اِلٰـہُکُمۡ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ ۚ فَالَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ مُّنۡکِرَۃٌ وَّ ہُمۡ مُّسۡتَکۡبِرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾
إِلَٰهُكُمۡ إِلَٰهٞ وَٰحِدٞۚ فَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ قُلُوبُهُم مُّنكِرَةٞ وَهُم مُّسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
b. 2:164; 5:74; 22:35; 37:5. (close)
a. 2:164; 5:74; 22:35; 37:5. (close)
The claim embodied in the words, Your God is One God, is no empty assertion nor have these words been placed here at random. The declaration is the natural conclusion of the arguments given in the preceding verses. In fact it is a characteristic of the Quran that it does not make a statement without supporting it by arguments which immediately precede or follow it. In the present case the arguments are contained in the preceding verses, which comprised two main themes. One was that all the objects in the universe form different links of one chain and are inter-related to and inter-dependent upon one another and that the end and object of the whole creation is man. His main food is the animals. These live upon plants and the latter depend for their life upon water which men use as drink. Water also feeds plants which in their turn feed men. The plants grow under the influence of the sun, the, moon and the stars and the influence of the light of the day and the darkness of the night.
Again the seas serve as great reservoirs of water. They supply man with food, and serve as great highways of communication. The water of the sea is purified by the process of evaporation and becomes fit for use. The rivers replenish the seas and keep the land fit for human habitation. This inter-relation and inter-dependence of things upon each other points inevitably to the fact that there must be only one Creator of them all. Plurality of creators necessarily implies imperfection of each, and only a Perfect Being can be our God.
The other theme of the preceding verses was that all objects of human worship were dead. So the Living God alone deserved to be the object of our worship and was the only true God.
The words, those who believe not in the Hereafter, their hearts are strangers to truth and they are full of pride, embody the answer to the implied question: viz. if the Unity of the Godhead is so obvious and indisputable, then why do men still deny it? The answer given is that this denial is founded on no reason but has its basis in the denial of life after death. Such denial naturally creates a sense of irresponsibility and lack of seriousness and sobriety on the part of disbelievers, leading them gradually to folly and ignorance and the inability even to recognize things which are quite obvious. Another result of the denial of life after death on the part of disbelievers is the growth of conceit and arrogance born of a sense of irresponsibility and of reckless refusal to admit the existence of things which, their reason tells them, are true.
Thus the clause speaks of two kinds of idolaters (1) the foolish and the ignorant; and (2) the proud and the conceited. (close)
لَاجَرَمَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا یُسِرُّوۡنَ وَ مَا یُعۡلِنُوۡنَ ؕ اِنَّہٗ لَا یُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡتَکۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعۡلِنُونَۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡتَكۡبِرِينَ
c. 16:20. (close)
a. See 16:20. (close)
The verse points out that God is One and Omniscient as proved in the preceding verses and that He will not leave disbelievers without punishing them for their evil deeds. But since He knows the overt actions as well as the inner motives of man, He will differentiate between those who defy Him through ignorance and those whose defiance of His authority is the result of their conceit and arrogance. The latter will deserve and receive a severer punishment than the former. (close)
وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ مَّا ذَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ رَبُّکُمۡ ۙ قَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۵﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُم مَّاذَآ أَنزَلَ رَبُّكُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ أَسَٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
d. 8:32; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
b. 8:32; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
The verse reverts to the original theme and says that when deniers of the Unity of God and Resurrection listen to arguments in support of these doctrines, instead of giving them proper consideration they make light of them by saying that these arguments are a mere repetition of the sayings of the ancients. By such remarks they seek to divert the attention of their followers from the truth. This is a common device of the opponents of truth. They always assert that there is nothing new in the teachings of their Prophet, and think that this assertion alone constitutes a sufficient refutation of his claims. As a matter of fact, Prophets of God come to remind men of the old truths that the latter had forgotten. If the later Prophets had taught what had not been taught by their predecessors they would indeed be impostors. Of course, every Prophet presents old truths in a new garb and, if necessary, makes some additions or alterations as required by the circumstances and conditions of his age. (close)
لِیَحۡمِلُوۡۤا اَوۡزَارَہُمۡ کَامِلَۃً یَّوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ۙ وَ مِنۡ اَوۡزَارِ الَّذِیۡنَ یُضِلُّوۡنَہُمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ؕ اَلَا سَآءَ مَا یَزِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۲۶﴾
لِيَحۡمِلُوٓاْ أَوۡزَارَهُمۡ كَامِلَةٗ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ وَمِنۡ أَوۡزَارِ ٱلَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُم بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۗ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ
e. 29:14. (close)
a. 29:14. (close)
The verse signifies that by such devices as those mentioned in the preceding verse the leaders of disbelief manage to deceive their followers and retain their support; but in this way they ruin their own future, because on the Day of Judgement they will not only be punished for their own misdeeds but also for the imposition and deception they practised upon their ignorant followers. The particle ل in the Arabic expression لیحملوا (that they may bear) signifies that the consequence of the deception that the leaders of disbelief practise upon their followers would be that they would not only be punished for their own misdeeds but also for the misdeeds of their misguided followers.
What are discarded by disbelievers as tales of the ancients are really prophecies by which opponents of the Holy Prophet are told that if they persist in their opposition to him they will meet with the same fate which befell the enemies of former Prophets. Now those who consider the accounts of the former peoples given in the Quran as so many tales and stories naturally will not ponder over them and not take warning from them, with the result that they will not be guided by them. On the contrary, they will increase in their evil ways and will consequently have to bear heavy burdens on the Day of Resurrection. The word کاملة (in full) may have two interpretations, i.e. (i) they will suffer only a partial punishment in this life, but in the life to come they will have full and complete punishment; (ii) they will undergo the full punishment of their crimes because, being disbelievers, they will not ask for forgiveness of their sins in the present life and therefore there will be no mitigation of their punishment in the next. (close)
قَدۡ مَکَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ فَاَتَی اللّٰہُ بُنۡیَانَہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡقَوَاعِدِ فَخَرَّ عَلَیۡہِمُ السَّقۡفُ مِنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ وَ اَتٰٮہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ مِنۡ حَیۡثُ لَا یَشۡعُرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾
قَدۡ مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ فَأَتَى ٱللَّهُ بُنۡيَٰنَهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡقَوَاعِدِ فَخَرَّ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلسَّقۡفُ مِن فَوۡقِهِمۡ وَأَتَىٰهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا يَشۡعُرُونَ
a. 39:26; 59:3. (close)
1540. It was no ordinary destruction which overtook the opponents of past Prophets. They were destroyed root and branch. The very foundations of the edifices they had erected and the walls and the roofs thereof tumbled down upon them, that is to say, neither the leaders nor their followers were spared. (close)
b. 39:26; 59:3. (close)
The verse purports to say that it was nothing new on the part of the leaders of disbelief in the time of the Holy Prophetto deceive their followers and thus to keep them ignorant of the true teachings of Islam. The same device was adopted by the opponents of former Prophets. But their machinations were never attended with success; rather they recoiled upon their authors.
The verse also implies an effective retort to the opponents of the Holy Prophet. They say that he merely repeats what was said by other Prophets before him. To this objection the verse retorts that the Holy Prophet’s disbelievers, too, are only copying and imitating what was said and done by the opponents of previous Prophets. Only they have chosen the wrong side, and have imitated the party which met its ruin.
It was not an ordinary ruin which overtook the opponents of past Prophets. They were destroyed root and branch. The very foundations of the edifices they had erected and the walls and the roofs thereof tumbled down upon them, that is to say, neither the leaders nor their followers escaped. So the leaders of disbelief are warned that they should not be proud of their following, because when the time came for Divine punishment, all their power and influence would be of no avail to them and their whole organization with all its firmly founded institutions would fall to pieces. So it actually came to pass on the Fall of Mecca.
The verse also adds that Divine destruction always comes in forms and from quarters most unexpected. The expression "coming of God" means the coming of Divine punishment. See also 13:42. (close)
ثُمَّ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یُخۡزِیۡہِمۡ وَ یَقُوۡلُ اَیۡنَ شُرَکَآءِیَ الَّذِیۡنَ کُنۡتُمۡ تُشَآقُّوۡنَ فِیۡہِمۡ ؕ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ اِنَّ الۡخِزۡیَ الۡیَوۡمَ وَ السُّوۡٓءَ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۸﴾
ثُمَّ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ يُخۡزِيهِمۡ وَيَقُولُ أَيۡنَ شُرَكَآءِيَ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمۡ تُشَـٰٓقُّونَ فِيهِمۡۚ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡعِلۡمَ إِنَّ ٱلۡخِزۡيَ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ وَٱلسُّوٓءَ عَلَى ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
b. 28:63, 75. (close)
a. 28:63, 75. (close)
Sometimes man suffers material loss or a calamity afflicts him but that loss or calamity does not bring disgrace or humiliation to him. At another time he suffers disgrace and humiliation but no loss. The verse means to say that when punishment overtakes the opponents of the Holy Prophet they would suffer both disgrace and the loss of their material possessions. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ تَتَوَفّٰٮہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ ظَالِمِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ۪ فَاَلۡقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا کُنَّا نَعۡمَلُ مِنۡ سُوۡٓءٍ ؕ بَلٰۤی اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ظَالِمِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡۖ فَأَلۡقَوُاْ ٱلسَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعۡمَلُ مِن سُوٓءِۭۚ بَلَىٰٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمُۢ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 4:98; 8:51; 47:28. (close)
d. 16:88. (close)
1541. The disbelievers would protest that what they did was actuated by good intentions and pure motives and that they worshipped their false gods only as an aid to concentration on Divine attributes. The verse gives the lie to this sense of injured innocence of disbelievers. (close)
a. 4:98; 8:51; 47:28. (close)
b. 16:88. (close)
The verse speaks of those disbelievers who spend their whole life in disbelief and opposition to the truth. By doing so they only harm themselves while all the time labouring under the misconception that they are injuring the cause of the Divine Messenger.
The words, We used not to do any evil, mean that disbelievers would not deny having worshipped the false gods because that would be too patent a fact to be denied but would deny only the baseness of their motives and would protest that what they did was actuated by good intentions and pure motives and that they worshipped their false gods as an aid to concentration on Divine attributes. The present verse gives the lie to this sense of injured innocence of disbelievers by saying that this exactly is the plea which is always advanced by idolaters when they find their position indefensible.
The words may also be understood to mean that disbelievers would say that they had tried their best to find out the truth and what they did they did under the impression that it was the right course to adopt.
The words, Allah knows well what you used to do, mean that the plea put forward by disbelievers is false and that if they had been really actuated by right motives, they would surely have been guided to the right path in accordance with God’s promise contained in the words, And as for those who strive in Our cause, We will surely guide them in Our ways (29:70). So their plea of good intentions could not save them from Divine punishment. (close)
فَادۡخُلُوۡۤا اَبۡوَابَ جَہَنَّمَ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ فَلَبِئۡسَ مَثۡوَی الۡمُتَکَبِّرِیۡنَ ﴿۳۰﴾
فَٱدۡخُلُوٓاْ أَبۡوَٰبَ جَهَنَّمَ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَاۖ فَلَبِئۡسَ مَثۡوَى ٱلۡمُتَكَبِّرِينَ
a. 39:73; 40:77. (close)
c. 39:73; 40:77. (close)
The verse means to say that those proud people who know and understand truth but who on account of perverseness or pride do not submit to Divine Messengers and accept their message will receive a heavier punishment than those who err through carelessness or ignorance. (close)
وَ قِیۡلَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اتَّقَوۡا مَاذَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ رَبُّکُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا خَیۡرًا ؕ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اَحۡسَنُوۡا فِیۡ ہٰذِہِ الدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃٌ ؕ وَ لَدَارُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ خَیۡرٌ ؕ وَ لَنِعۡمَ دَارُ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۱﴾
۞وَقِيلَ لِلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوۡاْ مَاذَآ أَنزَلَ رَبُّكُمۡۚ قَالُواْ خَيۡرٗاۗ لِّلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةٞۚ وَلَدَارُ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ خَيۡرٞۚ وَلَنِعۡمَ دَارُ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
b. 39:11. (close)
c. 6:33; 12:110 (close)
a. 39:11. (close)
b. 6:33; 12:110. (close)
V. 25 above stated what disbelievers thought of the revelation sent down to the Holy Prophet. The present verse gives the opinion of the Faithful regarding the Quran in the words, They say, 'The best'. It must be remembered that the Faithful gave this testimony in favour of the Quran at Mecca where they were being bitterly persecuted for believing in it. A testimony given under such circumstances is entitled to the greatest possible respect. The Faithful were asked what they had found in the Book worth believing for which they were undergoing so much persecution, and the reply they invariably gave was that they had found it to be the Ideal Book, i.e. all that was essential for a perfect code of laws to contain was found in it or that this Book exceeded all their expectations.
The words, For those who do good, signify that a change in one’s attitude and outlook brings about a corresponding change in one’s deeds and actions. Disbelievers looked upon the Quran as a mere collection of tales, therefore they disregarded its warnings and consequently became deprived of all good. But believers looked upon it as خیر viz. the Ideal Book, so they acted upon it and thus reaped a good reward in this world and خیر i.e. the ideal reward, in the life to come. (close)
جَنّٰتُ عَدۡنٍ یَّدۡخُلُوۡنَہَا تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ لَہُمۡ فِیۡہَا مَا یَشَآءُوۡنَ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یَجۡزِی اللّٰہُ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۲﴾
جَنَّـٰتُ عَدۡنٖ يَدۡخُلُونَهَا تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُۖ لَهُمۡ فِيهَا مَا يَشَآءُونَۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجۡزِي ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
d. 9:72; 13:24; 35:34; 61:13; 98:9. (close)
1542. The desires of the righteous will become identified with God’s Will, so they will desire only those things which it will be the Will of God to give them. (close)
c. 9:72; 13:24; 35:34; 61:13; 98:9. (close)
The words جنات عدن (Gardens of eternity) signify that the abode of the righteous will beخیر i.e. ideal and perfect. It will necessarily be everlasting, for it is only the defective things that perish. For the meaning of جنات عدن see 9:72.
The clause, through them flow streams, should not be understood to mean that streams will flow through those gardens, for the mere flowing of streams might sometime prove a source of trouble. What is meant here is that the streams will be under the complete control of the Faithful.
The words, they will have therein what they wish for, mean that (1) they will be masters of those gardens and will enjoy perfect freedom and there will be none to rule over them; (2) they will be given whatever they may desire; i.e. their desires will become identified with God’s will, so they will desire only those things which it will be the will of God to give to them. (close)