۡرَءُوۡنَ بِالۡحَسَنَۃِ السَّیِّئَۃَ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عُقۡبَی الدَّارِ ﴿ۙ۲۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡهِ رَبِّهِمۡ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقۡنَٰهُمۡ سِرّٗا وَعَلَانِيَةٗ وَيَدۡرَءُونَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ ٱلسَّيِّئَةَ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ
c. 2:4; 8:4; 14:32; 27:4. (close)
a. 41:35. (close)
1435. The believers follow the course best suited for the eradication of evil. They resort to punishment where it serves a useful purpose and to forgiveness if forgiveness is calculated to bring about the desired result. In short, they cut at the very root of evil by whatever method is appropriate in the circumstances. (close)
a. 2:4; 8:4; 14:32; 27:4. (close)
b. 41:35. (close)
1634. Important Words:
وجه (favour). See 2:113, 116 & 6:53.
عقبی الدار (reward of the final abode). عقبی is derived from عقب for which see v. 7. عقبی means, end; the last or latter part or state; consequence, result or issue; recompense or requital or reward; that which is given in exchange for something (Lane).
The verse gives four more signs of the men endowed with understanding referred to in v. 20: (1) They observe صبر i.e. they abstain from sin, are steadfast in virtue and do not give way to impatience and wailing, which, as explained under 2:156, is the meaning of this word. They do all this with a view to winning the favour and pleasure of God, and not in the pursuit of any selfish or sectional interest, or from natural weakness i.e. their patience is not born of cowardice, but is due to a desire to please God even when they have the power to take revenge. (2) They observe Prayers regularly and with all the necessary conditions, which means that their connection with God does not lack permanence and constancy. (3) They spend out of what God has given them openly and in secret to meet the needs of the poor and the destitute. (4) They repel evil with good, which means that they do good deeds so that others may imitate their example and forsake evil. They are not content with the mere preaching of good, but themselves set a good example and thus seek to undermine evil. An alternative meaning is that they preach the doing of good, and in this way make evil die and disappear.
The words, repel evil with good, also mean that men of understanding do "good" deeds with the object of removing "evil" i.e. they neither insist on retaliation regardless of the nature of the offence or the suitability of the punishment nor do they persist in unqualified forgiveness but follow the course best suited for the eradication of evil. They resort to retaliation if it serves the purpose and to forgiveness if forgiveness is calculated to bring about the desired result. In short, they cut at the very root of "evil" by whatever method is "good" in the circumstances. The words repel evil with good, may also mean that they do not meet "evil" with "evil," but always observe justice and never forsake the path of equity and justice in dealing with evil.
The word عقبی (reward) is generally used in a good sense. The word الدار (the abode) refers to the next world; for it is the next world that is the real abode of man, the present world being only a temporary place of residence. Hence the expression لھم عقبی الدار means, "they shall have a good end in the life to come." (close)
جَنّٰتُ عَدۡنٍ یَّدۡخُلُوۡنَہَا وَ مَنۡ صَلَحَ مِنۡ اٰبَآئِہِمۡ وَ اَزۡوَاجِہِمۡ وَ ذُرِّیّٰتِہِمۡ وَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ یَدۡخُلُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ کُلِّ بَابٍ ﴿ۚ۲۴﴾
جَنَّـٰتُ عَدۡنٖ يَدۡخُلُونَهَا وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنۡ ءَابَآئِهِمۡ وَأَزۡوَٰجِهِمۡ وَذُرِّيَّـٰتِهِمۡۖ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ يَدۡخُلُونَ عَلَيۡهِم مِّن كُلِّ بَابٖ
b. 40:9. (close)
1436. This verse enunciates a great principle. Any good act that a man does, is done with the intentional or unintentional help or cooperation of his relatives and kinsmen. Therefore, they all are made to participate, proportionately to their share, in the reward he wins. (close)
1437. The various categories of good deeds of believers will, in the next world, be represented as so many gates of Heaven. (close)
a. 40:9. (close)
This verse enunciates a great truth which has been mentioned by the Quran only viz. any good or bad act that a man does is shared by many other persons. The success of a tradesman in his trade or of a farmer in his farming or of an industrialist in his industry is due to the intentional or unintentional cooperation of a good many other individuals. It is for this reason that the Quran has laid down the institution of Zakah and has thereby given to the poor what is due to them in the property of the rich. What is true of a tradesman or an industrialist or an agriculturist is also true of others. Similarly, the wife of a religious missionary who goes to preach in a foreign country is a sharer in his work, for she looks after his children and performs his sundry other duties connected with his household. In the same way his parents and children rightfully have a share in his good work. As, therefore, a man does good works or wins credit with the intentional or unintentional help of his relatives and kinsmen, they all are made to participate proportionately in his rewards, and the Wise and Merciful God has laid down the law that in Heaven all members of the family of a person who has excelled others in virtue, will be placed with him, provided, of course, they have earned a place in Heaven, by their own righteous deeds.
The words, angels shall enter unto them from every gate, are not here used to point out that there will be many gates of Heaven but that the various classes of good deeds of the believers will, in the next world, be represented as so many gates. (close)
سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بِمَا صَبَرۡتُمۡ فَنِعۡمَ عُقۡبَی الدَّارِ ﴿ؕ۲۵﴾
سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُم بِمَا صَبَرۡتُمۡۚ فَنِعۡمَ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ
c. 39:74. (close)
b. 39:74. (close)
The entering of the angels through every gate, referred to in the preceding verse, signifies that the angels will tell the inmates of Paradise that the latter had entered it through a particular gate on account of a particular good deed done by them and that their different virtues had been represented to them as different gates. By saying, Peace be unto you, as used in the present verse, the angels will remind believers that, as they practised every kind of virtue, they will enjoy every kind and form of peace from every side, the word سلام (peace) being repeated at every gate of Paradise separately.
The construction of the expression سلام علیکم (peace be unto you) is also intended to signify that the bliss of Paradise will be abiding and permanent because believers were "steadfast" i.e. displayed patience constantly and in all circumstances. The verse, therefore, purports to say to believers: "You stuck to virtue as long as you lived, thus you can rightly be regarded as having performed your duty. It was not in your power to avoid death. You adhered to virtue as long as it was in your power to do so. When, therefore, the hand of death put a stop to your good deeds, it became incumbent on God to grant you perpetual peace and everlasting bliss even as you would have ever continued on the path of virtue if you had lived." The verse thus contains an effective answer to the objection, "How can deeds of limited duration win unlimited reward?"
The verse also shows that those who lose heart under trials are not deserving of Paradise. Only those are deserving who maintain their connection with God in all circumstances and persevere in the doing of good deeds till the very end. See also v. 23. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَنۡقُضُوۡنَ عَہۡدَ اللّٰہِ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مِیۡثَاقِہٖ وَ یَقۡطَعُوۡنَ مَاۤ اَمَرَ اللّٰہُ بِہٖۤ اَنۡ یُّوۡصَلَ وَ یُفۡسِدُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۙ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمُ اللَّعۡنَۃُ وَ لَہُمۡ سُوۡٓءُ الدَّارِ ﴿۲۶﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهۡدَ ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مِيثَٰقِهِۦ وَيَقۡطَعُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦٓ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفۡسِدُونَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمُ ٱللَّعۡنَةُ وَلَهُمۡ سُوٓءُ ٱلدَّارِ
d. 2:28. (close)
a. 2:28. (close)
Some persons sever ties of kinship; others violate the discipline of their community. Some oppose Divine Messengers, while others show lack of fellow-feeling, and yet others forsake God. All these are different forms of cutting asunder what Allah has commanded to be joined. Such people not only cut asunder what Allah has bidden to be joined but go a step further. They act corruptly in the earth viz. they perpetrate acts of injustice, and even oppose and act inimically towards those with whom they are bidden to establish a firm connection.
The words, on them is the curse of God, mean, as they cut off their connection with God, therefore they shall be removed far away from Him. The word لعنة (curse) which denotes removal from the presence of God, has not been used here by way of abuse, but only expresses an actual fact. See also 2:89. (close)
اَللّٰہُ یَبۡسُطُ الرِّزۡقَ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَقۡدِرُ ؕ وَ فَرِحُوۡا بِالۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ؕ وَ مَا الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اِلَّا مَتَاعٌ ﴿٪۲۷﴾
ٱللَّهُ يَبۡسُطُ ٱلرِّزۡقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَقۡدِرُۚ وَفَرِحُواْ بِٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَمَا ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَٰعٞ
a. 29:63; 30:38; 39:53. (close)
b. 10:8. (close)
1438. The particle fi is sometimes used to denote comparison (Lane). (close)
a. 29:63; 30:38; 39:53. (close)
b. 10:8. (close)
1638. Important Words:
فی (as compared with) is a particle used in a vast variety of senses. It denotes inclusion or in-being either in relation to place or time, as in the sentences زید فی الدار i.e. Zaid is in the house, and فی ایام معدودات i.e. during a certain number of days. In many instances it may be rendered as "of" or "concerning" or "in respect of" as in اتحاجوننا فی الله i.e. do you argue with us concerning God. It also denotes concomitance and is sometimes synonymous with مع meaning, "among" as in ادخلو فی امم i.e. enter you with peoples. It also denotes the assigning of a cause, meaning, "on account of or because of" as in the words occurring in a saying of the Prophet ان امرأة دخلت فی النار فی ھرة حبستھا i.e. verily, a woman entered Hell because of a cat she kept confined without food (Muslim, Kitabul-Birr was-Silah). It is also synonymous with الی and علی as well as with من and is sometimes used to denote comparison, as in the sentence ما علمی فی بحرہ الا قطرة i.e. my knowledge is but a drop as compared with his knowledge which is like a sea (Aqrab & Lane).
The verse disabuses the minds of disbelievers of the wrong notion that by accepting Islam they would lose the material benefits they now enjoy and that the bliss of the next world which it promises is but an imaginary thing. By saying that the prosperity or poverty of this life are in the hands of God, the verse implies a subtle hint that God had already decreed that all this prosperity should be transferred from the enemies of the Holy Prophet to his followers and therefore their acceptance of him would not even entail any worldly loss for them. The verse, however, proceeds to say that if even the acceptance of the Prophet led to some loss of worldly good, it would not matter, for his teachings embody abiding and permanent principles and relate to the everlasting life of the Hereafter compared with which the things of this world are of no account. This is what is expressed in the words, the present life is but a temporary enjoyment as compared with that which is to come. Incidentally, the verse enunciates the great principle that intellectual and mental culture are superior to material progress, which always follows in the wake of intellectual advancement. (close)
وَ یَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ لَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡہِ اٰیَۃٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہٖ ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُضِلُّ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَہۡدِیۡۤ اِلَیۡہِ مَنۡ اَنَابَ ﴿ۖۚ۲۸﴾
وَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوۡلَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيۡهِ ءَايَةٞ مِّن رَّبِّهِۦۚ قُلۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهۡدِيٓ إِلَيۡهِ مَنۡ أَنَابَ
c. 6:38; 10:21; 29:51. (close)
1439. It is God’s immutable law that He guides those who are desirous of turning to Him and leaves to go astray those who themselves turn away from Him and refuse to accept His guidance. (close)
d. 14:5; 74:32. (close)
a. 6:38; 10:21; 29:51. (close)
b. 14:5; 74:32. (close)
In the previous verse, it was said that God straitens His provision for some men if He so pleases. The present verse says that when the attention of disbelievers is drawn to the fact that God possesses the power to deprive men of their sustenance, they hasten to demand that this power of God should come into operation with regard to them so that it may serve as a sign. The Quran answers them by saying that God is already showing signs as a result of which some are being spiritually guided and some made to perish but disbelievers do not benefit by them and demand instead the sign of punishment. Thus, according to them, the signs of mercy and signs of the deep knowledge of God are of no account. With them, the only signs to which they attach any importance are the signs of punishment. But what benefit could they derive from the signs of destructive punishment when no opportunity would be left for them to accept guidance after they had been destroyed? The tragic truth is that most people become deserving of punishment on account of their sins, and this is why they do not benefit by the signs of guidance. God therefore decrees and decides the destruction of such people. For an explanation of the word یضل see note on v. 34.
As the words, Allah causes to perish those whom He wills, might give rise to the doubt that God brings destruction on men arbitrarily, the Quran rightly adds, and guides to Himself those who turn to Him, meaning that God does not destroy men arbitrarily but it is His immutable law that He guides those who are desirous of turning to Him and destroys only those who seek to turn away from Him and refuse to accept His guidance. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ تَطۡمَئِنُّ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ بِذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اَلَا بِذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ تَطۡمَئِنُّ الۡقُلُوۡبُ ﴿ؕ۲۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَتَطۡمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُم بِذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِۗ أَلَا بِذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ تَطۡمَئِنُّ ٱلۡقُلُوبُ
1440. Search after God is the innermost yearning of the human soul and is the real object and goal of man’s life, and when that goal is attained man enjoys perfect peace of mind, for then he rests, as it were, in the very lap of God. (close)
This beautiful verse embodies a great and extremely natural truth. The more the people of the world gain the paltry goods of this life, the greater becomes the hunger and the consequent burning of their heart. But as for those who seek God, the more they turn to Him, the greater is their peace of mind. This shows that search after God is the innermost yearning of human nature and the real goal of man’s life, and that when that goal is attained man begins to enjoy perfect peace of mind, for then he rests, as it were, in the very lap of the All-Knowing and All-Powerful God, Maker and Controller of the universe. Would the people of the world had realized this great secret of happiness! (close)