اَللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَحۡمِلُ کُلُّ اُنۡثٰی وَ مَا تَغِیۡضُ الۡاَرۡحَامُ وَ مَا تَزۡدَادُ ؕ وَ کُلُّ شَیۡءٍ عِنۡدَہٗ بِمِقۡدَارٍ ﴿۹﴾
ٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَحۡمِلُ كُلُّ أُنثَىٰ وَمَا تَغِيضُ ٱلۡأَرۡحَامُ وَمَا تَزۡدَادُۚ وَكُلُّ شَيۡءٍ عِندَهُۥ بِمِقۡدَارٍ
g. 35:12; 41:48. (close)
1425. In v. 4 we are told that all things in the universe have pairs and that in the spiritual world also some individuals act like males and others like females, the former exercising influence and the latter receiving it. The verse under comment points out that in the person of the Holy Prophet there has appeared one who is spiritually a male and that nobody can attain any spiritual rank without receiving his stamp. It further says that God knows well the natural capacities and aptitudes of the Holy Prophet’s people, whether they will accept Divine or satanic influence, and which influence will grow and which will decline. Those who accept the Holy Prophet and receive his stamp will grow and increase in power, influence and numbers, while his opponents will decline and decrease. (close)
a. 15:22. (close)
a. 35:12; 41:48. (close)
b. 15:22. (close)
1620. Important Words:
تغیض (diminish) is derived from غاض which means, it (water) became scanty and sank into the earth; or it (flow of milk or price of a commodity, etc.) decreased or diminished or became deficient. The Quranic expression ما تغیض الارحام means, the wombs falling short of completion so that the foetus dies. The Arabs say غاض الکرام و فاض اللئام i.e. the generous became few or perished and the mean became many. غاض is also used transitively meaning he made (water, etc.) to become scanty; to decrease or diminish (Lane).
In v. 4 we were told that all things in the universe have pairs and that in the spiritual world also some individuals act like males and others like females, the former exercising influence and the latter receiving it. In the verse under comment the Quran intends to point out that in the person of the Holy Prophet there has appeared one who is spiritually a male and that nobody can attain any spiritual rank without receiving his stamp or being influenced by him. The words, Allah knows what every female bears, and what the wombs diminish and what they cause to grow, mean that God knows well the natural capacities and aptitudes of the Holy Prophet’s people, and whether they will accept divine or satanic influence and which influence will grow and which will decline. The verse hints that those who accept the Holy Prophet and receive his stamp will grow and increase in power, influence and numbers, natural capacities and talents, while his opponents will decline and decrease till their physical and spiritual progeny will be destroyed altogether. Taken in the physical sense, the verse means that only God knows what will become of future generations of disbelievers. Their future generations will accept Islam and their females will bear only such children as are destined to become servants of the Holy Prophet. And this proved to be actually the case. By far the greater part of the younger generation of the Meccans, and for that matter of other Arab tribes, accepted the Holy Prophet, to the great chagrin of their fathers whose tyranny and persecution could not prevent them from embracing Islam. (close)
عٰلِمُ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ الۡکَبِیۡرُ الۡمُتَعَالِ ﴿۱۰﴾
عَٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَٰدَةِ ٱلۡكَبِيرُ ٱلۡمُتَعَالِ
b. 6:74; 9:94; 59:23; 64:19. (close)
a. 6:74; 9:94; 59:23; 64:19. (close)
1621. Important Words:
الکبیر (the Incomparably Great). See 11:4. The difference between الکبیر (the Incomparably Great) and المتعال (the Most High) is that whereas the former word expresses the greatness of God in relation to human beings, the latter expresses His absolute eminence independently of any relationship with human beings.
The verse implies the hint that in order to checkmate and frustrate the plans of the enemy and to achieve success against him it is necessary to know his plans, both open and secret. The adversaries of the Holy Prophet are warned that they have to deal with a Being Who has full knowledge of their plans and Who, being Great, can easily foil and frustrate them. But being also High, His plans to bring about their ruin are hidden from them. How can they then hope to succeed against His Prophet and Messenger? (close)
سَوَآءٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ اَسَرَّ الۡقَوۡلَ وَ مَنۡ جَہَرَ بِہٖ وَ مَنۡ ہُوَ مُسۡتَخۡفٍۭ بِالَّیۡلِ وَ سَارِبٌۢ بِالنَّہَارِ ﴿۱۱﴾
سَوَآءٞ مِّنكُم مَّنۡ أَسَرَّ ٱلۡقَوۡلَ وَمَن جَهَرَ بِهِۦ وَمَنۡ هُوَ مُسۡتَخۡفِۭ بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَسَارِبُۢ بِٱلنَّهَارِ
1426. The overt or covert plans of the Holy Prophet’s enemies cannot succeed because God, Who knows them all, is his Helper and Protector. (close)
The enemies of the Holy Prophet employed two kinds of plans to bring about his defeat. Sometimes they publicly threatened him with destruction, and at other times they hatched secret plots against him. Sometimes they attacked him in broad daylight and sometimes they attacked him in the darkness of the night. In reply to all these foul attempts the Quran warns the Prophet’s enemies that by offering opposition to him they are really opposing God. Their overt or covert plans against him cannot succeed because God, Who knows all their secret and open designs, is his Helper and Protector. (close)
لَہٗ مُعَقِّبٰتٌ مِّنۡۢ بَیۡنِ یَدَیۡہِ وَ مِنۡ خَلۡفِہٖ یَحۡفَظُوۡنَہٗ مِنۡ اَمۡرِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُغَیِّرُ مَا بِقَوۡمٍ حَتّٰی یُغَیِّرُوۡا مَا بِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اِذَاۤ اَرَادَ اللّٰہُ بِقَوۡمٍ سُوۡٓءًا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَہٗ ۚ وَ مَا لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡ وَّالٍ ﴿۱۲﴾
لَهُۥ مُعَقِّبَٰتٞ مِّنۢ بَيۡنِ يَدَيۡهِ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِۦ يَحۡفَظُونَهُۥ مِنۡ أَمۡرِ ٱللَّهِۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوۡمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُواْ مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمۡۗ وَإِذَآ أَرَادَ ٱللَّهُ بِقَوۡمٖ سُوٓءٗا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَهُۥۚ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِۦ مِن وَالٍ
1427. The word Al-Mu‘aqqibat signifies, the angels of the night and the day because they succeed each other by turns. The plural feminine form is used because of the frequency of their doing so, since in Arabic the feminine form is sometimes employed to impart emphasis and frequency. The word, rendered here as 'a succession of angels,' may refer to the celestial beings in Heaven; or to the devoted Companions of the Holy Prophet who guarded him risking their lives. (close)
a. 8:54. (close)
a. 8:54. (close)
1623. Important Words:
معقبات (a succession of angels) is the plural of معقب which is derived from عقب (‘aqaba). They say عقبه i.e. he came after him, as though at his heels; or he followed him closely or he succeeded him. عقب بغزاة بعد غزاة (‘aqqaba) means, he followed up one expedition with another. عقب فی الامر means, he went repeatedly to and fro; or he made repeated efforts to accomplish the affair: striving or exerting himself. معقب means, he who or that which comes after another. ملك معقب means, an angel that follows another. المعقبات means, the angels of the night and the day because they succeed one another by turns (the feminine form is used because of the frequency of their doing so, since in Arabic the feminine form is sometimes employed to impart emphasis and frequency as in علامة); utterance of سبحان الله and الحمد لله and الله اکبر repeated after Prayers. معقب also signifies one who makes warring expeditions repeatedly and does not stay with his family after his return; one who seeks after a thing repeatedly, striving or exerting himself; one who puts off or repels the payment of what is due from him (Lane).
The pronoun "him" in the words "for him" in the beginning of the verse refers to the Holy Prophet and the verse means that, like worldly kings, God has appointed body-guards for the Holy Prophet. This meaning is supported by the several unsuccessful attempts that were made on his life and the protection that God vouchsafed to him amidst the many mortal dangers which surrounded him. His life was constantly in danger, both at Mecca and Medina, but he remained safe because he enjoyed Divine protection, being guarded by angels and his own devoted Companions. The word معقباتrendered here as "a succession of angles" may refer both to the celestial beings in heaven and to the devoted Companions of the Holy Prophet who so eagerly guarded him with their lives.
The pronoun "him" may also have a wider application, meaning, every person. In this case, the verse would mean that God has appointed guardian angels for the protection of every person. He is exposed every moment to various kinds of dangers; for instance, innumerable harmful germs enter his body with every breath but God has provided the antidote in his very system and the germs very often fail to do him any harm. In diverse other ways also, man is providentially protected from dangers that assail him without his ever knowing of them.
If applied to disbelievers, the verse would imply a warning to them that if they did not desist from their evil ways, God would withdraw His protection from them and they would perish.
The words, Allah changes not the condition of a people until they change that which is in their hearts, do not mean that God shows no mercy or favour to the sinful and the wicked. It only means that He does not change His attitude of kindness and benignity to those of His servants who have earned His favour by good works, unless they effect a change in themselves and forsake the path of virtue and take to evil. The verse thus hints that when a people are visited with successive afflictions which drive them to ruin and destruction, that is a sure sign that they have become morally and spiritually degenerate. (close)
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ یُرِیۡکُمُ الۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفًا وَّ طَمَعًا وَّ یُنۡشِیٴُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ ﴿ۚ۱۳﴾
هُوَ ٱلَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ ٱلۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفٗا وَطَمَعٗا وَيُنشِئُ ٱلسَّحَابَ ٱلثِّقَالَ
b. 30:25. (close)
1428. Lightning inspires both fear and hope. It inspires fear because sometimes men die of it and embryos, and certain plants get adversely affected. It also brings hope to men, for it heralds fertilizing rain and also helps to destroy germs of different diseases and thus serves to put an end to epidemics. (close)
a. 30:25. (close)
Lightning inspires people both with fear and hope. It inspires fear because sometimes men die of it and embryos and certain plants get hurt. It also brings hope to men, for it heralds fertilizing rain. It also helps to destroy germs of different diseases and thus serves to put an end to epidemics. Similarly, heavy clouds serve a twofold purpose. Very often they come as a mercy, because they bring much-needed rain. But they also cause floods resulting in death and destruction. Disbelievers are told in this verse that they should not feel proud of their possessions and power or of their kith and kin for, like lightning and heavy rain, these things cut both ways. While they are the source of happiness and honour for some, they cause the spiritual undoing of others. The similitude of heavy rain and lightning points to the supreme moral lesson that the primary thing is goodness of heart and not the possession of worldly riches and material prosperity; for, without goodness of heart these things may, instead of proving useful to the people who possess them, prove their ruin. (close)
وَ یُسَبِّحُ الرَّعۡدُ بِحَمۡدِہٖ وَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ مِنۡ خِیۡفَتِہٖ ۚ وَ یُرۡسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَیُصِیۡبُ بِہَا مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ ہُمۡ یُجَادِلُوۡنَ فِی اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ ہُوَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡمِحَالِ ﴿ؕ۱۴﴾
وَيُسَبِّحُ ٱلرَّعۡدُ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ مِنۡ خِيفَتِهِۦ وَيُرۡسِلُ ٱلصَّوَٰعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُمۡ يُجَٰدِلُونَ فِي ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡمِحَالِ
c. 16:51; 42:6. (close)
d. 24:44. (close)
a. 16:51; 42:6. (close)
b. 24:44. (close)
1625. Important Words:
محال (punishment) is derived from ماحل which is again derived from محل. They say محل البلد i.e. the town had no rain and became affected with drought and dearth. ماحله means, he devised a plan or hatched a plot against him; he showed enmity towards him, the other doing the same in return. محال means, plan or device; power or might; quarrel or disputation; enmity; punishment or torment; severity; destruction (Aqrab).
Disbelievers are here told that they should give up hugging the fond hope that the present afflictions and trials of Muslims (hinted at in the words "thunders" and "thunderbolts") would bring about the latter’s ruin. Not all lightning is destructive nor are all clouds the source of unmixed good. Their afflictions cannot bring about the ruin of believers. On the contrary, they will bring about their moral and spiritual advancement, for they bring into play their hidden faculties and bring them nearer to God. Thunder and lightning are after all the creation of God and are meant to glorify Him. They cannot therefore, cause the destruction of God’s faithful servants, whom He has promised to protect, for that would be against His glory-fication. So existing thunders and the dark clouds of temporary miseries and tribulations only contribute to the progress and prosperity of the Faithful.
The verse further points out that thunder and clouds are under the control of God’s angels, who are the first cause, and have been created to serve and advance the cause of God’s Messengers. Why then, should the believers fear the thunder and clouds of adversity that are now bursting upon them? They would only destroy those who seek to frustrate the purpose of God. The words, they dispute concerning Allah, are intended to point out that it is no law of nature that is being discussed here but a prophecy of punishment for disbelievers.
The words شدید المحال (severe in punishing) may also be rendered as "strong in planning" thus hinting that God is not only severe in punishing but it is also impossible to frustrate His plans. (close)
لَہٗ دَعۡوَۃُ الۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ لَا یَسۡتَجِیۡبُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ بِشَیۡءٍ اِلَّا کَبَاسِطِ کَفَّیۡہِ اِلَی الۡمَآءِ لِیَبۡلُغَ فَاہُ وَ مَا ہُوَ بِبَالِغِہٖ ؕ وَ مَا دُعَآءُ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ اِلَّا فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ ﴿۱۵﴾
لَهُۥ دَعۡوَةُ ٱلۡحَقِّۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ لَا يَسۡتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيۡءٍ إِلَّا كَبَٰسِطِ كَفَّيۡهِ إِلَى ٱلۡمَآءِ لِيَبۡلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَٰلِغِهِۦۚ وَمَا دُعَآءُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَٰلٖ
1429. The expression may be translated as: (1) God alone is worthy of worship; (2) it is praying to God alone that can be useful or beneficial for man; (3) the Voice of God alone rises in support of truth; and (4) the Voice of God alone must prevail. (close)
e. 35:14; 40:21. (close)
1430. The right way to succeed in life is to place all things in their proper places—to give God the status which is His due and to create things the position which they rightly possess. That alone is the way to success and true happiness. (close)
a. 40:51. (close)
a. 35:14; 40:21. (close)
b. 40:51. (close)
The Quranic expression له دعوة الحق rendered in the text as, Unto Him is the true prayer, may be translated in several ways (1) God alone is worthy of worship; (2) it is praying to God alone that can be useful or beneficial for man; (3) the voice of God alone rises in support of truth i.e. the teaching which is really true and useful for man and is free from defects and untruths can come from God alone; (4) the Voice of God alone must prevail i.e. no one can frustrate God’s purpose and stand in His way; for the word حق (true) also means, that which prevails and becomes established.
The words, except as he is answered who stretches forth his two hands toward water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not, embody a great principle. Just as he who ascribes lower status to a higher thing remains deprived of its higher benefits, similarly, he who ascribes higher status to a lower thing deprives himself of its true benefits. The man who looks upon a spurious coin as a genuine one will practically suffer as much as he who unwittingly treats a genuine coin as a spurious one. Idolaters think that their gods will answer their prayers and come to their help, but they can never do so.
In like manner, those who ascribe divine powers to things created by God deprive themselves of even their limited uses. How can those who look upon fire and water as gods think of bringing them under their control? And how can those who look upon Prophets as gods derive from them the real good which they could derive from them by following them as heavenly Messengers?
The verse thus says that the right way to succeed in life is to put all things in their proper places, to give God the status which is His due and to stars, rivers and mountains the position which they rightly possess. Whereas we should worship God, pray to Him and seek His blessings, we should subject created things to our service and derive those benefits from them which the Wise God has placed in them. That alone is the way of success and true happiness.
The words, the prayer of the disbelievers is but a thing wasted, mean that all prayers of disbelievers addressed to false deities will prove fruitless. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ یَسۡجُدُ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَّ کَرۡہًا وَّ ظِلٰلُہُمۡ بِالۡغُدُوِّ وَ الۡاٰصَالِ ﴿ٛ۱۶﴾
وَلِلَّهِۤ يَسۡجُدُۤ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ طَوۡعٗا وَكَرۡهٗا وَظِلَٰلُهُم بِٱلۡغُدُوِّ وَٱلۡأٓصَالِ۩
1431. The verse embodies a great truth, viz. that all creation is bound to obey God-made laws of nature, willingly or unwillingly. The tongue must perform the function of tasting and the ear cannot help hearing. This obedience to the laws of nature may be called compulsory. But man is given a certain freedom of action where he can use his volition and discretion. But even in actions in which he appears to have been granted freedom, he is subject to certain amount of compulsion, and he must obey God’s laws in whatever he does, whether he likes it or not. The words, willingly or unwillingly, may also refer to two classes of men, viz. believers who give willing submission to God and disbelievers who obey His laws grudgingly. (close)
1627. Important Words:
ظلال (shadows) is the plural of both ظل (zill) and ظلة (zullah), which are derived from ظل (zalla). They say ظل الیوم i.e. the day became shady. ظل الشیء means, the thing became long or extended. ظلله means, he shaded him. اظله means, it cast its shade upon him; or he took him into his shelter or protection. ظل means, the light of the sun without the rays; shade; blackness of the night; an apparition or phantom or a thing that one sees like a shadow; a covering; might or power of resistance protection or shelter; person or corporeal form or figure which one sees from a distance. The Arabs say السلطان ظل الله فی الارض i.e. the sovereign is God’s means of protection or defence (or His representative) in the earth. In hadith we read الکافر یسجد لغیر الله و ظله یسجد لله ای جسمه i.e. an infidel prostrates himself before deities other than God but his ظل viz. his body, prostrates itself before God (meaning that his body is subject to divine law). ظلة means, anything that shades or covers or protects one (Lane & Bihar).
الغدو (mornings) is the plural of غدوة meaning, morning or early part of the forenoon (Lane).
الآصال (evenings) is the plural of اصیل which means, evening; time from the عصر (late afternoon) Prayer to sunset. The word also means, having root or foundation; rooted, fixed, stable or permanent; having lineage or pedigree (Lane).
The verse embodies a great truth. It says that all creation whether in the heavens or on the earth obeys or is bound to obey God-made laws of nature, willingly or unwillingly. The tongue must perform the function of tasting and the ear the function of hearing. This obedience to the laws of nature may be called compulsory. But then man is also given a certain freedom of action where he can use his volition and discretion. A hungry man chooses to eat to satisfy his hunger; another man goes about sight-seeing. Both these persons are free in what they do; but even in actions in which they appear to have been granted freedom, they are subject to a certain amount of compulsion, because they must obey God’s laws in whatever they do, willingly or unwillingly. It is to this point that the verse refers.
Figuratively, the verse also hints at the subtle ways in which God was helping the Holy Prophet. Certain things happened over which the disbelievers had no control but which were meant to help the cause of Islam. The Fall of Mecca, for example, helped to subjugate the whole of Arabia to the Holy Prophet, but the disbelievers could not prevent it. On the other hand, the terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah were dictated by the disbelievers. They thought that these terms would bring disgrace to Muslims and that the cause of Islam would thereby suffer. But the treaty proved a blessing in disguise for the Muslims. Similarly, the Meccans forced the Holy Prophet to flee from Mecca and rejoiced to think that they had succeeded in driving Islam out of its Centre, but by doing so they dug their own grave and laid the foundation of the future prosperity and progress of Islam.
The words, willingly or unwillingly, may also refer to two classes of men, viz. believers who give willing submission to God and disbelievers who have to obey His laws and do it grudgingly.
Of the various meanings of ظلال given under Important Words, the word "shade" does not obviously apply here because shade, being the absence of light, is a negative thing which cannot be spoken of as submitting to God. But ظلwhich is the singular of ظلال also means, the body or corporeal substance of a thing. In this sense the verse would mean that the bodies of all things are subject to the laws of nature. Even the bodies of disbelievers have perforce to submit to God, though their hearts may rebel against Him. The word ظل also means, figuratively, the representative or follower of a thing or person. In this sense the verse would mean that not only all living things but also their followers and representatives obey the laws of God. Again as ظلال is also the plural of ظلة which means that which covers or shades or protects, the word would also signify "leaders or rulers of the people." Combining all these different senses of the word, the verse would therefore mean that the entire creation as well as leaders of men and their followers are all subject to the laws of God. What is hinted at is that disbelievers should beware of opposing the Holy Prophet because opposition to him means defiance of the whole of creation and of the very laws of nature, which is not possible to do. This interpretation of the verse is supported by 13:42.
By using the words, in the mornings and the evenings, which are the two times when the shadows of things are longest, the verse emphasizes that, however vast the power of disbelievers may grow, they cannot succeed against the Holy Prophet. (close)
قُلۡ مَنۡ رَّبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ ؕ قُلۡ اَفَاتَّخَذۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اَوۡلِیَآءَ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ لِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا ضَرًّا ؕ قُلۡ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوِی الۡاَعۡمٰی وَ الۡبَصِیۡرُ ۬ۙ اَمۡ ہَلۡ تَسۡتَوِی الظُّلُمٰتُ وَ النُّوۡرُ ۬ۚ اَمۡ جَعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ شُرَکَآءَ خَلَقُوۡا کَخَلۡقِہٖ فَتَشَابَہَ الۡخَلۡقُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ خَالِقُ کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُوَ الۡوَاحِدُ الۡقَہَّارُ ﴿۱۷﴾
قُلۡ مَن رَّبُّ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ قُلِ ٱللَّهُۚ قُلۡ أَفَٱتَّخَذۡتُم مِّن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوۡلِيَآءَ لَا يَمۡلِكُونَ لِأَنفُسِهِمۡ نَفۡعٗا وَلَا ضَرّٗاۚ قُلۡ هَلۡ يَسۡتَوِي ٱلۡأَعۡمَىٰ وَٱلۡبَصِيرُ أَمۡ هَلۡ تَسۡتَوِي ٱلظُّلُمَٰتُ وَٱلنُّورُۗ أَمۡ جَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ خَلَقُواْ كَخَلۡقِهِۦ فَتَشَٰبَهَ ٱلۡخَلۡقُ عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ خَٰلِقُ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡوَٰحِدُ ٱلۡقَهَّـٰرُ
b. 23:87. (close)
c. 25:4. (close)
d. 11:25; 35:20. (close)
1432. The Qur’an has used two different words to express Divine Unity: (1) Ahad and (2) Wahid. Whereas the former word denotes the absolute Unity of God without relation to any other being, the latter means only 'the first' or 'the starting point,' and requires a second and a third to follow it. The Divine attribute, Wahid (One), shows that God is the real 'source' from which all creation springs, and everything points to Him just as a second or a third thing necessarily points to the first. But where the Qur’an seeks to refute the doctrine of the sonship of those who have been falsely given that status, it uses the word Ahad, i.e. He Who is and has ever been One and Alone and Who has begotten no child (112:2). (close)
a. 23:87. (close)
b. 25:4. (close)
c. 11:25; 35:20. (close)
The words, who have no power for good or harm even for themselves, spoken about false deities point to a strange coincidence. Generally, the lives of all those persons who later came to be worshipped as deities were full of hardship and privation. Jesus, Imam Husain, Rama, etc., all led very hard lives. This fact seems to entail a strong warning to their misguided worshippers that they could expect no benefit or help from those who could not even protect themselves from harm or danger.
In the words, Can the blind and the seeing be equal?, disbelievers are told that they, being spiritually and morally blind, should not be deceived by their power and their numbers against the Holy Prophet, as even an army of blind men is powerless against one person who has eyes. The Prophet and his followers possess sight, while disbelievers are blind.
The powerlessness of the disbelievers is further brought home to them in the simile of light and darkness referred to in the words, can darkness be equal to light? Disbelievers are told that as darkness possesses no independent existence, being only the negation of light, it must flee before light. So disbelievers cannot stand against the Holy Prophet. In the last part of the verse disbelievers are challenged to produce anything which they think has been created by their false deities.
The Quran has used two different words to express the Unity of God, viz. (1) احد and (2) واحد. Whereas the former denotes the absolute Unity of God without relation to any other being, the latter means only "the first" or "the starting point" and requires a second and a third to follow it. The Divine attribute of واحد (One) is thus intended to show that God is the real "source" from which all creation springs. Although none of His creatures is similar to Him in perfection and He is Independent of all, yet everything does point to Him, just as a second or a third thing necessarily points to the first. The attribute واحد (One) has therefore been used here as an evidence of the truth of the previous statement, viz. Allah alone is the Creator of all things. As against this, where the Quran seeks to refute the doctrine of the son-ship of those who have been falsely given that status, it uses the word احد i.e. He Who has ever been One and alone and has begotten no child (112:2).
The addition of the attribute of "Most Supreme" to "One" signifies that God does not need the help or assistance of any being for the control and governance of the universe He has brought into existence, because He is not only the source of all things but is also Supreme and Powerful over them. Hence it is useless and absurd for disbelievers to worship their false deities. (close)
اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَسَالَتۡ اَوۡدِیَۃٌۢ بِقَدَرِہَا فَاحۡتَمَلَ السَّیۡلُ زَبَدًا رَّابِیًا ؕ وَ مِمَّا یُوۡقِدُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِ فِی النَّارِ ابۡتِغَآءَ حِلۡیَۃٍ اَوۡ مَتَاعٍ زَبَدٌ مِّثۡلُہٗ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡحَقَّ وَ الۡبَاطِلَ ۬ؕ فَاَمَّا الزَّبَدُ فَیَذۡہَبُ جُفَآءً ۚ وَ اَمَّا مَا یَنۡفَعُ النَّاسَ فَیَمۡکُثُ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ﴿ؕ۱۸﴾
أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ فَسَالَتۡ أَوۡدِيَةُۢ بِقَدَرِهَا فَٱحۡتَمَلَ ٱلسَّيۡلُ زَبَدٗا رَّابِيٗاۖ وَمِمَّا يُوقِدُونَ عَلَيۡهِ فِي ٱلنَّارِ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ حِلۡيَةٍ أَوۡ مَتَٰعٖ زَبَدٞ مِّثۡلُهُۥۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضۡرِبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحَقَّ وَٱلۡبَٰطِلَۚ فَأَمَّا ٱلزَّبَدُ فَيَذۡهَبُ جُفَآءٗۖ وَأَمَّا مَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ فَيَمۡكُثُ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضۡرِبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡأَمۡثَالَ
a. 39:22. (close)
1433. The verse has used two very apt illustrations. In the first illustration, truth is compared to water and falsehood to foam. Falsehood in the beginning seems to prevail over truth, but in the end it is swept away by truth even as rubbish is swept away by a powerful current of water. In the second illustration, truth is likened to gold or silver which, when melted, throws off the dross leaving behind the unmixed metal, pure and bright. (close)
1629. Important Words:
جفاء (rubbish) is derived from جفأ (jafa’a) which means, it (valley flowing with water) cast forth froth or foam or particles of rubbish or refuse. جفت القدر means, the cooking-pot cast forth its froth or foam in boiling. Hence جفاء means, what is cast forth in the form of froth or foam or scum or rubbish by a torrent or a cooking-pot. Figuratively, the word also means, anything that is worthless or useless (Lane).
The verse has used two very apt illustrations. First, it says that when rain falls and water begins to flow in various directions, then so much foam and froth appears on the surface of the water in places which are quite clean that it seems to cover it altogether.
But soon the foam subsides and the water is seen rushing along. In the second illustration froth is referred to as appearing on the surface of gold or silver or any other metal when the smith melts it to make ornaments or utensils, but the smith removes the scum and then only pure metal remains behind.
In the first illustration, truth is compared to water and falsehood to foam which, in the beginning seems to prevail over truth, but in the end it is carried away even as rubbish is swept away by a powerful current of water. In the second illustration, truth is likened to gold or silver which, when melted, brings forth a foamy excretion which is cast away, leaving behind the unmixed metal, pure and bright.
The parable implies that before the mighty onrush of Islam the foam and froth of false beliefs and practices will disappear. The parable also means that through the Prophets of God a great awakening in the nature of man causes a conflict between his good inclinations and the evil customs and usages to which he has subjected himself. Those whose inner nature is good emerge from this conflict with their wrong ideas and beliefs replaced by right ones.
The words, so that valleys flow according to their measure, mean that different people benefit by the truth according to their respective capacities for assimilation. (close)