قَالَتۡ رُسُلُہُمۡ اَفِی اللّٰہِ شَکٌّ فَاطِرِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ یَدۡعُوۡکُمۡ لِیَغۡفِرَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ ذُنُوۡبِکُمۡ وَ یُؤَخِّرَکُمۡ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّی ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اِنۡ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثۡلُنَا ؕ تُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَصُدُّوۡنَا عَمَّا کَانَ یَعۡبُدُ اٰبَآؤُنَا فَاۡتُوۡنَا بِسُلۡطٰنٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۱﴾
۞قَالَتۡ رُسُلُهُمۡ أَفِي ٱللَّهِ شَكّٞ فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ يَدۡعُوكُمۡ لِيَغۡفِرَ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمۡ وَيُؤَخِّرَكُمۡ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٖ مُّسَمّٗىۚ قَالُوٓاْ إِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا بَشَرٞ مِّثۡلُنَا تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَصُدُّونَا عَمَّا كَانَ يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَا فَأۡتُونَا بِسُلۡطَٰنٖ مُّبِينٖ
a. 6:15; 12:102; 35:2; 39:47. (close)
1458. The creation of the heavens and the earth has been adduced to prove the Divine origin of the teachings given to the Prophets. God being the Creator of the heavens and the earth it would be unreasonable to suppose that, having created man, He had left him without guidance. It would be equally inconsistent with reason to think that, whereas God had made ample provision for the material welfare and advancement of man by creating the heavens and the earth, He had neglected to provide for his spiritual welfare. (close)
b. 11:28; 23:25. (close)
a. 6:15; 12:102; 35:2; 39:47. (close)
b. 11:28; 23:25. (close)
1665. Important Words:
فاطر (Maker) is the active participle from فطر. They say فطرہ i.e. he clove, split, rent or cracked it; He (God) created it, or produced it or brought it into existence, namely, for the first time, it not having existed before; originated it; commenced or began it. فاطرالسموات means, the Originator or Creator of the heavens. Ibn ‘Abbas says, "I did not know what was the meaning of فاطرالسموات until two Arabs of the desert came to me, disputing together respecting a well, and one of them said, انا افطرتھا i.e. 'It was I who originated or began it.' " فطرالعجین; means, he made the dough into bread, or baked it, without leavening it, he kneaded the dough and made it into bread or baked it immediately (Lane & Aqrab). From the Quran it appears that there are four stages of creation: (a) the stage when nothing existed and the process of creation began for thefirst time, nothing having existed before; (b) the stage when matter had come into existence but had not yet taken a definite material form; (c) the stage when, as the result of combination, matter began to acquire diverse properties, the consummation of this process being known by the name of the law of nature; and (d) the last stage when, in accordance with the law of nature, the process of procreation or repetition in creation began, viz. man was born out of man and grain out of grain, etc. The attribute of فاطر (Maker) points to the second stage.
The verse gives the creation of the heavens and the earth as an argument to prove the Divine origin of the teaching given to the Prophets. The Prophets are here represented as saying to their opponents: "It is by the command of Allah that we preach. We say nothing of our own accord. How can you entertain doubt about the fact that God can send down revealed guidance? He is the Creator of heaven and earth, and it is unreasonable to think that, after having created man, He should have left him without guidance. Equally, it is inconsistent with reason to think that, whereas God has made ample provision for the material welfare and advancement of man by creating heaven and earth, He should have neglected to provide for his spiritual welfare."
The words, He calls you that He may forgive you your sins, and grant you respite till an appointed term, refute an objection of disbelievers that God was too dignified and exalted to invite humble beings like themselves to Him. They are told that it is indeed inconsistent with the dignity of God to call humble beings to His aid, but it is not at all below His dignity to come to their help. Nay, such an act is quite in keeping with His supreme dignity. God had therefore sent His Messengers that, through them, He might satisfy the moral and spiritual needs of man and grant him a new and higher life.
The expression, you are but men like ourselves;…Bring us then some clear proof, contains another objection of disbelievers that, if God at all was to have raised Messengers, they should have been beings befitting His dignity and not weak and humble men like themselves. The answer is given in the succeeding verse. (close)
قَالَتۡ لَہُمۡ رُسُلُہُمۡ اِنۡ نَّحۡنُ اِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثۡلُکُمۡ وَ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَمُنُّ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِہٖ ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ لَنَاۤ اَنۡ نَّاۡتِیَکُمۡ بِسُلۡطٰنٍ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾
قَالَتۡ لَهُمۡ رُسُلُهُمۡ إِن نَّحۡنُ إِلَّا بَشَرٞ مِّثۡلُكُمۡ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَمُنُّ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦۖ وَمَا كَانَ لَنَآ أَن نَّأۡتِيَكُم بِسُلۡطَٰنٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
c. 18:111; 41:7. (close)
1459. A Messenger of God who is sent for the guidance of men and to serve as a model or exemplar for them must be a man like themselves; for, without being a human being like themselves, he could not be a model for them. (close)
a. 3:165; 6:125. (close)
a. 18:111; 41:7. (close)
b. 3:165; 6:125. (close)
This verse constitutes a reply to the objections of disbelievers mentioned in the preceding verse.
The reply is to the effect that a Messenger of God who is sent for the guidance of men and to serve as a model or exemplar for them must be a man like themselves; for, without being a human being like themselves, he could not be a model for them. If he were a "co-partner" of God or a so-called "son" or an angel or any other superhuman being, he could not be a model for men. So God chooses of His servants whom He pleases. There is none to set limits to His powers and choice.
The words, And it is not for us to bring you a proof except by the command of Allah, do not mean that the Messengers of God could not adduce a proof in support of their claim. They are meant only to answer the demand of disbelievers that the Prophets should prove their power and superiority over them. They are told by the Messengers that power and victory all come from God and that, as human beings, they (the Messengers) possess no superiority over them. (close)
وَ مَا لَنَاۤ اَلَّا نَتَوَکَّلَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ وَ قَدۡ ہَدٰٮنَا سُبُلَنَا ؕ وَ لَنَصۡبِرَنَّ عَلٰی مَاۤ اٰذَیۡتُمُوۡنَا ؕ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُتَوَکِّلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۳﴾
وَمَا لَنَآ أَلَّا نَتَوَكَّلَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ وَقَدۡ هَدَىٰنَا سُبُلَنَاۚ وَلَنَصۡبِرَنَّ عَلَىٰ مَآ ءَاذَيۡتُمُونَاۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُتَوَكِّلُونَ
b. 11:57, 89; 12:68. (close)
a. 11:57, 89; 12:68. (close)
The expression, when He has showed us our ways, signifies that the superiority of a Prophet lies in the fact that he proves that man stands in need of God’s assistance by demonstrating his weaknesses. The expression also hints at the great truth that Divine law embodies only such injunctions as are for the good of man himself, the words "our ways" meaning the ways by following which man can make all kinds of progress.
By the words, And we will surely bear with patience all the harm you do us, the Messengers of God make a confession of their weakness. Far from claiming any superiority over their opponents, they admit that their opponents excel them in material means and that if Divinehelp does not come to their succour, they would have to suffer untold pain and persecution at their hands. As, however, they had undertaken their task by the command of God, they would bear all hardships with patience and would thus prove that it was not their own exaltation and aggrandizement that they had in view. And, as their trust was in God, they also knew that final success was assured for them. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لِرُسُلِہِمۡ لَنُخۡرِجَنَّکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَرۡضِنَاۤ اَوۡ لَتَعُوۡدُنَّ فِیۡ مِلَّتِنَا ؕ فَاَوۡحٰۤی اِلَیۡہِمۡ رَبُّہُمۡ لَنُہۡلِکَنَّ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۴﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِرُسُلِهِمۡ لَنُخۡرِجَنَّكُم مِّنۡ أَرۡضِنَآ أَوۡ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِي مِلَّتِنَاۖ فَأَوۡحَىٰٓ إِلَيۡهِمۡ رَبُّهُمۡ لَنُهۡلِكَنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
c. 7:89. (close)
a. 7:89. (close)
This verse contains a subtle reference to a deep-rooted desire of the opponents of God’s Messengers in all times. They ardently wish the Prophets to incline towards them a little and abstain from a wholesale denunciation of their beliefs that there may thus come about something like a compromise between the two parties. This desire of disbelievers has also been expressed in 68:10. But the Prophets always flatly refuse to agree to any such compromise and adhere unflinchingly to their principles, without deviating an hair’s breadth from them. It is after disbelievers see that the Prophets accept no compromise that they launch a campaign of bitter persecution against them and thus either seek to force them back into their faith or compel them to leave their country, which includes extirpation by any other means. This is how disbelievers have treated God’s Prophets throughout the ages—the same offer of compromise on their part, the same disdainful rejection of this offer by the Prophets and the same campaign of bitter persecution launched against the latter by their opponents.
In the words, We will surely destroy the wrongdoers, God has, as it were, turned the tables upon disbelievers. They had threatened the Prophets with expulsion from "our land" if they did not recant their faith. To this threat God replies by saying that, as the land is His and not theirs, so if it comes to dispossessing the wrongdoers, it will be they that will be destroyed. The verse thus implies a prophecy of the ultimate destruction of the enemies of the Holy Prophet and of his triumphant return to Mecca. (close)
وَ لَنُسۡکِنَنَّـکُمُ الۡاَرۡضَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ ؕ ذٰلِکَ لِمَنۡ خَافَ مَقَامِیۡ وَ خَافَ وَعِیۡدِ ﴿۱۵﴾
وَلَنُسۡكِنَنَّكُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنۡ خَافَ مَقَامِي وَخَافَ وَعِيدِ
d. 21:106. (close)
1460. The Qur’an has used both singular and plural numbers for the personal pronoun with reference to the Supreme Being. Where the Power and Majesty of God are meant to be expressed, the plural number is used; and where His Self- Sufficiency and Independence are intended to be emphasized the singular number is used. Or, as some Muslim divines have stated, where God intends to bring about a result through the agency of angels, the plural number is used; but where a work is to be performed through some special Divine decree, the singular number is resorted to. The present verse combines both. (close)
a. 21:106. (close)
1669. Important Words:
مقامی (My tribunal) is derived from قام which means, he stood up or he stood still. مقام means, the place of stationing; a place of continuance; stay, residence or abode; social standing, rank; God’s Judgement Seat or Tribunal (Lane, Aqrab & Mufradat). See also 55:47.
The Quran has used both the singular and the plural number of the first personal pronoun with reference to the Supreme Being. Where the Power and Majesty of God are meant to be expressed, the plural number is used; and where His Self-Sufficiency and Independence are intended to be emphasized or where the Power and Majesty of God are not meant to be stressed, the singular number is used. Or, as some Muslim divines have stated, where God intends to bring about a result through the agency of angels, the plural number is used; but where a work is to be performed through some special Divinedecree, the singular person is resorted to. The present verse combines both.
The words, This is for him who fears to stand before My Tribunal and fears My warning, make it clear that the promises of victory and success are meant for those only who properly appreciate and realize the Majesty of God and His Power and who believe that God is the Master of the Day of Judgement and who fear lest their sins should bring upon them the punishment of God. Such a belief is a necessary condition for the fulfilment of the promises of God’s help. This shows that mere nominal acceptance of Islam is no surety for success and victory. (close)
وَ اسۡتَفۡتَحُوۡا وَ خَابَ کُلُّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِیۡدٍ ﴿ۙ۱۶﴾
وَٱسۡتَفۡتَحُواْ وَخَابَ كُلُّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٖ
The expression, And they prayed for victory, may apply both to the Prophets and their opponents. The praying of the Prophets for God’s help and victory, after they had been vouchsafed definite Divine promises that they would succeed, in no way reflects on Divine promises or on the Prophets’ belief in the Divine origin of those promises. In fact, the Divinepromise given to a Prophet about the final triumph of his cause does not mean that he should give up making necessary efforts for the success and triumph of his mission or soliciting Divine assistance. On the contrary, it becomes all the more incumbent on a Divine Messenger to do his best lest, through some lapse on the part of some of his followers or a weakening of his own efforts, the final victory may be delayed. That Muslims are enjoined to pray for the assistance of God even after definite and positive Divine promises of victory are given to them is clear from the Quran (3:195). Nor are these two things contradictory to each other. The Holy Prophet was given a clear promise of his triumphant return to Mecca (28:86), yet he continued to pray and work hard for the fulfilment of this Divine promise.
If, however, the words, they prayed for victory, be applied to disbelievers, they would mean that they sought by all means to win victory over the Prophets, but it was foolish on their part to do so, for those who oppose the Prophets of God never meet with success. Their prayers are doomed "to come to naught." (close)
مِّنۡ وَّرَآئِہٖ جَہَنَّمُ وَ یُسۡقٰی مِنۡ مَّآءٍ صَدِیۡدٍ ﴿ۙ۱۷﴾
مِّن وَرَآئِهِۦ جَهَنَّمُ وَيُسۡقَىٰ مِن مَّآءٖ صَدِيدٖ
a. 69:37; 78:25, 26. (close)
a. 69:37; 78:25, 26. (close)
1671. Important Words:
صدید (boiling water) is derived from صد. They say صدہ which means, he hindered or prevented him. اصدالجرح means, the wound contained or generated matter, such as is termed صدید; or it ran with such matter. صدید means, thin water of a wound mixed with blood before the matter becomes thick; or matter or pus, like water in which is a mixture of red and white; or matter or pus mixed with blood in a wound; what flows from the skins of the inmates of Hell or what flows from their insides and is mixed with matter and blood; hot water boiled until it thickens (Lane).
Hot water (صدید) is possibly meant to be used as a sort of cure for some spiritual diseases in the life to come, as it is sometimes used as a cure for certain physical diseases in this life. The verse hints that, in spite of the fact that disbelievers have in their possession all the necessary means to attain their object, they will not be able to make use of them, just as hot water cannot be used for the purpose of drinking and quenching thirst.
The verse may also mean that in the life to come, the internal animal passions of disbelievers will assume the visible form of water mixed with pus and blood flowing from wounds, for the words ماء صدید also mean pus and blood mixed with water. In this case the expression ماء صدید will be taken to have been used to refer to that form of medical treatment in which diseases are treated by serums, vaccines and bacteriophages from the very germs of the diseases from which the patients suffer. Thus the expression ماء صدید may imply that the inmates of Hell will be cured of their spiritual diseases by means of the serum prepared from purulent matter of their own sins and iniquities.
The verse may also mean that the sins and the hidden impurities of the inmates of Hell will be laid before them and will thus be made to appear hateful in their eyes, as is done in psycho-analysis. (close)
یَّتَجَرَّعُہٗ وَ لَا یَکَادُ یُسِیۡغُہٗ وَ یَاۡتِیۡہِ الۡمَوۡتُ مِنۡ کُلِّ مَکَانٍ وَّ مَا ہُوَ بِمَیِّتٍ ؕ وَ مِنۡ وَّرَآئِہٖ عَذَابٌ غَلِیۡظٌ ﴿۱۸﴾
يَتَجَرَّعُهُۥ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُسِيغُهُۥ وَيَأۡتِيهِ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ مِن كُلِّ مَكَانٖ وَمَا هُوَ بِمَيِّتٖۖ وَمِن وَرَآئِهِۦ عَذَابٌ غَلِيظٞ
b. 20:75; 87:14. (close)
1461. The coming of death from every quarter means that the many sins and crimes of disbelievers will assume different forms of death for them. (close)
a. 20:75; 87:14. (close)
The words, And death shall come to him from every quarter, mean that just as angels shall enter unto the inmates of Paradise through every gate (13:24), similarly death shall come to the inmates of Hell from every quarter. The coming of death from every quarter means that the many sins and crimes of disbelievers will assume different forms of death for them, but they will not actually suffer death because man is not meant to undergo death in the next world but to attain peace and bliss. It is worthy of note here that whereas "peace" has been represented in 13:24, 25 as coming from "every gate," which signifies its coming from outside, "death" is here spoken of as coming from "every quarter," which signifies its springing from within. This is so because peace comes from God, but death and destruction are the outcome of man’s own actions, for he himself is the author of his spiritual death.
The words, and besides that there shall be for him a severe chastisement, point out that punishments in various forms shall continue to come upon evildoers one after the other, in the form of remorse, grief, estrangement from God, etc., and that Divine punishment shall not be transitory but shall long continue. (close)
مَثَلُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا بِرَبِّہِمۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ کَرَمَادِ ۣاشۡتَدَّتۡ بِہِ الرِّیۡحُ فِیۡ یَوۡمٍ عَاصِفٍ ؕ لَا یَقۡدِرُوۡنَ مِمَّا کَسَبُوۡا عَلٰی شَیۡءٍ ؕ ذٰلِکَ ہُوَ الضَّلٰلُ الۡبَعِیۡدُ ﴿۱۹﴾
مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّهِمۡۖ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ كَرَمَادٍ ٱشۡتَدَّتۡ بِهِ ٱلرِّيحُ فِي يَوۡمٍ عَاصِفٖۖ لَّا يَقۡدِرُونَ مِمَّا كَسَبُواْ عَلَىٰ شَيۡءٖۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلضَّلَٰلُ ٱلۡبَعِيدُ
c. 24:40. (close)
1462. "Their works" may mean, the efforts which disbelievers made in opposition to the Prophets of God. (close)
d. 2:265. (close)
a. 24:40. (close)
b. 2:265. (close)
The words, کفروا بربھم (disbelieve in their Lord) do not mean that they deny the existence of God, for even the idolaters of Mecca believed in the existence of God. They only mean the denial of the favours or powers of God. There are people even among the so-called educated classes who believe in God but do not believe that He ever interferes in the affairs of the world. The actions of such people are wholly devoted to the furtherance of their material ends. They have no thought for God and do nothing to please Him. It is of the actions of such people that the verse says that they are null and void so far as the reward of the next world is concerned. They are like ashes upon which a furious gale blows, widely scattering them.
The words "their works" may also mean the efforts which disbelievers made in opposition to the Prophets of God, for such works invariably produce no result and come to nothing. Instead of attaining the object for which they are performed, they bring ruin and destruction in their wake, as punishment from God.
The verse should not, however, be understood to mean that no works of disbelievers will produce any result for, in conformity with the physical laws of nature, every deed done in a right way must produce its natural result. What, therefore, the verse means to say is that the works of disbelievers would fail to achieve the real object of life, which is God’s pleasure, because all their efforts are devoted to the achievement of the good of this world. On the other hand the Faithful, while reaping the fruits of their actions as a natural and inevitable result, will also win God’s pleasure, because all their works are for the sake of God. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یُذۡہِبۡکُمۡ وَ یَاۡتِ بِخَلۡقٍ جَدِیۡدٍ ﴿ۙ۲۰﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّۚ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ وَيَأۡتِ بِخَلۡقٖ جَدِيدٖ
a. 6:74; 16:4; 29:45; 39:6. (close)
b. 4:134; 6:134; 35:17. (close)
b. 6:74; 16:4; 29:45; 39:6. (close)
c. 4:134; 6:134; 35:17. (close)
The verse embodies a severe warning for disbelievers to the effect that by opposing the Prophets they are seeking to frustrate God’s great purpose, which the world has been created to serve. Their very existence seems to belie and contradict that supreme object. Hence they cannot be allowed to succeed in their designs. They should not, therefore, delude themselves with the false notion that they are irreplaceable. Not only will they meet with destruction, but God has actually prepared "a new creation" in the form of the followers of His Prophet who will take their place and prove worthy successors of an unworthy generation. (close)