Introduction of Ibrahim
(Revealed before Hijrah)
The whole Surah was revealed at Mecca. Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, however, make an exception of verses 29-31, which according to them were revealed at Medina.
The subject matter of the previous chapter has been continued and explained more fully and clearly in this chapter. In this Surah the truth of the Quranic teaching is sought to be proved from observation, inferences to this effect having been drawn from facts of history. It is pointed out that in circumstances similar to that of the Holy Prophet, Messengers of God were successful in their own day against very powerful opposition. The Holy Prophet, therefore, is also bound to succeed in his mission in spite of the meagreness of his means.
The real purpose of Quranic revelation is to provide guidance for mankind, which is groping in darkness. The Holy Prophet has been raised to bring people out of this Cimmerian darkness into light. Prophets had also appeared before him, prominent among them being Moses, who is depicted in the Surah as saying to his people that Messengers of God who appeared before him had also been raised to serve the same object. The Surah then proceeds to enlighten us about the main cause of the triumph of Divine Messengers over their opponents. It was that they worshipped and preached truth. After having dealt with this subject, the Surah lays down the special marks and signs of the revealed Word of God and the criteria by which its truth can be tested. Judged by these standards, the Quran is definitely proved to be God’s own revealed Word. Muslims then are advised as to how best they can profit by its noble ideals and teachings. Next the Surahpoints out that the change which was about to take place in Arabia through the Message of the Quran had been decreed ages before by Almighty God. It had been God’s plan and purpose since Abraham went to the wilderness of Paran and settled his son Ishmael and his wife Hagar there, that this barren and bleak country would one day become the Centre of the greatest religious Movement that the world had ever seen. Nay, Mecca itself was founded to fulfil this divine plan. This is why, in spite of the barrenness of its soil, God has always provided for its inhabitants their means of livelihood in ample measure. While Abraham was reconstructing the Ka‘bah with the help of his son, Ishmael, he prayed to God that He might raise up among them a Messenger from among themselves, who may recite to them His signs and teach them the Book and Wisdom and may purify them (2:130). This prayer was fulfilled in the person of the Holy Prophet.
The Surah proceeds to remind the faithful that their duties and responsibilities had already been explained to them by the Prophet Abraham and that they should never lose sight of them. It ends with a warning to the disbelievers that since Mecca had been founded to become the Centre for the preaching and propagation of the doctrine of the Oneness of God, they should give up idolatry. Any efforts on their part to contradict Divine purpose were bound to end in failure and frustration.
یہ سورت مکی ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی ترپن آیات ہیں۔
اس سورت کا آغاز بھی مقطعات سے ہو رہا ہے اور سورت یونس میں جہاں الٓرٰ پہلے آچکا ہے وہی تشریح اس پر بھی اطلاق پاتی ہے۔ اس سے پہلی سورت کا اختتام اس آیت کریمہ پر ہے: - ’’اور وہ لوگ جنہوں نے کفر کیا کہتے ہیں کہ تُو مرسل نہیں ہے۔ تُو کہہ دے کہ میرے اور تمہارے درمیان اللہ بطور گواہ کافی ہے اور وہ بھی (گواہ ہے) جس کے پاس کتاب کا علم ہے‘‘۔ پس اس سورت کا آغاز بھی کتاب کے ذکر سے ہوا اور کتاب کے نزول کی یہ حکمت بیان فرمائی گئی کہ یہ تجھ پر اس لئے نازل کی جارہی ہے تاکہ لوگوں کو اندھیروں سے نور کی طرف نکالا جائے۔ پھر یہ بھی ذکر فرمایا گیا کہ حضرت موسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو بھی اس غرض سے کتاب دی گئی تھی۔ پھر حضرت موسیؑ کے اُس انتباہ کا ذکر ہے جس سے آپؑ نے اپنی قوم کو ڈرایا کہ اگر تم اور وہ تمام جو زمین میں بستے ہیں میرا انکار کردوگے تو اللہ تعالیٰ تمہارے انکار سے مستغنی ہے اور تم اس کی حمدنہ بھی کرو تو وہ اپنی ذات میں صاحبِ حمد ہے۔ اس کے بعد مختلف انبیاء کا ذکر ہے کہ ان کی قوموں نے انکار کیوں کیا۔ ان کے انکار کی بنا یہی تھی کہ وہ رسولوں کو اپنے جیسا ایک انسان سمجھتے تھے جن پر خداتعالیٰ کی پاک وحی نازل ہو ہی نہیں سکتی۔ اس سورت میں ایک نئی بات یہ بھی پائی جاتی ہے کہ قتلِ مرتد کے عقیدے کی بحث اٹھائی گئی ہے اور فرمایا گیا ہے کہ قتلِ مرتد کا عقیدہ رسولوں کا انکار کرنے والوں کا اجماعی عقیدہ تھا۔ چنانچہ انہوں نے ہر رسول کو اپنے زعم میں مرتد سمجھتے ہوئے اس کے عواقب سے آگاہ کیا کہ ہم مرتد کو ضرور سزا دیا کرتے ہیں جو اپنی زمین سے دیس نکالا ہے جب تک واپس ہماری ملت میں نہ لوٹ آئے۔ چنانچہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے رسولوں پر وحی فرمائی کہ تمہاری ہلاکت کا دعویٰ کرنے والے خود ہی ہلاک کردیئے جائیں گے یہاں تک کہ جن زمینوں کے وہ مالک بنے بیٹھے ہیں ان کے بعد تم ان کے وارث بنا دیئے جاؤ گے۔ اسی سورت میں لفظ کلمۃ کی ایک عظیم الشان تشریح پیش فرمائی گئی ہے اور اسی طرح شجرہ کے معنے بھی خوب کھول دیئے گئے ہیں۔ شجرۂ طیبہ کی مثال پاک انسانوں یعنی انبیاء کی طرح ہے جن کی جڑیں بظاہر زمین میں پیوست ہوتی ہیں لیکن وہ اپنی روحانی غذا آسمان سے حاصل کرتے ہیں اور ہر حال میں ان کو یہ غذا عطا کی جاتی ہے خواہ موسم بہار ہو یا موسم خزاں ہو۔ اور شجرۂ خبیثہ سے مراد انبیاء کے مخالفین ہیں جو اس طرح زمین سے اکھاڑ پھینک دیئے جائیں گے جیسے وہ پودے جو تیز ہواؤں کے نتیجہ میں زمین سے اکھڑ جاتے ہیں اور ہوائیں انہیں اسی حالت میں ایک جگہ سے دوسری جگہ منتقل کرتی رہتی ہیں۔ پس انبیاء کے مخالفین کا بھی یہی حال ہوگا۔ وہ بار بار اپنے مؤقف تبدیل کریں گے اور بالآخر خاک میں ملادیئے جائیں گے۔ اس کے بعد حضرت ابراہیم علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی وہ دعا ہے جو خانہ کعبہ سے متعلق ہے اور اللہ تعالیٰ سے اس میں یہ بھی التجا کی گئی ہے کہ خانہ کعبہ کے پاس رہنے والوں کو دُور دراز سے ہر قسم کے پھل عطا کئے جائیں۔ یہ واقعہ اسی طرح رونما ہوا۔ انہیں جسمانی پھل بھی عطا کئے گئے اور روحانی پھل بھی اور اس کا مختصر ذکر سورۃ قریش میں فرمایا گیا ہے۔ روحانی پھلوں میں سے سب سے بڑا پھل رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کی صورت میں ظاہر ہوا یعنی آپ وہ کلمۂ طیبہ بن کر ابھرے جو بنی نوع انسان کو آسمانی پھل عطا کرتا تھا۔ اس سورت کے آخر پر فرمایا گیا ہے کہ کفّار، اسلام کے خلاف یا رسولوں کے خلاف جس قدر مکر بھی کرنا چاہیں یہاں تک کہ اُن کے مکر کے ذریعہ پہاڑ جڑوں سے اکھیڑ پھینکے جائیں تب بھی وہ اللہ کے رسولوں کو ناکام نہیں کرسکتے۔ یہاں پہاڑوں کی مثال اس لئے دی گئی ہے کہ آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو بھی عظیم ترین پہاڑ سے مشابہت رکھنے والے ایک رسول کی صورت میں پیش فرمایا گیا ہے۔ پس اس سورت کا اختتام ان الفاظ پر ہوتا ہے کہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کے انکار کرنے والوں کی زمین اور ان کے آسمان تبدیل کردیئے جائیں گے اور نئے زمین و آسمان بنائے جائیں گے جس کے نتیجہ میں وہ غالب خدا کے حضور گروہ در گروہ نکل کھڑے ہوں گے۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. 1:1. (close)
See note on 1:1. (close)
الٓرٰ ۟ کِتٰبٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ اِلَیۡکَ لِتُخۡرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَی النُّوۡرِ ۬ۙ بِاِذۡنِ رَبِّہِمۡ اِلٰی صِرَاطِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَمِیۡدِ ۙ﴿۲﴾
الٓرۚ كِتَٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ إِلَيۡكَ لِتُخۡرِجَ ٱلنَّاسَ مِنَ ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ بِإِذۡنِ رَبِّهِمۡ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ
b. 10:2; 11:2; 12:2; 13:2; 15:2. (close)
1452. See 16. (close)
c. 2:258; 5:17; 14:6; 65:12. (close)
b. 10:2; 11:2; 12:2; 13:2; 15:2. (close)
For an explanation of the abbreviated letters Alif Lam Ra, see 2:2. & 10:2.
This verse represents the Quran as a "torch" by means of which the Holy Prophet led men from darkness into "light," which is "the path of the Mighty, the Praiseworthy."
Commentators differ as to what is meant by "light." In popular parlance, students of modern philosophy or sciences or those who follow no revealed Law or, for that matter, know no religion, are spoken of by some as "men of light." Christians look upon their own religion as the source of all light, while according to Hindus their religion alone is light and all else is darkness. For the followers of Islam it is their faith which, of all religious systems, deserves to be called by this name. The verse under comment lays down a sure criterion by which true "light" may be judged and tested. According to it "light" means "coming out of darkness and attaining nearness to God," so only those who, betake themselves to Him may be said to have received the "light."
The verse mentions two attributes of God, "the Mighty" and "the Praiseworthy." The attribute, "the Mighty," pertains to outward light, while "the Praiseworthy" refers to inward light. He who develops in himself the first attribute is enabled to overcome his external enemies and become safe from physical afflictions, privations and hardships, while he who develops the second attribute overpowers his inward enemy, Satan, and gets rid of the darkness of doubts, misgivings, evil suggestions and ignorance. The Arabs were delivered from both these kinds of darkness through the Holy Prophet. They were not only revived into a new life but superstition, ignorance, idolatry and moral depravity also took leave of them. Through the Holy Prophet they became not only the temporal rulers, but also the moral and spiritual teachers of the world. (close)
اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ وَیۡلٌ لِّلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ مِنۡ عَذَابٍ شَدِیۡدِ ۣ ۙ﴿۳﴾
ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِي لَهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَوَيۡلٞ لِّلۡكَٰفِرِينَ مِنۡ عَذَابٖ شَدِيدٍ
d. 19:38; 38:28; 51:61. (close)
a. 19:38; 38:28; 51:61. (close)
This verse is grammatically connected with the one that precedes it, the word "Allah" used here being in apposition with the words "Mighty" and "Praiseworthy" occurring in the preceding verse. The expression, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, means that the whole universe bears witness to God’s being "the Mighty," for both heavens and earth are governed by the same law. Similarly, by the entire absence of any defect or flaw, they bear witness to His being "the Praiseworthy." So those who establish their connection with such a God will naturally experience a great inner change as a result of which they will be vouchsafed the dominion of both heaven and earth. It is noteworthy how magnificently this promise was fulfilled in the time of the Holy Prophet. So great was the temporal power of Islam that the Khalifah issued orders from his seat of government and the whole Muslim world, which practically coincided with the then known world, reverently obeyed him. Similarly, early Muslims were looked upon as models of moral integrity and spiritual eminence, and history abounds in examples of the purity of their character. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یَسۡتَحِبُّوۡنَ الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا عَلَی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ وَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ یَبۡغُوۡنَہَا عِوَجًا ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ فِیۡ ضَلٰلٍۭ بَعِیۡدٍ ﴿۴﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَحِبُّونَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا عَلَى ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَبۡغُونَهَا عِوَجًاۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ فِي ضَلَٰلِۭ بَعِيدٖ
e. 16:108. (close)
f. 3:100; 7:46; 11:20. (close)
b. 16:108. (close)
c. 3:100; 7:46; 11:20. (close)
1658. Important Words:
عوجا (crooked) is the noun-infinitive from عوج (‘awija) which means, it was or became crooked, curved, bent, winding, distorted or uneven. They say عوج العود i.e. the wood was or became crooked, curved, bent or distorted. عوج الامر means, the affair was or became difficult, arduous or troublesome. عوج (‘iwajun) means, crookedness or curvity; unevenness; corruption or deviation from rectitude; evilness of natural disposition (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse means that those who forsake the way of the Mighty and Praiseworthy God can never hope to attain power and praise. Such people become lost in error and not only deprive themselves of divine favours but also seek to deprive others by preventing them from accepting truth. The words, seek to make it crooked, mean that, whereas outwardly they profess to seek true guidance, inwardly they are bent upon crookedness and refuse to give up the evil ways of their forefathers. The inevitable result of such an attitude is that, in order to satisfy their uneasy conscience, they call their self-devised practices the religion of God. This false satisfaction deprives them and their followers of true guidance. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ رَّسُوۡلٍ اِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوۡمِہٖ لِیُبَیِّنَ لَہُمۡ ؕ فَیُضِلُّ اللّٰہُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۵﴾
وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوۡمِهِۦ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمۡۖ فَيُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهۡدِي مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ
1453. The verse does not mean that the Message of the Holy Prophet was confined to the Arabs alone. Such an assumption is belied by other verses of the Qur’an in which he is clearly and unequivocally declared to be a Divine Messenger sent for the whole world (7:159; 34:29). Not only does the Qur’an claim a universal mission for the Holy Prophet, but the Holy Prophet himself is reported to have said, 'I have been sent to the black and the red,' meaning the whole of mankind (Bihar); and 'I have been raised for all mankind' (Bukhari). The Qur’an was revealed in the Arabic language because the Arabs were its first addressees (and also because Arabic, being the most expressive, eloquent and comprehensive language, was eminently suited to be the vehicle for the delivery of the Quranic Message) and through them its Message was to be preached to the world and not that the Message was meant for the Arabs only. (close)
a. 13:28; 74:32. (close)
a. 13:28; 74:32. (close)
The verse does not mean that a Divine Messenger should receive his revelation only in the language of his people. What it means is that the major and fundamental part of his revelation must be in the tongue of his people, otherwise the conveying of his Message to those who are its first recipients would become difficult. Occasionally, however, a Prophet may receive a revelation in a foreign tongue. In fact, such exceptional revelation would serve as a divine sign or miracle.
It is wrong to infer from this verse, as the Rev. Mr. Wherry and other Christian writers have done, that the Message of the Holy Prophet was confined to the Arabs. Such an assumption is forcefully belied by other verses of the Quran in which the Prophet is clearly and unequivocally declared to be a Prophet sent for the whole world (7:159; 34:29). Not only does the Quran claim a universal mission for the Holy Prophet, but the Prophet himself also claimed to be a Messenger for all mankind. For instance, he is reported to have said, بعثت الی الاسود و الاحمر i.e. I have been sent to the black and the red, meaning the whole of mankind (Bihar). Similarly, he said, بعثت الی الناس عامة i.e. I have been raised for all mankind (Bukhari). According to yet another hadith he is reported to have said, ارسلت الی الخلق کافة i.e. I have been sent to the whole creation (Mishkat).
Incidentally, this verse proves that Arabic is the mother of all tongues, because the fact that the Holy Prophet was sent to the whole of mankind shows that the language which the Wise God made the vehicle of His Message, must, in one way or another, be the mother of all languages. This was actually proved to be the truth by Ahmad, the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam (see "Minan-ur-Rahman").
The fact that the words, Then Allah lets go astray whom He wills, have been placed after the words, that he might make things clear to them, shows that it is only after the truth is brought home to men that they become deserving of punishment for rejecting it. Thus, although all non-Muslims are technically called disbelievers or Kafirs, yet all of them will not go to Hell; for, as the verse shows, only those disbelievers become deserving of punishment who reject the truth after it has been made clear to them. Mere technical disbelief does not render one liable to punishment. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مُوۡسٰی بِاٰیٰتِنَاۤ اَنۡ اَخۡرِجۡ قَوۡمَکَ مِنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَی النُّوۡرِ ۬ۙ وَ ذَکِّرۡہُمۡ بِاَیّٰٮمِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّکُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَکُوۡرٍ ﴿۶﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ أَنۡ أَخۡرِجۡ قَوۡمَكَ مِنَ ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ وَذَكِّرۡهُم بِأَيَّىٰمِ ٱللَّهِۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٖ شَكُورٖ
b. 14:2. (close)
1454. The expression Ayyamullah signifies the favours and punishments of Allah (Taj), like the well-known Arabic phrase Ayyamul-‘Arab which means, the fights and conflicts of the Arabs. (close)
a. 14:2. (close)
The example of Moses has been mentioned here to show that, the Holy Prophet being like him, his opponents shall come to grief like the enemies of Moses. The Prophet’s enemies are thus warned that, while denying him, they should not forget the case of Moses and his enemies.
By the words, the days of Allah, are meant the days when God assisted believers against their enemies; also the days when He punished the enemies of the Prophets for their evil deeds. The verse means that the right way to bring men from darkness into light is to draw their attention to both the favours of God and His punishments. It is not at all right to think that faith based on fear lacks elements of reality. Such a view, indeed, betrays ignorance of human nature. Many people refrain from evil only due to the fear of punishment. If the incentive of fear were altogether dispensed with, nothing could wean such people from their evil ways. The Quran, being a perfect book, has provided guidance for men of all sorts of dispositions and temperaments and has made use of the incentives both of love and of fear.
In the words, Surely, therein are Signs for every patient and thankful person, Muslims are warned that, like the followers of Moses, they will have to pass through trials and tribulations and it is only when they have patiently borne the ordeal and come out of it with untarnished faith and sincerity that they will inherit the favours of God. But if, like the people of Moses, they prove ungrateful to God, they will be visited with punishment. (close)
وَ اِذۡ قَالَ مُوۡسٰی لِقَوۡمِہِ اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَۃَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِذۡ اَنۡجٰکُمۡ مِّنۡ اٰلِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ یَسُوۡمُوۡنَکُمۡ سُوۡٓءَ الۡعَذَابِ وَ یُذَبِّحُوۡنَ اَبۡنَآءَکُمۡ وَ یَسۡتَحۡیُوۡنَ نِسَآءَکُمۡ ؕ وَ فِیۡ ذٰلِکُمۡ بَلَآءٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ عَظِیۡمٌ ٪﴿۷﴾
وَإِذۡ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوۡمِهِ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَةَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِذۡ أَنجَىٰكُم مِّنۡ ءَالِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ يَسُومُونَكُمۡ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ وَيُذَبِّحُونَ أَبۡنَآءَكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمۡۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَآءٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ عَظِيمٞ
c. 2:50; 7:142; 28:5. (close)
a. 2:50; 7:142; 28:5. (close)
The verse means that Pharaoh afflicted the Israelites with grievous torment. He imposed heavy taxes and forced labour upon them and killed their male children. But God came to their help and saved them from this grievous torment. In this connection see Exod. 1:14, 22. (close)
وَ اِذۡ تَاَذَّنَ رَبُّکُمۡ لَئِنۡ شَکَرۡتُمۡ لَاَزِیۡدَنَّکُمۡ وَ لَئِنۡ کَفَرۡتُمۡ اِنَّ عَذَابِیۡ لَشَدِیۡدٌ ﴿۸﴾
وَإِذۡ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكُمۡ لَئِن شَكَرۡتُمۡ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمۡۖ وَلَئِن كَفَرۡتُمۡ إِنَّ عَذَابِي لَشَدِيدٞ
a. 3:116; 4:148. (close)
1455. Shukr (gratefulness) is of three kinds: (1) With the heart or mind, which consists in forming an adequate idea of the benefit received; (2) with the tongue, which consists in praising, eulogizing or commending the benefactor; and (3) with the limbs, which consists in requiting the benefit received according to its desert. It rests upon five foundations, (a) humility of him who renders it towards him to whom it is rendered; (b) his love of him; (c) his acknowledgment of his benefit; (d) his eulogizing him for it; and (e) his not making use of the benefit in a manner which he (who has conferred it) may dislike. This is Shukr on the part of man. Shukr on the part of God consists in forgiving a person or commending him, or regarding him with satisfaction, goodwill or favour, and hence necessarily recompensing or rewarding him (Lane). One can only be truly grateful to God when one makes right use of His gifts. (close)
b. 3:116; 4:148. (close)
1662. Important Words:
شکرتم (you are grateful) is formed from شکر. They say, شکرالله or شکرلله i.e. he thanked God; or he praised God for His beneficence; or he was grateful to God; or he acknowledged the beneficence of God, and spoke of it largely, and acted in the manner incumbent on him in rendering Him obedience and abstaining from disobedience.
شکر (Shukr i.e. thankfulness) is of three kinds:
(1) with the heart or mind, which consists in forming an adequate idea of the benefit received;
(2) with the tongue, which consists in praising, eulogizing or commend-ing the benefactor; and
(3) with the limbs, which consists in requiting the benefit received according to what it deserves. It rests upon five foundations: (a) humility of him who renders it towards him to whom it is rendered; (b) his love of him; (c) his acknowledgment of his benefit; (d) his eulogizing him for it; and (e) his not making use of the benefit in a manner which he (who has conferred it) may dislike. This is شکر on the part of man. شکر on the part of God consists in forgiving a person or commending him, or regarding him with satisfaction, goodwill or favour, and hence necessarily recom-pensing or rewarding him. The expression شکرالله سعیه means, May God recompense or reward his work (Lane).
The verse enunciates the great principle that all advancement is bound up with شکر (thankfulness) which, as explained under Important Words, denotes acknowledgment of the benefits received. One can render true شکر to God only when one makes a right and proper use of His gifts. If right use is not made of divine gifts, the act of eulogizing God by man is mere verbal praising; it is not real شکر. Now, as the verse explains, the Merciful God has ordained that divine gifts increase by their proper use. If, for instance, one makes a right use of knowledge, which is a great divine gift, it is bound to increase. Similarly, if proper use is made of the organs of the body, they develop further. This divine law founded on God’s eternal mercy applies to all men irrespective of their caste, colour or creed. It holds equally good as regards both spiritual and material gifts. It operates not only in تقدیر عام (the general law of God) but also in تقدیر خاص (the special law of God). (close)
وَ قَالَ مُوۡسٰۤی اِنۡ تَکۡفُرُوۡۤا اَنۡتُمۡ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ جَمِیۡعًا ۙ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَغَنِیٌّ حَمِیۡدٌ ﴿۹﴾
وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰٓ إِن تَكۡفُرُوٓاْ أَنتُمۡ وَمَن فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعٗا فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ
b. 31:13. (close)
a. 31:13. (close)
The verse represents Moses as saying that God’s sending down His guidance through His Prophets should not be taken to mean that the acceptance of Divine guidance by man in any way conduces to God’s own good. It is all for the good of man himself, for God is Self-Sufficient and above all needs. (close)
اَلَمۡ یَاۡتِکُمۡ نَبَؤُا الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّ عَادٍ وَّ ثَمُوۡدَ ۬ؕۛ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ ؕۛ لَا یَعۡلَمُہُمۡ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ؕ جَآءَتۡہُمۡ رُسُلُہُمۡ بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ فَرَدُّوۡۤا اَیۡدِیَہُمۡ فِیۡۤ اَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ وَ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّا کَفَرۡنَا بِمَاۤ اُرۡسِلۡتُمۡ بِہٖ وَ اِنَّا لَفِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّمَّا تَدۡعُوۡنَنَاۤ اِلَیۡہِ مُرِیۡبٍ ﴿۱۰﴾
أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِكُمۡ نَبَؤُاْ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوحٖ وَعَادٖ وَثَمُودَ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُهُمۡ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُۚ جَآءَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ فَرَدُّوٓاْ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ فِيٓ أَفۡوَٰهِهِمۡ وَقَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا كَفَرۡنَا بِمَآ أُرۡسِلۡتُم بِهِۦ وَإِنَّا لَفِي شَكّٖ مِّمَّا تَدۡعُونَنَآ إِلَيۡهِ مُرِيبٖ
c. 9:70; 40:32; 50:13-15. (close)
1456. These words indicate that Prophets were also raised among nations other than the progeny of Abraham, for, the tribes of ‘Ad and Thamud were followed by some other peoples whom 'none knows now save Allah,' whereas the Prophets that appeared among the progeny of Abraham have been mentioned both in the Qur’an and the Bible. (close)
1457. The words mean that disbelievers thrust their hands into their own mouths in amazement at the high-sounding claims of the Prophets. Or they bit their hands in rage at what the Prophets said. Or they put their hands on the mouths of the Prophets so as to silence them and make them cease talking about their claims. (close)
a. 9:70; 40:32; 50:13-15. (close)
1664. Important Words:
نبأ (tidings) is the noun-infinitive, from نبأ (naba’a). They say انباہ ایاہ i.e. he informed him of it. نبأ means, information or a piece of information; an announcement; news or tidings; an account; a narrative or story; an announcement of great utility, from which results either great knowledge or predominance of opinion; news which fills the heart of a person with horror and makes it tremble (Lane, Aqrab & Kulliyat).
ایدیھم (their hands). ایدی is the plural of ید which among other things means, the arm from the shoulder-joint to the extremities of the fingers; palm of the hand; honour; dignity; power; predominance or mastery; good or favour done to a person (Aqrab & Lane). See also 5:65; 9:29.
The words, and those after them. None knows them now save Allah, clearly indicate that Prophets were also raised among nations other than the progeny of Abraham, for, as the verse makes clear, the tribes of ‘Ad and Thamud were followed by some about whom None knows now save Allah, whereas the Prophets that appeared among the progeny of Abraham have been mentioned both in the Quran and the Bible. So the words, None knows them now save Allah, evidently refer to Prophets other than those that appeared among the descendants of Abraham. The words signify that the Prophets referred to have not been mentioned in any of the revealed Books which have remained partially or wholly intact.
The words, they turned their hands to their mouths, have been taken by some commentators to mean that disbelievers turned their hands to their own mouths in amazement at the high-sounding claims of the Prophets. To express wonder in this way is really a form of derision. In this sense the expression would mean that disbelievers treated the Prophets of God with contempt. The words may, however, also mean that disbelievers put their hands on their mouths in a way so as to wish the Prophets to be silent and cease talking about their claims. It is a general practice that when a person desires another person to keep silent, he sometimes puts his hand or occasionally one of his fingers on his own mouth as a sign for the other person to keep silent.
Taking the word ید in the sense of favour or gift, the expression would mean that disbelievers threw the favours of the Prophet in their faces, telling them to keep their teachings to themselves as they (the disbelievers) did not want them. The words that follow support this meaning. (close)