اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ الَّذِیۡ وَہَبَ لِیۡ عَلَی الۡکِبَرِ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ وَ اِسۡحٰقَ ؕ اِنَّ رَبِّیۡ لَسَمِیۡعُ الدُّعَآءِ ﴿۴۰﴾
ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي وَهَبَ لِي عَلَى ٱلۡكِبَرِ إِسۡمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسۡحَٰقَۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي لَسَمِيعُ ٱلدُّعَآءِ
1694. Important Words:
اسماعیل (Ishmael), literally meaning "God heard the Prayer," was the eldest son of Abraham by his Egyptian wife, Hagar. He was born as a result of a prayer of Abraham when the latter was eighty-six years of age. In fulfilment of his dream in which he saw himself offering Ishmael as a sacrifice in the way of God, Abraham, being apprised by God, realized it was when he took the infant Ishmael and his mother Hagar to the wilderness of Arabia with a view to settling them in the barren and uncultivable valley of Mecca near the Sacred House of God. Twelve sons were born to Ishmael, the best known of whom is Kedar, the great ancestor of the Arab nation (Enc. Bib. & Jew. Enc.). See also 2:128-130.
اسحاق (Isaac) was the second son of Abraham by his wife, Sarah. He was the father of Jacob alias Israel, the great progenitor of the Israelites. He is known as "the Second Patriarch." He is considered by Jews and Christians to be that son of Abraham whom he offered to sacrifice in fulfilment of his dream. But the testimony of history and the Bible contradicts this assumption.
The expression of gratefulness to God on the part of Abraham for having been granted Ishmael and Isaac at a time when he was actually building the Ka‘bah seems to be rather misplaced. But the fact is that Abraham, in this verse, does not praise God for merely granting him two sons. The real reason why he praised God for giving him Ishmael and Isaac was that he was able in his old age to build the Ka‘bah with the help of one of them, and that he was leaving behind him two sons who would glorify God and establish His worship on the earth. He was glad that through his offspring he was enabled to make arrangements for the continuance of Divine worship in the world. This was the supreme object of his life and this was what he had been praying for. The verse also hints that, like Ishmael, Isaac was dedicated to the service of God.
Incidentally, the verse also throws interesting light on the sublimity of Abraham’s character and the purity of his great soul. He had left his firstborn in the wilderness of the barren and bleak valley of Mecca, apparently to die of starvation, yet he was expressing his gratefulness to God for granting him Ishmael and Isaac, as if, by his settling the former near the Sacred House of God, the very object of the child’s birth had been fulfilled. (close)
رَبِّ اجۡعَلۡنِیۡ مُقِیۡمَ الصَّلٰوۃِ وَ مِنۡ ذُرِّیَّتِیۡ ٭ۖ رَبَّنَا وَ تَقَبَّلۡ دُعَآءِ ﴿۴۱﴾
رَبِّ ٱجۡعَلۡنِي مُقِيمَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِيۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلۡ دُعَآءِ
a. 2:129. (close)
b. 2:128. (close)
a. 2:129. (close)
In v. 38, Abraham said that the purpose for which he was leaving his son and wife near the Sacred Mosque was that they might observe Prayer. In the present verse he prays to God that that purpose might be fulfilled and that they might, in the truest sense of the word, become observant of Prayer. He included himself also in the prayer because his own example was to be helpful to them in the attainment of that object. Abraham prayed that in the matter of Divine worship he might serve as an example to his offspring, while his offspring, in their turn, might set an example to others, and so on. So Abraham’s prayer embodied in this verse meant that, through his progeny, the worship of God might become permanently established in the world. Thus this supplication of Abraham constituted not only a prayer but also an implied prophecy about the appearance of a Great Prophet in Mecca through whom Prayer was to be established as an institution in its completest and most enduring form. (close)
رَبَّنَا اغۡفِرۡ لِیۡ وَ لِوَالِدَیَّ وَ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ یَوۡمَ یَقُوۡمُ الۡحِسَابُ ﴿٪۴۲﴾
رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لِي وَلِوَٰلِدَيَّ وَلِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ يَوۡمَ يَقُومُ ٱلۡحِسَابُ
c. 71:29. (close)
1472. The reason, why Divine Prophets pray to God for forgiveness notwithstanding the fact that they enjoy protection against Satan, is their realization of the holiness and majesty of God and of their own weakness. It is this realization of human weakness which makes them humbly pray to God that He may "cover" them with His grace and mercy so that their very self may become completely obliterated and may merge completely in Him. (close)
c. 71:29. (close)
1696. Important Words:
اغفرلی (grant forgiveness to me) is derived from غفر which means, (1) to cover up; and (2) to forgive sins (Aqrab). See also 2:59, 200, 286.
The prayer offered in the expression اغفرلی (grant forgiveness to me) conveys different meanings when offered by God’s Prophets and when offered by ordinary sinful men. When a Prophet or a holy man seeks God’s غفران or مغفرة (forgiveness), the word signifies God’s covering him with His mercy and protecting him against the harmful consequences of human weaknesses. But when a sinful man prays to God in the words اللھم اغفرلی (My Lord, grant forgiveness to me), he, in fact, prays to Him for protection against the evil consequences of his sins and the punishment he has earned thereby as well as protection from the commission of further sins. It is one of the characteristics of the Arabic language that its words possess a large variety of meanings and that not unoften the same word conveys different meanings in different circumstances. The word غفر is similarly used in many senses. When used about a righteous man it conveys a different meaning from that in which it is used about a person of sinful character. That the significance of a word is changed with the change of the person for whom it is used and the change of the occasion on which it is used is well illustrated by the word جبار. When used with reference to God this word means, "the Restorer of a thing to a right or sound condition," but when used with reference to a human being it means, "one who is extravagant in acts of disobedience or wrongdoing" (Lane).
Since the Prophets are God’s beloved and His Elect, Satan can have no access to them. They are the special servants of God, and over God’s own servants Satan has no power (15:43), for they live under His constant protection. The reason, therefore, why the Prophets of God pray to Him for غفران or مغفرة , notwithstanding their enjoying protection against Satan, is their realization of the Holiness and Majesty of God and of their own human weakness. They realize that, however high a man may spiritually rise, he is but a mere nothing before Almighty God, Lord and Master of the Throne of Glory and Majesty. They realize that man is but a weak and frail creature of God, that his very existence is a Divine gift and that it is from God that he receives guidance and protection. It is this realization of human weakness which makes them humbly pray to God that He may "cover" them with His grace and mercy so that their very self may become completely obliterated and merged in Him.
The verse further hints that God’s reckoning is not confined to the next life but is also going on in the present life. The Prophets, therefore, always pray that whenever the time may come for the results of their works to become known and manifest, God may cover up their weaknesses and produce results in accordance with His Own glory and not their weak and humble efforts. As for the believers and the parents of Abraham the expression مغفرة will be taken in its ordinary meaning of forgiveness of sins and meting out merciful treatment. For an explanation of the words والد and اب used with reference to Abraham see under 6:75. (close)
وَ لَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ اللّٰہَ غَافِلًا عَمَّا یَعۡمَلُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ۬ؕ اِنَّمَا یُؤَخِّرُہُمۡ لِیَوۡمٍ تَشۡخَصُ فِیۡہِ الۡاَبۡصَارُ ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾
وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَٰفِلًا عَمَّا يَعۡمَلُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَۚ إِنَّمَا يُؤَخِّرُهُمۡ لِيَوۡمٖ تَشۡخَصُ فِيهِ ٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرُ
1697. Important Words:
تشخص (will fixedly stare) is derived from شخص which means, he or it rose; or, he or it became raised. شخص النجم means, the star rose and became visible on the horizon. They say شخص بصرہ i.e. his eyes became fixedly open; his eyes became raised; or his sight became stretched and raised. شخص المیت بصرہ means, the dying man raised his eyes, which became fixedly open. The Arabs say شخص به امر i.e. something happened to him and disquieted him as though he were raised from the ground by reason of his disquietude (Aqrab & Lane).
With the preceding verse ended the prayer of Abraham, which was meant as an introduction for reverting to the subject of the Holy Prophet. Abraham had prayed that the worship of the One God might be established in Mecca through his progeny, particularly the Holy Prophet for whose appearance he had prayed to God (2:130). The conquest of Mecca, in which lay the Sacred House which had been built for the worship of the One God but which had now become the centre of idolatry, alone could fulfil this prayer. So the Holy Prophet is told here that he should not think that God is unaware of the actions of his enemies, who are now holding the House of God and are leaving no stone unturned to check the spread of Islam. He will certainly destroy the idolaters and establish His own worship in the land. The respite which was being granted to the Meccans was intended to afford them an opportunity to repent and mend their ways; and if they did not do so the day was not far off when, owing to the sudden consternation caused by Divine punishment, "the eyes will fixedly stare" in bewilderment. This graphic picture of the Fall of Mecca is continued in the following verse. (close)
مُہۡطِعِیۡنَ مُقۡنِعِیۡ رُءُوۡسِہِمۡ لَا یَرۡتَدُّ اِلَیۡہِمۡ طَرۡفُہُمۡ ۚ وَ اَفۡـِٕدَتُہُمۡ ہَوَآءٌ ﴿ؕ۴۴﴾
مُهۡطِعِينَ مُقۡنِعِي رُءُوسِهِمۡ لَا يَرۡتَدُّ إِلَيۡهِمۡ طَرۡفُهُمۡۖ وَأَفۡـِٔدَتُهُمۡ هَوَآءٞ
1473. This and the preceding verse give a graphic description of the bewilderment and consternation of the Meccans when they suddenly found the Holy Prophet at the gates of Mecca with an army ten thousand strong, without their having the least inkling of his coming. (close)
1698. Important Words:
مھطعین (hurrying on in fright) is derived from اھطع which is derived from ھطع. They say ھطع الرجل i.e. the man came running in fright; or the man advanced with his eyes fixed on something from which he did not raise them. اھطع البعیر means, the camel stretched forth its neck and lowered its head. اھطع الرجل also means, the man looked with humility and humbleness (Aqrab).
مقنعی (raising up) is derived from اقنع which is derived from قنع. They say قنع الجبل i.e. he mounted the hill. اقنع رأسه means, he raised up his head and fixed it straight, turning neither to the right nor to the left (Aqrab). ھواء (utterly void) is derived from ھوی which means, it fell from a high level to a low level; or contrarily, it rose and went up. الھواء means, the firmament; an empty thing; a void; coward, because his heart is, as it were, empty, having no courage (Aqrab).
What a graphic picture of the Fall of Mecca! The great prophecy of the final triumph of the Holy Prophet and the utter discomfiture of his enemies was wonderfully fulfilled by the Fall of Mecca when the Sacred House of God passed into the hands of the Muslims for all time. This verse gives a graphic description of the bewilderment and consternation of the Meccans when they suddenly found the Holy Prophet at the very gates of Mecca with an army ten thousand strong, without their having the least inkling of his coming. For proof of the fact that the eyes of the Meccans became actually fixed in a stare and their minds were literally void and they ran about in fright with their heads raised in bewilderment, one has only to turn to any book of history about the Fall of Mecca. (close)
وَ اَنۡذِرِ النَّاسَ یَوۡمَ یَاۡتِیۡہِمُ الۡعَذَابُ فَیَقُوۡلُ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا رَبَّنَاۤ اَخِّرۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ قَرِیۡبٍ ۙ نُّجِبۡ دَعۡوَتَکَ وَ نَتَّبِعِ الرُّسُلَ ؕ اَوَ لَمۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡۤا اَقۡسَمۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ قَبۡلُ مَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ زَوَالٍ ﴿ۙ۴۵﴾
وَأَنذِرِ ٱلنَّاسَ يَوۡمَ يَأۡتِيهِمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ فَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ رَبَّنَآ أَخِّرۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٖ قَرِيبٖ نُّجِبۡ دَعۡوَتَكَ وَنَتَّبِعِ ٱلرُّسُلَۗ أَوَلَمۡ تَكُونُوٓاْ أَقۡسَمۡتُم مِّن قَبۡلُ مَا لَكُم مِّن زَوَالٖ
d. 63:11. (close)
a. 63:11. (close)
This verse speaks of the punishment that is to overtake disbelievers in the life to come. Whenever the Quran speaks of the punishment of the present life, it usually refers to the punishment of the next life also, for the former constitutes evidence of the latter.
The words, Did you not swear before this that you would have no fall? show that disbelievers were confident that their prosperity would endure forever. This led to their becoming haughty and arrogant. (close)
وَّ سَکَنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ مَسٰکِنِ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ وَ تَبَیَّنَ لَکُمۡ کَیۡفَ فَعَلۡنَا بِہِمۡ وَ ضَرَبۡنَا لَکُمُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ﴿۴۶﴾
وَسَكَنتُمۡ فِي مَسَٰكِنِ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمۡ كَيۡفَ فَعَلۡنَا بِهِمۡ وَضَرَبۡنَا لَكُمُ ٱلۡأَمۡثَالَ
1700. Important Words:
امثال (clear parables) is the plural of مثل (mathal) or مثل (mithal) and is derived from the verb مثل (mathala). مثل فلانا means, he became like such a one. مثل فلانا بفلان means, he likened or compared such a one with such a one. مثل (mathal) or مثل (mithal) means, (1) a description, condition, state, case etc.; (2) argument; (3) discourse, as in بسط له مثلا i.e. he lengthened to him his discourse; (4) lesson or example, as فجعلنا ھم سلفا و مثلا للاخرین i.e. We made them a precedent and an example to coming generations (43:57); (5) a proverb, as they say تمثل البیت او باالبیت i.e. he used the verse as a proverb; (6) a sign, as in جعلناہ مثلا لبنی اسرائیل (43:60) i.e. We made him (Jesus) a sign to the children of Israel (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:18, 107; 6:39.
Many people dwell in or near the places where by-gone peoples, now ruined, dwelt before them, yet they do not benefit by their example and refuse to believe till they themselves are punished. (close)
وَ قَدۡ مَکَرُوۡا مَکۡرَہُمۡ وَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ مَکۡرُہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانَ مَکۡرُہُمۡ لِتَزُوۡلَ مِنۡہُ الۡجِبَالُ ﴿۴۷﴾
وَقَدۡ مَكَرُواْ مَكۡرَهُمۡ وَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ مَكۡرُهُمۡ وَإِن كَانَ مَكۡرُهُمۡ لِتَزُولَ مِنۡهُ ٱلۡجِبَالُ
a. 3:55; 8:31; 13:43; 27:51. (close)
1474. God knows their evil designs full well and will frustrate them. (close)
a. 3:55; 8:31; 13:43; 27:51. (close)
1701. Important Words:
ان (even though) gives a number of meanings such as, if; though; even though, etc. It is also sometimes used to express negation i.e. not (Aqrab).
The words, they have already designed all their designs, mean that disbelievers did all that lay in their power and left no stone unturned and no plan untried to bring the Holy Prophet to grief.
The expression, their designs are with Allah, means that God knows their designs full well and, as it is God Who produces the result of men’s actions, He will frustrate their designs. The words "their designs" may also be taken to mean the designs of God concerning disbelievers. In this case the expression would mean that the designs which God will employ against the disbelievers are all with Him and He will carry them into effect as and when He deems fit. The words عند الله مکرھم may also mean, "the punishment of their designs is with Allah," for sometimes a word is repeated to signify the punishment thereof. See 2:16.
The word جبال (mountains), as already explained, also means, "great difficulties or insurmountable obstacles" (13:32). Taken in this sense, the verse would mean that though the designs of disbelievers against Islam are such that they can remove mountain-like obstacles yet, as disbelievers seek to frustrate God’s purpose, they will not succeed in their nefarious designs.
If the particle ان be taken in the sense of "not" (see Important Words), then the words ان کان مکرھم لتزول منه الجبال would mean, "and their designs are (surely) not such as to move mountains." (close)
فَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ اللّٰہَ مُخۡلِفَ وَعۡدِہٖ رُسُلَہٗ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَزِیۡزٌ ذُو انۡتِقَامٍ ﴿ؕ۴۸﴾
فَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُخۡلِفَ وَعۡدِهِۦ رُسُلَهُۥٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٞ ذُو ٱنتِقَامٖ
b. 3:195; 10:104; 58:22. (close)
a. 3:195; 10:104; 58:22. (close)
The verse is addressed to the reader or to each and every individual from among the enemies of Islam. The Divine attributes mentioned in the verse refer to those enemies of Islam who were bent upon extirpating the small Muslim community. God assures the Holy Prophet that He will certainly punish those who seek to destroy Islam and will make the cause of truth triumph. (close)
یَوۡمَ تُبَدَّلُ الۡاَرۡضُ غَیۡرَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ السَّمٰوٰتُ وَ بَرَزُوۡا لِلّٰہِ الۡوَاحِدِ الۡقَہَّارِ ﴿۴۹﴾
يَوۡمَ تُبَدَّلُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتُۖ وَبَرَزُواْ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡوَٰحِدِ ٱلۡقَهَّارِ
1475. With the Fall of Mecca and the establishment of Islam in Arabia as a mighty force, a new universe, as it were, came into being with a new heaven and a new earth. The old order was swept away, and a new one, completely different from the old one, took its place. (close)
The verse speaks of the great Day of Judgement in the next world, when new heavens and a new earth will come into existence. The attributes of "One" and "Supreme" have been mentioned in this verse to point out that on that dreadful day all the false deities of the disbelievers will forsake them and disbelievers will realize that all government rests in God alone.
Incidentally, the verse also shows that the blessings of the next life will be quite different from those of the present life; for, as the verse says, the present earth and the present heavens will be changed into a new earth and new heavens in the next world. If the same or similar earth and heavens were to be created again, in the next world, with the same fruits and the same material boons, where was the need to change the old ones? (close)