اِلَّا امۡرَاَتَہٗ قَدَّرۡنَاۤ ۙ اِنَّہَا لَمِنَ الۡغٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿٪۶۱﴾
إِلَّا ٱمۡرَأَتَهُۥ قَدَّرۡنَآ إِنَّهَا لَمِنَ ٱلۡغَٰبِرِينَ
d. 7:84; 11:82; 26:172; 27:58. (close)
c. 7:84; 11:82; 26:172; 27:58. (close)
1764. Important Words:
قدرنا (We surmise) is derived from قدر (qadara) which means, he measured or computed or estimated. قدر (qaddara) means, he meditated or considered; he supposed or conjectured or surmised. When used about God, it means, He decreed or appointed or ordained (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:21.
The verse purports to say that out of the family of Lot his wife would not be saved, as she would remain behind and would not leave the city with Lot. The messengers used the expression قدرنا which here means, "we surmise" because they were not sure about her fate and had only guessed that she would remain behind. Evidently, one or more of them might have had a dream regarding this affair and, naturally, they were not quite sure about its interpretation but had only inferred that she would not be saved. Or it may be that, having regard to the feelings of Abraham, they did not like to stress the point of the sad end of Lot’s wife and expressed it vaguely.
Here is another divergence between the description of this affair as given in the Bible and the Quran. The Bible says: And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city. And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the Lord being Merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city (Gen. 19:15,16).
The Quran, on the other hand, says that Lot had been informed beforehand that his wife would not leave the city with him but would remain behind (29:34). It can easily be judged which of these two accounts is more natural and nearer the truth. According to the Quran, she not only remained behind but was from the very beginning destined to do so, but the Bible says that the angels led her out of the city, although they knew that God had decreed that she would share its fate. The Bible thus depicts the angels to be acting against the decree of God, which is evidently wrong. (close)
فَلَمَّا جَآءَ اٰلَ لُوۡطِ ۣالۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۲﴾
فَلَمَّا جَآءَ ءَالَ لُوطٍ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلُونَ
e. 11:78; 29:34. (close)
a. 11:78; 29:34. (close)
By using the word المرسلون (messengers), the Quran hints that the bearers of the message were men.
The Bible, however, sometimes mentions them as men (Gen. 18:2,16,22) and sometimes as angels (Gen. 19:1) and in the latter case even goes so far as to say that Lot prepared for them unleavened bread (Gen. 19:3) as if angels partook of the same. Such inconsistencies of the Bible provide a proof of the fact that it has suffered materially from later interpolations. (close)
قَالَ اِنَّکُمۡ قَوۡمٌ مُّنۡکَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾
قَالَ إِنَّكُمۡ قَوۡمٞ مُّنكَرُونَ
f. 51:26. (close)
1507. Lot thought these men to be mere wayfarers whose visit to the place was only casual. (close)
a. 51:26. (close)
The word منکرون (strangers) includes wayfarers. It is thus suggested that Lot thought these men to be mere wayfarers whose visit to the place was simply casual, whereupon these messengers hastened to inform him that they had come to him on a special mission (see the succeeding verse). (close)
قَالُوۡا بَلۡ جِئۡنٰکَ بِمَا کَانُوۡا فِیۡہِ یَمۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾
قَالُواْ بَلۡ جِئۡنَٰكَ بِمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَمۡتَرُونَ
The fact that the people of Lot doubted the truth of what he told them shows that they had already been warned of the coming punishment by Lot. The mission of the messengers was thus only to inform Lot that the time of the threatened punishment had arrived, and that he and those who believed in him should at once leave the place. (close)
وَ اَتَیۡنٰکَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ اِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾
وَأَتَيۡنَٰكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَإِنَّا لَصَٰدِقُونَ
As Abraham had previously questioned the messengers regarding the source of their message (v. 55), they now forestalled a repetition of a similar question by Lot and volunteered the statement that they had brought a definite Divine Message and by way of emphasis added the words, surely we are truthful. (close)
فَاَسۡرِ بِاَہۡلِکَ بِقِطۡعٍ مِّنَ الَّیۡلِ وَ اتَّبِعۡ اَدۡبَارَہُمۡ وَ لَا یَلۡتَفِتۡ مِنۡکُمۡ اَحَدٌ وَّ امۡضُوۡا حَیۡثُ تُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۶﴾
فَأَسۡرِ بِأَهۡلِكَ بِقِطۡعٖ مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱتَّبِعۡ أَدۡبَٰرَهُمۡ وَلَا يَلۡتَفِتۡ مِنكُمۡ أَحَدٞ وَٱمۡضُواْ حَيۡثُ تُؤۡمَرُونَ
g. 11:82. (close)
1508. The pronoun hum (their) in the expression Adbara-hum (their rear) used in this verse shows that the party who left the city with Lot did not consist of his two daughters only, as stated in the Bible (Gen. chap. 19), but of other believers as well, some of whom must have been males, as the plural masculine pronoun indicates. This view is supported by another passage in the Bible (Gen. 18:32). (close)
1509. The words may have been used figuratively, meaning 'let none of you give thought to,' or 'feel anxious for,' those left behind. (close)
b. 11:82. (close)
The pronoun ھم (their) in the expression ادبارھم (their rear) used in this verse shows that, according to the Quran, the party who left the city with Lot did not consist of his two daughters only, as stated in the Bible (Gen. 19), but of other believers as well, some of whom must have been males, as the plural masculine pronoun shows. This view is supported by another passage in the Bible (Gen. 18:32) which shows that Abraham was aware that there were some men in the town of Lot who had accepted his Message. Abraham was not, however, sure of their number.
The words لا یلتفت منکم احد (let none of you look back) do not here mean, as most commentators have taken them to mean literally "looking back." The expression has been used figuratively, meaning "giving thought to," or "feeling anxious for," those left behind. The above quoted words thus signify, "do not mind the disbelievers, and leave them to perish." As against this the Bible says that Lot’s wife looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt (Gen. 19:26). The Quranic version is certainly more natural, for it not only denies her looking back but declares that she was one of those who remained behind (29:34). The fact that the Bible, which was written much earlier than the Quran, should interweave it with such an incredible tale, which the Quran rejects, lends strong support to the latter’s claim to be the revealed Word of God.
The words, where you are commanded, confirms the interpretation given above, viz. that the messengers had come to tell Lot where he should go after leaving the condemned city. They had come to inform Lot of his destination in pursuance of a Divine command.
The messengers suggested to Lot that he should follow in their rear so that he might be the last in the party to leave the city. This was evidently intended as a precaution for the safety of all members of the party because since Lot was a Prophet for whom Divine protection was particularly intended the threatened punishment could not overtake the city until he was safely out of it. (close)
وَ قَضَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡہِ ذٰلِکَ الۡاَمۡرَ اَنَّ دَابِرَ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مَقۡطُوۡعٌ مُّصۡبِحِیۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾
وَقَضَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡهِ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡأَمۡرَ أَنَّ دَابِرَ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مَقۡطُوعٞ مُّصۡبِحِينَ
a. 6:46; 7:73, 85. (close)
a. 6:46; 7:73, 85. (close)
1770. Important Words:
قضینا (We communicated). They say قضی بین الخصمین i.e. he judged and decided between the two litigants. قضی الشیء قضاء means, he determined or designed and accomplished or completed the thing properly. قضی الامر means, he decreed or ordained or commanded the thing. قضی حاجته means, he fulfilled or attained or satisfied his want or desire. قضی دینه means, he paid off his debt. قضی الصلوة means, he performed his Prayer. قضی الشیء means, he declared and explained the thing. قضی الیه الامر means, he communicated or conveyed the matter to him. قضی العھد means, he kept or fulfilled the pledge. قضی اجله او نحبه means, he died (lit. he completed his term), ضربه فقضٰی علیه means, he struck him and thereby killed him (Aqrab & Lane).
The words of this verse are spoken by God and not by the messengers, as it might appear from the context. As the messengers had come to tell Lot that the time of the threatened punishment of his people had already arrived, so in this verse God says to Lot that what the messengers had communicated to him was undoubtedly true, and as the time was very short, he should quit the place at once. It is this direct revelation of God that has been mentioned in the present verse and possibly in the previous one as well.
The word دابر among other things signifies, the root of a thing. But the word "root" does not here mean, "great men" (who are certainly the root of a tribe or clan) but the entire tribe collectively, for the word "root" also symbolizes the whole tree. In fact, the words, Excepting the family of Lot, occurring in v. 60 show that in the present verse this word cannot be taken in the sense of "great men" for, according to the above quoted verse, both the great and the small men of Lot’s people were destroyed, with the exception of a few members of his family. Moreover, the word دابر also means "the last remnant." So the verse definitely signifies that all the people of Lot were destroyed except only a few. See also 6:46.
The word مصبحین (by the morning) shows that Lot was bidden to journey with his family in the latter part of the night so that his wicked countrymen might not discover their absence and pursue and overtake them before the threatened punishment which was to take place at sunrise (v. 74). (close)
وَ جَآءَ اَہۡلُ الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ یَسۡتَبۡشِرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾
وَجَآءَ أَهۡلُ ٱلۡمَدِينَةِ يَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ
b. 11:79. (close)
1510. Lot had been told by his people not to bring strangers into the city and so when the guests came to him they were glad that he would be taken to task for having defied their warnings. (close)
a. 11:79. (close)
From the Bible it appears that the مدینة (city) mentioned in this verse was the seat of kings (Gen. 14:17, 21). یثرب the town to which the Holy Prophet fled from Mecca was also called مدینة (city) by him, which implied the prophecy that after having become free from epidemics which ravaged it before, it would become a great town and the Centre of Islam. (close)
قَالَ اِنَّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ضَیۡفِیۡ فَلَا تَفۡضَحُوۡنِ ﴿ۙ۶۹﴾
قَالَ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ضَيۡفِي فَلَا تَفۡضَحُونِ
c. 11:79. (close)
b. 11:79. (close)
Lot had been told by his people not to bring strangers into the city and now that he had brought these guests he knew that he would be taken to task for having defied their warnings. He therefore asked them not to disgrace him by mentioning this matter before his guests. (close)
وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ لَا تُخۡزُوۡنِ ﴿۷۰﴾
وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَلَا تُخۡزُونِ
1511. Lot begged his people not to disgrace him for offering hospitality to the strangers. (close)
Lot further begged his people not to disgrace him for offering hospitality to the wayfarers, because that was, after all, a good act in the sight of God and did not deserve censure or condemnation. (close)