قَالَ وَ مَنۡ یَّقۡنَطُ مِنۡ رَّحۡمَۃِ رَبِّہٖۤ اِلَّا الضَّآلُّوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
قَالَ وَمَن يَقۡنَطُ مِن رَّحۡمَةِ رَبِّهِۦٓ إِلَّا ٱلضَّآلُّونَ
h. 12:88. (close)
a. 12:88. (close)
Abraham felt naturally hurt at the words, be not therefore of those who despair. He thought it an insult to his faith that anybody should think of him as despairing of God’s grace. Therefore, he strongly repudiated the implication and was not slow in expressing his justified indignation at it. It is worthy of note here that, whereas on the one hand Abraham was so hospitable that immediately on the arrival of the messengers he brought for them a roasted calf and, when they refrained from partaking of it, he feared that they were displeased with him for some unconscious failure on his part to accord them the honour they deserved as his guests (11:70-71); on the other hand, he indignantly protested against their remarks when the same guests seemed, inadvertently, to question his faith in God. Such is the jealousy and deep regard which the Prophets have for God.
Abraham meant to say that he had made the enquiry simply to ascertain whether it was glad tidings from God or only a conjecture, but now that he had come to know that the message was from God, he could have no possible doubt regarding its fulfilment. (close)
قَالَ فَمَا خَطۡبُکُمۡ اَیُّہَا الۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
قَالَ فَمَا خَطۡبُكُمۡ أَيُّهَا ٱلۡمُرۡسَلُونَ
a. 51:32. (close)
1506. By using the word al-Mursalun (messengers), the Qur’an hints that the bearers of the message were humans. The Bible, however, sometimes mentions them as men (Gen. 18:2, 16, 22) and sometimes as angels (Gen. 19:11, 15). (close)
b. 51:32. (close)
When Abraham realized that the real mission of these messengers was not to give to him the glad tidings of the birth of a son—for if it had been so, they would not have looked sad—but that they had come on some momentous mission, he hastened to enquire of them their real business. This question of Abraham also shows that he regarded the messengers to be mere human beings and not angels. For if he had considered them to be angels, he would not have been surprised at their refusal to partake of food, as he would have known that angels do not eat food. As, however, he considered them to be human beings, their refusal to partake of the food offered to them made him apprehensive that a grievous affair was weighing upon their minds (11:70, 71). (close)
قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّاۤ اُرۡسِلۡنَاۤ اِلٰی قَوۡمٍ مُّجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۹﴾
قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّآ أُرۡسِلۡنَآ إِلَىٰ قَوۡمٖ مُّجۡرِمِينَ
b. 51:33. (close)
a. 51:33. (close)
The messengers said that they had brought the news of punishment for a sinful people and this was the reason for their looking depressed and dejected. (close)
اِلَّاۤ اٰلَ لُوۡطٍ ؕ اِنَّا لَمُنَجُّوۡہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۰﴾
إِلَّآ ءَالَ لُوطٍ إِنَّا لَمُنَجُّوهُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
c. 29:33; 51:36. (close)
b. 29:33; 51:36. (close)
1763. Important Words:
آل (family) is derived from the verb آل (ala). They say آل الیه i.e. he or it returned to it; or he resorted to it. آل عنه means, he returned or reverted from it. آل رعیته means, he ruled or governed his subjects. آل ماله means, he managed or tended his cattle. آل means, a man’s family or relations or kinsfolk; the people of his house; his followers; his friends, and the like. By the آلof the Holy Prophet are meant, according to some, his followers whether relations or others, and his relations whether followers or not; or, as some say, his family and his wives (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:50.
By using the words, Excepting the family of Lot, the messengers alluded, on the one hand to the fact that "the guilty people" (see the preceding verse ) were none other than the tribe of Lot and, on the other hand, they allayed Abraham’s anxiety regarding Lot and his family. Apparently, the messengers were commissioned to lead Lot and his family to a place of safety.
The word اجمعین (all) shows that those who were to be saved along with Lot were a party of persons, and not merely his two daughters, as the Bible has it (Gen. 19:15,16). (close)
اِلَّا امۡرَاَتَہٗ قَدَّرۡنَاۤ ۙ اِنَّہَا لَمِنَ الۡغٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿٪۶۱﴾
إِلَّا ٱمۡرَأَتَهُۥ قَدَّرۡنَآ إِنَّهَا لَمِنَ ٱلۡغَٰبِرِينَ
d. 7:84; 11:82; 26:172; 27:58. (close)
c. 7:84; 11:82; 26:172; 27:58. (close)
1764. Important Words:
قدرنا (We surmise) is derived from قدر (qadara) which means, he measured or computed or estimated. قدر (qaddara) means, he meditated or considered; he supposed or conjectured or surmised. When used about God, it means, He decreed or appointed or ordained (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:21.
The verse purports to say that out of the family of Lot his wife would not be saved, as she would remain behind and would not leave the city with Lot. The messengers used the expression قدرنا which here means, "we surmise" because they were not sure about her fate and had only guessed that she would remain behind. Evidently, one or more of them might have had a dream regarding this affair and, naturally, they were not quite sure about its interpretation but had only inferred that she would not be saved. Or it may be that, having regard to the feelings of Abraham, they did not like to stress the point of the sad end of Lot’s wife and expressed it vaguely.
Here is another divergence between the description of this affair as given in the Bible and the Quran. The Bible says: And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city. And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the Lord being Merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city (Gen. 19:15,16).
The Quran, on the other hand, says that Lot had been informed beforehand that his wife would not leave the city with him but would remain behind (29:34). It can easily be judged which of these two accounts is more natural and nearer the truth. According to the Quran, she not only remained behind but was from the very beginning destined to do so, but the Bible says that the angels led her out of the city, although they knew that God had decreed that she would share its fate. The Bible thus depicts the angels to be acting against the decree of God, which is evidently wrong. (close)
فَلَمَّا جَآءَ اٰلَ لُوۡطِ ۣالۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۲﴾
فَلَمَّا جَآءَ ءَالَ لُوطٍ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلُونَ
e. 11:78; 29:34. (close)
a. 11:78; 29:34. (close)
By using the word المرسلون (messengers), the Quran hints that the bearers of the message were men.
The Bible, however, sometimes mentions them as men (Gen. 18:2,16,22) and sometimes as angels (Gen. 19:1) and in the latter case even goes so far as to say that Lot prepared for them unleavened bread (Gen. 19:3) as if angels partook of the same. Such inconsistencies of the Bible provide a proof of the fact that it has suffered materially from later interpolations. (close)
قَالَ اِنَّکُمۡ قَوۡمٌ مُّنۡکَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾
قَالَ إِنَّكُمۡ قَوۡمٞ مُّنكَرُونَ
f. 51:26. (close)
1507. Lot thought these men to be mere wayfarers whose visit to the place was only casual. (close)
a. 51:26. (close)
The word منکرون (strangers) includes wayfarers. It is thus suggested that Lot thought these men to be mere wayfarers whose visit to the place was simply casual, whereupon these messengers hastened to inform him that they had come to him on a special mission (see the succeeding verse). (close)
قَالُوۡا بَلۡ جِئۡنٰکَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا فِیۡہِ یَمۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾
قَالُواْ بَلۡ جِئۡنَٰكَ بِمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَمۡتَرُونَ
The fact that the people of Lot doubted the truth of what he told them shows that they had already been warned of the coming punishment by Lot. The mission of the messengers was thus only to inform Lot that the time of the threatened punishment had arrived, and that he and those who believed in him should at once leave the place. (close)
وَ اَتَیۡنٰکَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾
وَأَتَيۡنَٰكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَإِنَّا لَصَٰدِقُونَ
As Abraham had previously questioned the messengers regarding the source of their message (v. 55), they now forestalled a repetition of a similar question by Lot and volunteered the statement that they had brought a definite Divine Message and by way of emphasis added the words, surely we are truthful. (close)
فَاَسۡرِ بِاَہۡلِکَ بِقِطۡعٍ مِّنَ الَّیۡلِ وَ اتَّبِعۡ اَدۡبَارَہُمۡ وَ لَا یَلۡتَفِتۡ مِنۡکُمۡ اَحَدٌ وَّ امۡضُوۡا حَیۡثُ تُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۶﴾
فَأَسۡرِ بِأَهۡلِكَ بِقِطۡعٖ مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱتَّبِعۡ أَدۡبَٰرَهُمۡ وَلَا يَلۡتَفِتۡ مِنكُمۡ أَحَدٞ وَٱمۡضُواْ حَيۡثُ تُؤۡمَرُونَ
g. 11:82. (close)
1508. The pronoun hum (their) in the expression Adbara-hum (their rear) used in this verse shows that the party who left the city with Lot did not consist of his two daughters only, as stated in the Bible (Gen. chap. 19), but of other believers as well, some of whom must have been males, as the plural masculine pronoun indicates. This view is supported by another passage in the Bible (Gen. 18:32). (close)
1509. The words may have been used figuratively, meaning 'let none of you give thought to,' or 'feel anxious for,' those left behind. (close)
b. 11:82. (close)
The pronoun ھم (their) in the expression ادبارھم (their rear) used in this verse shows that, according to the Quran, the party who left the city with Lot did not consist of his two daughters only, as stated in the Bible (Gen. 19), but of other believers as well, some of whom must have been males, as the plural masculine pronoun shows. This view is supported by another passage in the Bible (Gen. 18:32) which shows that Abraham was aware that there were some men in the town of Lot who had accepted his Message. Abraham was not, however, sure of their number.
The words لا یلتفت منکم احد (let none of you look back) do not here mean, as most commentators have taken them to mean literally "looking back." The expression has been used figuratively, meaning "giving thought to," or "feeling anxious for," those left behind. The above quoted words thus signify, "do not mind the disbelievers, and leave them to perish." As against this the Bible says that Lot’s wife looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt (Gen. 19:26). The Quranic version is certainly more natural, for it not only denies her looking back but declares that she was one of those who remained behind (29:34). The fact that the Bible, which was written much earlier than the Quran, should interweave it with such an incredible tale, which the Quran rejects, lends strong support to the latter’s claim to be the revealed Word of God.
The words, where you are commanded, confirms the interpretation given above, viz. that the messengers had come to tell Lot where he should go after leaving the condemned city. They had come to inform Lot of his destination in pursuance of a Divine command.
The messengers suggested to Lot that he should follow in their rear so that he might be the last in the party to leave the city. This was evidently intended as a precaution for the safety of all members of the party because since Lot was a Prophet for whom Divine protection was particularly intended the threatened punishment could not overtake the city until he was safely out of it. (close)