اِنَّ رَبَّکَ ہُوَ الۡخَلّٰقُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ﴿۸۷﴾
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ ٱلۡخَلَّـٰقُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ
The preceding verse spoke of the imminent destruction of disbelievers and the present verse says that God never hesitates to destroy the wicked because, being the Great Creator, He can easily bring into existence a better people after the destruction of their predecessors. This is the implication of the Divine attribute خلاق (the Great Creator) used in the intensified form.
The attribute علیم (All-Knowing) points to the fact that God is well aware of the new order which will shortly replace the old. It will be a much better order and at its advent no one will regret the old order. It may be noted how in this one brief word علیم (All-Knowing), the Quran has condensed so much meaning. The word hints at the excellence of the new social and political order to be introduced by Islam.
It may further be noted that among the first few verses of this Surah the Holy Prophet was told to leave the disbelievers alone, victims to vain hopes, to eat and enjoy themselves for a while (v. 4). The verse under comment says that the time of their promised respite had now come to an end.
The Divine attributes "Great Creator" and "All-Knowing" also furnish an answer to those who wondered whence were to arise the circumstances and conditions which would ensure final victory for Islam. The answer is that God, being the Great Creator and All-Knowing, will not fail to bring about circumstances and conditions necessary for such a victory when the proper time for it arrived. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنٰکَ سَبۡعًا مِّنَ الۡمَثَانِیۡ وَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ الۡعَظِیۡمَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَٰكَ سَبۡعٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡمَثَانِي وَٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡعَظِيمَ
a. 39:24. (close)
1522. According to such eminent authorities as ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn-e-‘Abbas and Ibn-e-Mas‘ud, these words refer to the Opening Chapter of the Qur’an, i.e. Al-Fatihah, because it is repeated and recited in every Rak‘at of the Prayer. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that As-Sab‘ul-Mathani is the Opening Chapter of the Qur’an (Bukhari). This Chapter is also called 'Mother of the Qur’an' (Ummul-Qur’an) and 'the Opening Chapter of the Book' (Fatihatul-Kitab). According to Zajjaj and Abu Hayyan, the Opening Chapter is given this name because it contains the praises of God. The rest of the Qur’an which follows the Opening Chapter has been called 'the Great Qur’an' (Al-Qur’anul-‘Azim). This name, however, equally applies to the First Chapter also inasmuch as a portion of the Book may rightly be called the Book itself There is a saying of the Holy Prophet to the effect that the Opening Chapter of the Qur’an is also 'the Great Qur’an' (Musnad v. 2, p. 448). In fact, this Chapter constitutes an abridgement of the whole of the Qur’an or, as it is said, it is the Qur’an in miniature; the Book as a whole having been summarised and epitomised in it. Mathani being also the plural of Mathna, which means praise, the verse would mean that Surah Al-Fatihah gives a comprehensive description of Divine attributes. Mathani also meaning a bend of the valley, the verse would mean that Al-Fatihah fully explains the relationship of God to man. (close)
a. 39:24. (close)
1791. Important Words:
المثانی (the oft-repeated) is the plural of مثنی (mathnan) or مثناة (mathnatun) which is derived from ثنی. They say ثناہ i.e. he doubled it or folded it or bent it. اثنی علیه means, he praised, eulogized or spoke well of him. ثنی (thinan) means, the repetition of a thing; doing it one time after another. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said لا ثنی فی الصدقة i.e. There shall be no repetition in the taking of poor-rate, viz. it shall not be taken twice in the same year. مثنی (mathna) means, two and two or two and two together. مثنی الایادی means, the repeating of a benefit or benefaction; or conferring it twice or thrice. المثانیsignifies the first chapter of the Quran called the فاتحة because it is repeated in every rak‘at of Prayer or because it contains praise of God. It also signifies the Quran altogether. المثانی also means, the verses of the Quran. مثانی الوادی means, the bends of the valley. مثانی الشیء means, the powers and capacities of a thing (Lane & Aqrab).
According to many eminent authorities such as ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Mas‘ud, the words سبع من المثانی signify the opening chapter of the Quran, the فاتحة, because it is repeated and recited in every rak‘at of Prayer. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that السبع المثانی is the opening chapter of the Quran. This chapter is also called ام القرآن (Mother of the Quran) and فاتحة الکتاب (the Opening of the Book). According to Zajjaj and Abu Hayyan, the opening chapter is called السبع المثانی because it contains the praises of God.
The remaining portion of the Quran which follows the opening chapter has been called القرآن العظیم i.e. the Great Quran. The name however, equally applies to the first chapter itself inasmuch as a portion of the Book may rightly be called the Book itself. In fact, there is a saying of the Holy Prophet to the effect that the opening chapter of the Quran is also القرآن العظیم i.e. the Great Quran (Musnad v. 2, p. 448). The first chapter, in fact, constitutes an abridgment of the whole Quran. It may be called the Quran in miniature, all the contents of the Holy Book having been summarized and epitomized in it, while the remainder deals with the same subjects in detail. That the first chapter of the Quran comprises in itself vast subjects was, for the first time, explained and demonstrated by Ahmad, the Promised Messiah. Never had any commentator laid such stress on this subject as did Ahmad, and never before did any theologian elucidate this subject with such clarity.
In the preceding verses it was said that as the truth had been brought home to the Meccans, the Prophet should now turn his attention away from them and leave them to the judgement of God. In the present verse he is told that after having withdrawn himself from them he should now apply himself more and more to the exposition of the teachings of the Quran to the Muslims so that when the hour of their success arrived they might be ready to introduce in the world the new order promulgated by the Holy Book. (close)
لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَیۡنَیۡکَ اِلٰی مَا مَتَّعۡنَا بِہٖۤ اَزۡوَاجًا مِّنۡہُمۡ وَ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ اخۡفِضۡ جَنَاحَکَ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيۡنَيۡكَ إِلَىٰ مَا مَتَّعۡنَا بِهِۦٓ أَزۡوَٰجٗا مِّنۡهُمۡ وَلَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَٱخۡفِضۡ جَنَاحَكَ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 20:132. (close)
1523. The real significance of the verse is that the Holy Prophet has been told not to grieve over the fact that disbelievers were about to be punished and all their riches, prosperity and glory of which they are so proud would be of no avail to them. (close)
a. 20:132. (close)
1792. Important Words:
تمدن (stretch) is derived from مد which means, he strained, extended or stretched a thing. مدنظرہ الیه means, he stretched his eyes towards it (Aqrab).
ازواجا (some classes) is the plural of زوج which means, any sort of thing; sort or species i.e. class; one of a pair or couple of things; a thing having with it a thing of the same kind; a woman’s husband or a man’s wife (Lane & Aqrab).
The words, Stretch not thine eyes towards that what We have bestowed on some classes of them, do not mean that the Holy Prophet is here bidden not to covet the worldly possession of disbelievers, for such an interpretation is not only inconsistent with his dignity and nobility of character but also is in conflict with the clauses that immediately follow, viz.and grieve not over them and lower thy wing of mercy for the believers. The real significance of these words is that the Holy Prophet has here been told not to grieve over the fact that disbelievers, instead of feeling grateful to God Who had bestowed riches and prosperity on them, had incurred His wrath on account of their wickedness and now all their glory and power was going to depart and they were about to be destroyed. In fact, it had very much grieved the Holy Prophetthat the disbelievers whom God had blessed with such prosperity were going to be destroyed for their disobedience. He had wished and prayed that they should have believed in him and thus have inherited the spiritual blessings promised to his followers. But instead of this they disobeyed God and defied His Prophet and therefore were going to be destroyed as God had informed the Holy Prophet in the words: and the hour is sure to come (v. 86). This naturally caused much grief to the Holy Prophet who has been here bidden not to grieve for the Meccans, for they had made themselves deserving of this fate, but to devote his merciful attention to the up-bringing of the small community of believers and to look after their moral and spiritual welfare. Incidentally, this injunction also implied a veiled hint about the impending migration of the Holy Prophet and his followers to Medina; for it was not possible to train and bring up the small band of believers as pioneers of the new world order so long as they were in Mecca, where they had no freedom of action. The verse also hints that the Holy Prophet desired to delay and postpone his departure from Mecca out of a heartfelt desire to save the disbelievers, if possible. He is bidden here to wait no longer and prepare for departure.
The words, Stretch not thine eyes towards what We have bestowed on some classes of them, do not refer even to the Companions of the Holy Prophet, as suggested by some commentators, who assert that these words depict the mental condition of some of the Muslims at the time when they saw the caravans of the two Jewish tribes of Banu Quraizah and Banu Nadir laden with jewels, scents, etc. The fact that the whole Surah has been admitted by the consensus of scholarly opinion to have been revealed at Mecca, where there were no Jews, knocks the bottom out of this baseless insinuation. (close)
وَ قُلۡ اِنِّیۡۤ اَنَا النَّذِیۡرُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿ۚ۹۰﴾
وَقُلۡ إِنِّيٓ أَنَا ٱلنَّذِيرُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
c. 22:50; 29:51; 51:51, 52; 67:27. (close)
a. 22:50; 29:51; 51:51, 52; 67:27. (close)
The Holy Prophet is here bidden to announce openly and publicly the impending destruction of the Meccans and leave no ambiguity about it. (close)
کَمَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَی الۡمُقۡتَسِمِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۱﴾
كَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡمُقۡتَسِمِينَ
1524. The Meccans had formed themselves into several groups and had taken upon themselves different duties to put obstacles in the way of the Holy Prophet, or these different groups had assigned to themselves different roles when they had resolved to kill him; Muqtasimin also signifying, 'those who allotted different duties to one another.' (close)
1794. Important Words:
کما (because) is usually interpreted as "just as," but the more appropriate meaning here is "because." The word has been used in this sense in 2:152 and 8:6.
المقتسمین (those who have formed themselves into groups) is the plural of المقتسم which is derived from اقتسم which again is derived from قسم which means, he divided or distributed. اقتسمواالمال بینھم means, they divided the property among themselves, each taking his respective share (Aqrab). The word اقتسم does not signify, as some have thought, the act of swearing.
This verse, when read along with the preceding one, means that Divine punishment was about to overtake the Meccans because they had left no stone unturned to bring the Holy Prophet and his followers to grief and had even gone so far as to apportion among themselves the task of persecuting them. Different groups of disbelievers had taken upon themselves different duties with regard to putting obstacles in the way of the Holy Prophet. Some had undertaken to prevent visitors from approaching him, others to tease him when he was engaged in worship, and yet others had assumed the duty of persecuting the poor Muslims in diverse ways. It is to these various unholy tasks which the enemies of the Holy Prophet had set themselves that the word المقتسمین (those who have formed themselves into groups) refers. Some commentators interpret the word المقتسمین as "those who divide the Quran into parts," accepting some and rejecting others, but the more correct rendering is the one given above. In any case it is against accepted Arabic idiom to interpret the word as "those who swear" even though some scholars have supported this interpretation. For a detailed discussion of this verse, see "Tafsir-e-Kabir" by Hadrat Khalifatul Masih II, Second Successor to the Promised Messiah. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ جَعَلُوا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ عِضِیۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ جَعَلُواْ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ عِضِينَ
1525. ‘Idin is the plural of ‘Idah which means, a lie or falsehood; a calumny; an enchantment; a piece, part or portion of a thing; a party, sect or class of people (Lane). (close)
1795. Important Words:
عضین (so many lies). عضون is the plural of عضة (‘idatun) which is considered to be derived from both عضا یعضو and عضه یعضه. They say عضا الشاة i.e. he cut the sheep or goat into parts or portions. عضی القوم means, he divided the people into parts or sections. عضة means, he lied or enchanted or calumniated. عضة فلانا means, he reviled such a one or vilified him or accused him with false accusations; he calumniated him. العضة in which both derivations combine, means, a lie or falsehood; a calumny; an enchant-ment; a piece, part or portion of a thing; a party, sect or class of people (Aqrab).
The word عضین as given under Important Words means, many lies or so many lies. This meaning of the word is more appropriate here and better suited to the context than the other meaning viz. "parts." Read with the previous verses, the sense of the present verse would be that the Holy Prophet should announce the approach of the threatened punishment to those people who had divided among themselves the unenviable task of persecuting him and his followers and had declared the Quran to be a bundle of lies. This interpretation disposes of the difficulties incidental to other interpretations of these verses. (close)
فَوَ رَبِّکَ لَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّہُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۳﴾
فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّهُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
The words, We will surely question them all, mean, "We shall call to account all these people for their wicked deeds ." (close)
عَمَّا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿ٙ۹۴﴾
عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
فَاصۡدَعۡ بِمَا تُؤۡمَرُ وَ اَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۹۵﴾
فَٱصۡدَعۡ بِمَا تُؤۡمَرُ وَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
a. 5:68. (close)
a. 5:68. (close)
1797. Important Words:
فاصدع (so declare openly). اصدع is derived from صدع. They say صدعه i.e. he clave, split or cracked it. صدع الفلاة means, he traversed or crossed the desert as though he clove it. صدعت الشیء means, I made the thing distinct or plain or clear. صدع بالحق means, he spoke the truth openly or aloud. فاصدع بماتؤمر therefore means: (1) cleave thou, or divide thou (their congregation) with that wherewith thou art charged; (2) distinguish thou therewith between the truth and falsehood; (3) reveal thou or make manifest that with which thou art charged and fear not anyone; or utter thou openly or aloud that with which thou art charged; or (4) order thou or decide thou according to that with which thou art charged, etc. (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse signifies that (1) when God’s decision concerning the punishment of the Meccans and the success of the Faithful has been revealed, the Holy Prophet should announce it openly and desist from further reasoning with the disbelievers; (2) the Holy Prophet should now begin to decide all questions in accordance with the ordinances laid down by Islam and thus should help to introduce the new world order. Taken in this sense, the verse will be found to imply a prophecy regarding the coming migration to Medina of the Holy Prophet. (close)
اِنَّا کَفَیۡنٰکَ الۡمُسۡتَہۡزِءِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۶﴾
إِنَّا كَفَيۡنَٰكَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَهۡزِءِينَ
b. 2:138. (close)
b. 2:138. (close)
The threatened punishment overtook the Quraish after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Medina in the form of defeats on the fields of battle and other humiliations. In the case of individuals also punishment overtook the leaders of disbelief in diverse ways (Kathir, under v. 5). (close)