وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ یَفۡرَحُوۡنَ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مِنَ الۡاَحۡزَابِ مَنۡ یُّنۡکِرُ بَعۡضَہٗ ؕ قُلۡ اِنَّمَاۤ اُمِرۡتُ اَنۡ اَعۡبُدَ اللّٰہَ وَ لَاۤ اُشۡرِکَ بِہٖ ؕ اِلَیۡہِ اَدۡعُوۡا وَ اِلَیۡہِ مَاٰبِ ﴿۳۷﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ يَفۡرَحُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَۖ وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ مَن يُنكِرُ بَعۡضَهُۥۚ قُلۡ إِنَّمَآ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ وَلَآ أُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦٓۚ إِلَيۡهِ أَدۡعُواْ وَإِلَيۡهِ مَـَٔابِ
d. 28:53. (close)
e. 2:86. (close)
1448. By the word, Ahzab (parties), is meant all those people to whom a Prophet is sent and who do not accept him. (close)
f. 18:111; 39:12; 72:21. (close)
a. 28:53. (close)
b. 2:86. (close)
c. 18:111; 39:12; 72:21. (close)
This verse shows that some of the "People of the Book" had accepted Islam while the Holy Prophet was yet in Mecca. The words, rejoice in what has been revealed to thee, most probably refer to Negus, the Abyssinian King and some of his people who, in their hearts, had become Muslims. But as their faith had not yet become publicly known, the words used about them are not "they believe" but simply "they rejoice."
The words, to whom We have given the Book, may also refer to Muslims, who naturally rejoiced to hear the glad tidings of their final triumph.
By the word احزاب (parties) is meant all those people to whom a Prophet is sent and who do not accept him. In the verse under comment the people referred to are the Jews, Christians and all other disbelievers, as the Holy Prophet has been sent to all the nations of the earth.
The words, a part thereof, have been used because disbelievers denied or disapproved of only those parts of the Quran which disagreed with their own Scriptures or their own beliefs. With regard to the remaining parts, they had no disagreement with them. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ حُکۡمًا عَرَبِیًّا ؕ وَ لَئِنِ اتَّبَعۡتَ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ بَعۡدَ مَا جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡعِلۡمِ ۙ مَا لَکَ مِنَ اللّٰہِ مِنۡ وَّلِیٍّ وَّ لَا وَاقٍ ﴿٪۳۸﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ حُكۡمًا عَرَبِيّٗاۚ وَلَئِنِ ٱتَّبَعۡتَ أَهۡوَآءَهُم بَعۡدَ مَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِيّٖ وَلَا وَاقٖ
a. 12:3; 20:114; 43:4. (close)
b. 2:121, 146; 42:16. (close)
d. 12:3; 20:114; 43:4. (close)
e. 2:121,146; 42:16. (close)
1648. Important Words:
عربیا (clear). See 12:3.
That the Quran has been revealed in the Arabic tongue is not the idea that is meant to be expressed in this verse, for that language is spoken by the Arabs. The real idea lies in the deeper significance of the word عربیا viz. the Quran has been invested with a vastness of meaning which is beyond human power.
The words, if thou follow their evil desires, after the knowledge that has come to thee, thou shalt have no friend nor defender against Allah, may be taken as addressed either to the reader or to the Holy Prophet. In the latter case, the verse would be taken as expressing the Majesty and Independence of God. The Prophet was only a flute through which the sweet and majestic voice of God was being sounded. Away from the mouth of God it becomes silent and is no better than a piece of wood. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلًا مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ وَ جَعَلۡنَا لَہُمۡ اَزۡوَاجًا وَّ ذُرِّیَّۃً ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ لِرَسُوۡلٍ اَنۡ یَّاۡتِیَ بِاٰیَۃٍ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ لِکُلِّ اَجَلٍ کِتَابٌ ﴿۳۹﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلٗا مِّن قَبۡلِكَ وَجَعَلۡنَا لَهُمۡ أَزۡوَٰجٗا وَذُرِّيَّةٗۚ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأۡتِيَ بِـَٔايَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۗ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٖ كِتَابٞ
c. 14:12; 40:79. (close)
a. 14:12; 40:79. (close)
Disbelievers objected that the Holy Prophet had come without any worldly resources. The verse under comment replies to this objection by stating that earlier Prophets were also without any worldly resources. They, like him, had their physical needs and requirements. They, too, had wives and children whom they had to support and look after and had their duties to perform. Yet in spite of all the impediments and obstacles in their way and in spite of their physical needs and requirements and of the absence of material resources, they succeeded and triumphed. So shall the Holy Prophet.
The verse also makes it clear that signs of punishment are certainly shown to disbelievers but not at the time and in the form in which they demand them. The form and time of signs are determined by God alone, for they are shown only "by the command of Allah."
It may be asked here what, if God raised Messengers for the reformation of man, prevented Him from delegating to these Messengers the power of punishment, particularly when He knew that Signs would be demanded of them by their opponents and also when even earthly governments invest their officials with certain magisterial powers? Again, if God had invested His Prophets with the power to punish the people, it would have at least this advantage that the people would have feared and respected them and dared not oppose them. The Quran answers this question in the words, For every term there is a divine decree, which means that, as it is God Who determines the nature and form of each punishment and the time of its occurrence and He alone, being All-Knowing, knows in what form and at what time the sending down of a certain punishment will prove beneficial to the people, the power of punishing cannot be delegated to any other person. For if that delegation can at all be fair and useful, it must be accompanied by the delegation of many other divine powers, which is simply unthinkable. The infliction of punishment, therefore, could not be entrusted to the Prophets or to anybody else. (close)
یَمۡحُوا اللّٰہُ مَا یَشَآءُ وَ یُثۡبِتُ ۚۖ وَ عِنۡدَہٗۤ اُمُّ الۡکِتٰبِ ﴿۴۰﴾
يَمۡحُواْ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ وَيُثۡبِتُۖ وَعِندَهُۥٓ أُمُّ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ
d. 42:25. (close)
1449. The verse lays down two laws relating to Divine punishment: (a) God either cancels the punishment wholly or partially; or (b) He lets it stand as decreed. (close)
e. 43:5. (close)
1450. (a) God alone knows the root cause of all commandments or the wisdom underlying them. (b) All the commandments of the Shari‘ah are based on Divine attributes, so the source of the Law lies with God; Umm means, source, basis, origin; stay or support (Lane). (close)
a. 42:25. (close)
b. 13:40. (close)
The verse lays down two laws relating to punishment: (a) God either cancels the punishment partially or wholly; or (b) He lets it stand, as decreed. So punishment never comes unless it is fully deserved, nor is it ever in excess of the offence. It may, however, be less than what it should be or it may be altogether remitted. This dual law is invariably observed in all heavenly punishments.
The words, with Him is the source of all commandments, mean: (a) God alone knows the root cause of all commandments or the wisdom underlying them, so it is by His guidance alone that the right way may be known. (b) All the commandments of Shari‘ah are based on Divine attributes, so the source of the law lies with God. The latter meaning makes it clear that moral and spiritual perfection is impossible of attainment unless one imitates and imbibes Divine attributes and conforms his conduct to them. Indeed, it is extremely difficult to define good or bad morals by human standards or in the light of human actions. Virtue is nothing but imitation of Divine attributes, and vice its antithesis. This definition is calculated to solve all those difficulties which philosophers of Ethics have to face in defining "virtue" and "vice" or good and bad morals. (c) That God alone knows the purpose of Divine commandments, therefore the punishment for their violation should also lie in His hands. He alone knows who should be punished and who not; for an opponent today may become a staunch supporter tomorrow. (close)
وَ اِنۡ مَّا نُرِیَنَّکَ بَعۡضَ الَّذِیۡ نَعِدُہُمۡ اَوۡ نَتَوَفَّیَنَّکَ فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡبَلٰغُ وَ عَلَیۡنَا الۡحِسَابُ ﴿۴۱﴾
وَإِن مَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعۡضَ ٱلَّذِي نَعِدُهُمۡ أَوۡ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ وَعَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡحِسَابُ
f. 10:47; 40:78. (close)
g. 3:21; 5:93; 16:83. (close)
a. 10:47; 40:78. (close)
b. 21:45. (close)
The verse purports to say that when the object of signs of punishment is the reformation and reclamation of the people, the postponement or cancellation of some of them cannot reasonably be criticized. The real object of the advent of the Prophets is to deliver the Divine Message to men, and the fulfilment or postponement or revocation of a prophecy is only a secondary thing, being subordinate to this supreme purpose. It should, therefore, occasion no surprise if, in harmony with the fulfilment of this purpose and of the Divine decree, a prophecy is cancelled or revoked, particularly when all people have to appear before God on the Day of Reckoning when the whole truth will come to light. This verse is important inasmuch as it lays down a fundamental divine principle about signs of punishment. To think that as signs of punishment proceed from God they must always happen as foretold is simply absurd and, besides clashing with the Divine attribute of mercy, belies the very purpose for which Prophets of God are raised. (close)
اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَوۡا اَنَّا نَاۡتِی الۡاَرۡضَ نَنۡقُصُہَا مِنۡ اَطۡرَافِہَا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَحۡکُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُکۡمِہٖ ؕ وَ ہُوَ سَرِیۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿۴۲﴾
أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّا نَأۡتِي ٱلۡأَرۡضَ نَنقُصُهَا مِنۡ أَطۡرَافِهَاۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَحۡكُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكۡمِهِۦۚ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
a. 21:45. (close)
1451. Atraf meaning good and generous, (and also) low and mean persons, the verse means: 'Do they not see that God is gradually reducing and curtailing the land from its sides?' i.e. Islam is spreading through the length and breadth of Arabia and making inroads into every home and all sections and stations of society—the high and the low, the rich and the poor, the slave and the master. (close)
This verse strongly refutes those critics of the Holy Prophet who allege that he showed no sign.
Do they not see, says the verse, that God is gradually reducing and curtailing the land from its sides? Is not that a sign of the triumph of Islam? It is making inroads into every home and into all sections and stations of society—the high and the low, the rich and the poor, the slave and the master. Is not this a sign sufficient to convince all fair-minded critics? The word الارض (land) may also refer to "the land of Arabia," in which case the verse would mean that Islam is fast spreading throughout the length and breadth of Arabia. As the expression اتی الله according to Arabic usage also means the visitation of God with punishment (see 2:211 & 16:27), the words, We are visiting the land, reducing it, may mean that the punishment of God is already slowly but surely coming down on all sections of the people.
The words, swift at reckoning, do not mean that, God is hasty in punishing disbelievers but that, when He decides to call the offenders to account, He does it quickly and nothing can prevent Him from doing so. (close)
وَ قَدۡ مَکَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ فَلِلّٰہِ الۡمَکۡرُ جَمِیۡعًا ؕ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَکۡسِبُ کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ ؕ وَ سَیَعۡلَمُ الۡکُفّٰرُ لِمَنۡ عُقۡبَی الدَّارِ ﴿۴۳﴾
وَقَدۡ مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡمَكۡرُ جَمِيعٗاۖ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُ كُلُّ نَفۡسٖۗ وَسَيَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡكُفَّـٰرُ لِمَنۡ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ
b. 3:55; 8:31; 14:47; 27:51. (close)
1451A. All the secret designs of the enemies of Islam are known to God and so none of their plans or stratagems can frustrate His purpose—the ultimate victory of Islam. (close)
c. 28:38. (close)
a. 3:55; 8:31; 14:47; 27:51. (close)
b. 28:38. (close)
The verse means that God knows the plans that disbelievers devise to frustrate the purpose and programme of the Holy Prophet, but they are not aware of the plans which God has devised to bring about their fall. Therefore, it is only when they face destruction that they will know who was destined to succeed in the end.
The words, the disbelievers shall soon know whose will be the final reward of this abode, not only signify that believers will certainly succeed in the end, which is not distant, but also hint that some leaders of disbelief will live to see Islam triumph, and this is exactly what happened.
The words, He knows what every soul earns, mean that since God is All-Knowing all the secret designs of the enemies of Islam are known to Him and so no plan or stratagem can frustrate His purpose. (close)
وَ یَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَسۡتَ مُرۡسَلًا ؕ قُلۡ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ شَہِیۡدًۢا بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ۙ وَ مَنۡ عِنۡدَہٗ عِلۡمُ الۡکِتٰبِ ﴿٪۴۴﴾
وَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَسۡتَ مُرۡسَلٗاۚ قُلۡ كَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدَۢا بَيۡنِي وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ وَمَنۡ عِندَهُۥ عِلۡمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ
d. 25:42. (close)
e. 4:167; 6:20; 29:53; 48:29. (close)
1451B. The words, knowledge of the Book, may mean, fresh Signs from Heaven and the prophecies of the previous Scriptures regarding the Holy Prophet. (close)
c. 25:42. (close)
d. 4:167; 6:20; 29:53; 48:29. (close)
The Holy Prophet is told in this verse not to get annoyed or perturbed if, in spite of the many signs and arguments that establish his truth, evilly-disposed disbelievers continue to deny his divine mission. Why at all should he worry when he possesses these two powerful witnesses—fresh signs from heaven and the prophecies of the previous Scriptures? Indeed, it is only these two powerful supports that have always helped and will always help the cause of the Divine Messengers to triumph. This is what is hinted at in the concluding words of the verse: Sufficient is Allah as a witness…and so is he, who possesses knowledge of the Book. (close)