خَلَقَ الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ نُّطۡفَۃٍ فَاِذَا ہُوَ خَصِیۡمٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۵﴾
خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَٰنَ مِن نُّطۡفَةٖ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. 18:38; 22:6; 23:13, 14; 35:12; 36:78; 40:68. (close)
1531. After God had created the heavens and the earth according to a definite system of laws, He created man and sent down His revelation for his guidance. But notwithstanding the fact that after having created man from an apparently contemptible seed God endowed him with the highest faculties, he, instead of acting upon the guidance vouchsafed to him by God, starts questioning His powers and prerogatives. (close)
a. 18:38; 22:6; 23:13-14; 35:12; 36:78; 40:68. (close)
1806. Important Words:
نطفة (drop of fluid) is noun-infinitive from نطف. نطف الماء means, the water flowed little by little. نطفة means, the sperm of a man or [ovum of] a woman; clear water whether much or little; (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse means to say that after God had created the heavens and the earth according to a definite system of laws, He created man and sent down His revelation for his guidance. But notwithstanding the fact that after having created man from an apparently contemptible seed, God endowed him with highest faculties, yet he, instead of acting upon the guidance vouchsafed to him by God, begins to question His powers and prerogatives. Some men are so presumptuous as to say that God could not bring the universe into existence from non-existence and that it had come into existence by itself. Others say that God did not create matter, but has only arbitrarily subjected it to His control. Yet others object that God has no right to impose a law upon man and that man is a free agent and can frame a law for his own use. In this way these people begin to deny the favours of God and declare themselves independent of Him. The verse supplies an answer to all these objections.
The verse also implies the beautiful hint that while on the one hand man, in spite of being created from an apparently contemptible substance, begins to arrogate to himself such greatness as even to presume to dispute God’s authority; on the other he refuses to admit that God Who created him from a mere sperm and endowed him with such noble qualities has the power to raise an apparently lowly and humble man to the rank of a Prophet.
The verse may also suggest that it certainly could not be the object of the creation of the universe that only a disobedient and sinful man should have come into being. God’s purpose in creating the universe must have been quite different and much higher and nobler. If such is the case, then why should men wonder when there appears in the world a noble personage who fulfils the real object and purpose of God’s creation?
The verse also implies a reply to an objection raised by the opponents of the Prophets. They look down upon them and regard them as contemptible persons unworthy of such distinction. The opponents of the Holy Prophet held similar views with regard to him, as is apparent from 43:32. The verse draws the attention of disbelievers to man’s humble and lowly beginning to point the moral that when from such humble beginnings men can rise to great eminence and glory, why is it impossible that God should raise to spiritual eminence a man who appears contemptible and humble in their eyes? (close)
وَ الۡاَنۡعَامَ خَلَقَہَا ۚ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا دِفۡءٌ وَّ مَنَافِعُ وَ مِنۡہَا تَاۡکُلُوۡنَ ﴿۪۶﴾
وَٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمَ خَلَقَهَاۖ لَكُمۡ فِيهَا دِفۡءٞ وَمَنَٰفِعُ وَمِنۡهَا تَأۡكُلُونَ
b. 6:143; 23:22; 36:72, 74; 40:80, 81. (close)
a. 6:143; 23:22; 36:72-74; 40:80-81. (close)
This verse contains a crushing reply to man’s arrogance referred to in the previous verse. It purports to say that though he has been created by God, yet he claims to be independent of Him. As regards himself, however, he exercises control over things which he has not created and freely subjects them to his service. Nay, he does not even hesitate to take their life, asserting that, as he is superior to all creation, it is permissible for him to slaughter animals for his own use. If it is true that lower life can be sacrificed for the higher one and if it is permissible for man to exact service from animals, then with what justification can he object to God’s rule over him or to the authority of His Messenger? Why does he cavil and carp when he sees in his own case the same law enforced which he himself enforces in the case of others?
The verse may have another interpretation. In the previous verse the objections of those who found fault with God for His sending down the angels with His word upon whomsoever of His servants He pleases were answered. Disbelievers objected to God’s selection of a person of humble origin for His revelation. The answer given was that when God had bestowed His favours upon them, although they had been created from such humble and paltry matter as seminal fluid, they could not possibly object to His bestowing His favours upon a Prophet whom they regarded as humble. (close)
وَ لَکُمۡ فِیۡہَا جَمَالٌ حِیۡنَ تُرِیۡحُوۡنَ وَ حِیۡنَ تَسۡرَحُوۡنَ ﴿۪۷﴾
وَلَكُمۡ فِيهَا جَمَالٌ حِينَ تُرِيحُونَ وَحِينَ تَسۡرَحُونَ
Another benefit which man derives from cattle is that their possession redounds to his glory. Man takes pride in the abundance of his material possessions in the form of buffaloes, cows, horses, camels, sheep, etc. It is strange that while in his own case he regards the possession of things of which he is not the creator as a source of legitimate pride and glory, in the case of God he thinks that after having brought him into existence He should have left him to himself, so that, instead of glorifying Him and extolling His praise, he should find fault with His works and become a source of mischief in the world. Why should man not think that God, Who is the Creator of all, would also like His creatures to become a source of beauty and glory for Him? i.e. to become possessed of high morals and reflect in their persons Divine attributes so as to bring home to doubters and disbelievers the nobility and dignity of God’s servants.
It is noteworthy that cattle are spoken of as "being driven" to pasture in the morning, and "returning" (not "being driven") in the evening. The use of two different expressions viz. تریحون (you bring them home in the evening) andتسرحون (you drive them forth to pasture in the morning) points to the fact that the young ones of the cattle are left behind when they are driven to pasture in the morning, and therefore the return of the cattle to their young in the evening is spontaneous without needing any driving. Also, contrary to the natural order, the coming home of cattle is here mentioned before their being driven to pasture in the morning. This is because there is more beauty and pride for the owner in a herd of cattle coming home in the evening well-fed, hale and strong, than when they go out to pasture weak and hungry in the morning with the added fear that all of them may not return home safe. (close)
وَ تَحۡمِلُ اَثۡقَالَکُمۡ اِلٰی بَلَدٍ لَّمۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡا بٰلِغِیۡہِ اِلَّا بِشِقِّ الۡاَنۡفُسِ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکُمۡ لَرَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَتَحۡمِلُ أَثۡقَالَكُمۡ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٖ لَّمۡ تَكُونُواْ بَٰلِغِيهِ إِلَّا بِشِقِّ ٱلۡأَنفُسِۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمۡ لَرَءُوفٞ رَّحِيمٞ
c. 6:143; 36:73; 40:81. (close)
a. 6:143; 36:73; 40:81. (close)
When God has provided so many facilities for the physical journeys of man, how can He fail to provide similar facilities for his spiritual journey? To say that God is too exalted a Being to have such regard for the welfare of man as to provide for his spiritual needs is only a puerile pretext to deny Divine revelation. If God is Exalted, the verse seems to say, He is also Kind and Merciful to His creatures and therefore His solicitude for the spiritual wellbeing of man is not at all inconsistent with His Dignity and Majesty, and instead of detracting anything from His Glory, it rather enhances it. This Divinesolicitude for man’s welfare may metaphorically be called God’s carrying man’s burden for him.
The use of the word رءوف translated here as 'Compassionate' is intended to express that feeling of sympathy and love which one feels at seeing a person in trouble and distress. The verse means to say that as God is رءوف (Compassionate) He cannot bear to see man in distress. (close)
وَّ الۡخَیۡلَ وَ الۡبِغَالَ وَ الۡحَمِیۡرَ لِتَرۡکَبُوۡہَا وَ زِیۡنَۃً ؕ وَ یَخۡلُقُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
وَٱلۡخَيۡلَ وَٱلۡبِغَالَ وَٱلۡحَمِيرَ لِتَرۡكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةٗۚ وَيَخۡلُقُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
d. 36:73; 40:81; 43:13. (close)
1532. When God has taken so much care to provide for the physical and material needs of man, the idea cannot be entertained for a single moment that He should have neglected to make a similar provision for his spiritual needs. (close)
1532A. The words may mean that God will bring into existence new means of transport which were yet unknown to man. The prophecy has been wonderfully fulfilled in the form of railway trains, steamships, motor cars, aeroplanes, etc. God alone knows what new means of transport are yet to be invented. (close)
b. 36:73; 40:81; 43:13. (close)
The word زینة (as a source of beauty) literally meaning ornament, is here used in the sense of splendour and pomp. This meaning is in keeping with the significance of the words, that you ride them, thus hinting that their beauty lies in their being used as a means of conveyance. The animals mentioned in this verse are those that are used in warfare and serve to show the power and might of a people in opposition to the enemy.
In this and the preceding three verses, the Quran speaks of two kinds of things created for the good of man: (1) those that are of use to him in his private life; (2) those that serve his political ends. These things have been created to serve the following six purposes; (a) to protect man from the inclemency of weather; (b) to provide him with food; (c) to bring him honour and glory; (d) to carry his burdens; (e) to be used as a means of personal conveyance; and (f) to serve as a source of strength and power for him.
The verse purports to say that when God has taken so much care to provide for the above six physical and material needs of man, the idea cannot be entertained for a single moment that He should have neglected to make a similar provision for his spiritual needs. The verse also hints that although man exacts work from other creatures in spite of the fact that he is not their creator, he denies God (Who does not derive any benefit from him) the right to reform and guide him to a stage where he should constitute an evidence of His Holiness and Sanctity and a means of His glorification.
The expression, And He will create what you do not yet know, embodies a prophecy that God will bring into existence new means of conveyance which were yet unknown to man. This prophecy has been wonderfully fulfilled by the discovery of comfortable and ever-increasing means of conveyance such as railway trains, steamships, motor cars, aeroplanes, etc. God only knows what new means of conveyance are yet to be discovered by man.
As against the six physical objects enumerated above, the six spiritual characteristics that the word of God must possess are the following:
(1) It should protect man from the evil effects of heat and cold, i.e. it should guard him against extremes in everything. Absence of the love of God may be called cold in religious terminology and abusing or persecuting in the name of religion those who differ from us in their views and compelling them to subscribe to our views against their will may represent heat. The word of God inspires man with His love on the one hand and on the other enjoins its followers to be tolerant towards those who hold views different from theirs.
(2) It should serve the purpose of spiritual food, i.e. it should contain all those elements which develop and strengthen the spiritual faculties of man. It should inculcate teachings which tend to suppress and subdue his evil inclinations and propensities and inspire him with spiritual strength and vigour.
(3) It should be a source of beauty and glory i.e. those who act upon it should appear beautiful and dignified in the eyes of others. Their compatriots should feel and admit that the word of God has worked a great revolution in their lives.
(4) It should bear man’s burdens, i.e. it should make him realize his duties and responsibilities and, by freeing him from the shackles of superstitious customs and usages, should enable him to achieve true liberty.
(5) It should serve as a means of conveyance, i.e. it should help man speedily to attain nearness to his Creator by understanding and realizing His attributes, and should save him from a long and fatiguing spiritual journey.
(6) It should impart vigour and strength to man, i.e. by acting upon it, its followers should lead a respectable and honourable life in both worlds, their organization should become strong, and they should win the esteem and regard of nations by living up to their ideals and teachings.
These are the six essential qualities which the word of God must possess and without which it forfeits the title of being called Divine. (close)
وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ قَصۡدُ السَّبِیۡلِ وَ مِنۡہَا جَآئِرٌ ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ لَہَدٰٮکُمۡ اَجۡمَعِیۡنَ ﴿٪۱۰﴾
وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ قَصۡدُ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمِنۡهَا جَآئِرٞۚ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ لَهَدَىٰكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
a. 6:150; 10:100; 11:119. (close)
a. 6:150; 10:100; 11:119. (close)
1811. Important Words:
قصد (qasdun—right) is derived from قصد (qasada) which means, he betook himself to it; he aimed at or sought after it. قصد فی الامر means, he pursued a right or direct course in the affair; he followed the middle and most just way in the affair; he kept within due bounds in the affair. قصد (qasd) therefore means, aim or course of a person or thing that is right; conforming or conformable to the just mean. They say, ھو علی قصد, i.e. he is following a right way or course (Lane & Aqrab).
The words, And upon Allah rests the showing of the right way, mean that God has made it incumbent upon Himself that He should show man the right way; or that God has taken upon Himself that He would show man the right way by following which he may attain to Him. This idea has also been expressed in 92:13 which says, Verily it is for Us to guide. The verse under comment means to say that God alone can show the way which is characterized by moderation and is free from excesses or extremes. Man, unaided by God, cannot devise such a way for himself.
This verse further tells us that, excepting those who enjoy special protection of God, every person has his prejudices and predilections. It is impossible for man to be quite free from bias or favouritism. Man-made laws therefore suffer from the defect that they tend to incline to one extreme or the other and deny some their just rights and give others more than their due. Hence a Law which has equal regard for the rights of all and which gives everyone his due, neither more nor less, can be devised and promulgated by God alone. On the contrary, as man is a slave of his sentiments, laws made by him can have regard only for his own sentiments and susceptibilities and can reflect only his own feelings to the exclusion of the feelings of other people. Only that Law can have due regard for all sorts of temperaments and dispositions and conditions and circumstances which is devised by that Being Who has created all men and Who has full knowledge of their temperaments and circumstances. He alone can maintain the right balance between men of different sentiments and ideas.
It further appears from this verse that when God has arranged to satisfy the physical needs of man, it follows as a corollary that His word should satisfy his spiritual needs also.
The words, And if He had enforced His will, He would have guided you all, suggest that if God had not undertaken to provide guidance for mankind, the only other alternative for Him would have been to make human nature such that man could not pursue a wrong course or deviate from the right path. But God in His infallible wisdom has not chosen to do so. So when He gave man the freedom and the choice to follow the right or the wrong course, He should have also revealed to him His guidance from time to time and should have helped him to avoid the wrong path in his march to the destined goal. (close)
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً لَّکُمۡ مِّنۡہُ شَرَابٌ وَّ مِنۡہُ شَجَرٌ فِیۡہِ تُسِیۡمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾
هُوَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗۖ لَّكُم مِّنۡهُ شَرَابٞ وَمِنۡهُ شَجَرٞ فِيهِ تُسِيمُونَ
b. 2:23; 6:100; 13:18; 16:66; 22:64. (close)
a. 2:23; 6:100; 13:18; 16:66; 22:64 (close)
The Arabs were the first addressees of the Quran and in Arabia water is very scarce. So they have been told in this verse that water which is the source of all life and which brings out food and vegetation for them and their cattle is indeed a great gift of God. And, repeating the argument embodied in the preceding verse, the present verse goes on to say that when God has made ample provision for the physical needs of man, He could not have neglected to provide for his spiritual needs. Also that when man very gladly accepts and uses all the physical provisions made for him, why should he decline to make similar use of God’s spiritual gifts?
The expression لکم (for you) in the verse points to the truth that the whole universe has been created for the service of man because he is the acme and end of all creation. So it is really very strange that God should have omitted to fix a great object for man’s creation or should have neglected to provide means for the fulfilment of that object. This subject has been further developed in the next verse. (close)
یُنۡۢبِتُ لَکُمۡ بِہِ الزَّرۡعَ وَ الزَّیۡتُوۡنَ وَ النَّخِیۡلَ وَ الۡاَعۡنَابَ وَ مِنۡ کُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾
يُنۢبِتُ لَكُم بِهِ ٱلزَّرۡعَ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونَ وَٱلنَّخِيلَ وَٱلۡأَعۡنَٰبَ وَمِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
c. 6:100; 13:5. (close)
1533. The energy, which makes plants grow, might be latent in the soil, but it does not come into play unless the soil receives water from heaven. Even so man may possess most excellent inherent faculties, but he cannot develop them without the help of Divine revelation. To base man’s spiritual development upon his intellect alone is like saying that the earth can grow plants without the help of water. (close)
a. 6:100; 13:5. (close)
The preceding verse referred to rain which supplied man with drink and helped to grow such plants as feed animals which serve him. In this verse mention has been made of such plants as are used by man himself as food, staples, condiments or dessert. Thus it draws attention to the fact that not only animals but also plants have been created for man and are engaged in serving him.
The verse also points to the great truth that the power of making plants grow might be latent in the soil, but it does not come into play unless the soil receives water from heaven. Even so a man may possess most excellent faculties but he cannot develop them without the help of Divine revelation. To base man’s spiritual development upon his intellect and natural powers alone is like saying that the earth can grow plants without the help of water. The truth is that just as land, however fertile and rich in soil, cannot grow anything without water, similarly human intellect cannot rise to its full spiritual stature without the help of Divine revelation.
The verse also meets a very popular question that may arise here: What new things does a Prophet bring and where is the need of any new Messenger when all the truths that he is supposed to teach are embedded in human nature? It says that the mere existence of a certain thing and its development and growth are two separate things. Just as the latent powers of the soil to grow vegetation remain undeveloped and its richness combined with the soundness of the seed that is thrown on it fails to produce anything without the help of water, similarly the latent and inherent powers and faculties of man fail to find their real development and growth without the help of Divine revelation.
Another point worthy of note in this verse is the order observed in the description of the advantages derived by man from animals and plants. In the case of animals mention was made first of those animals which are used as human food and next of those which serve other purposes (vv. 6, 9). Similarly, speaking of the plants mention has been made in the present verse, first of plants which serve as staple food and then of plants which serve only as condiments and dessert. (close)
وَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمُ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ ۙ وَ الشَّمۡسَ وَ الۡقَمَرَ ؕ وَ النُّجُوۡمُ مُسَخَّرٰتٌۢ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۳﴾
وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ وَٱلنُّجُومُ مُسَخَّرَٰتُۢ بِأَمۡرِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَعۡقِلُونَ
d. 7:55; 13:3; 14:34; 35:14; 39:6. (close)
a. 7:55; 13:3; 14:34; 35:14; 39:6. (close)
In this verse mention has been made of another class of Divine blessings viz. the world of inorganic matter, particularly of those things such as the sun, the moon and the stars which exercise a powerful influence upon the mental development of man, either directly or indirectly through the medium of the animal and vegetable worlds. This is why, after animals and vegetables, mention is here made of inorganic and inanimate things which also help the physical and mental sustenance and development of man. Mention has also been made of night and day, because the benefits that man derives from the alternation of night and day are directly bound with the influences of the sun, the moon and the stars.
One more interesting point to note here is that whereas in the foregoing verses where animals and vegetables have been mentioned God has used the expression خلق (He has created), in the present verse where the sun, the moon and the stars have been mentioned, the expression سخر (He has pressed into service) has been used. This is done to signify that in the case of animals and vegetables which man uses for his benefit he has to put in some effort to derive that benefit from them; therefore in consideration of this element of the personal effort of man the expression خلق (He has created) has been used. But as the advantages he receives from the sun, the moon and the stars and from the alternation of day and night are completely gratuitous and are without any effort on man’s part, the expression سخر (He has pressed into service) has been used
which signifies service without remuneration. Similarly, the use of the expression یعقلون (who make use of their reason) in this verse as against the expression یتفکرون (who reflect) in the previous verse is also significant. The reason for using these two different expressions is that whereas the word فکر (reflection) means mental cogitation relating to matters which are near at hand, the word عقل (reason) signifies mental cogitation relating to things both near and far. As the influence of inorganic matter upon the life and development of man is a thing which requires deep study and close observation to understand, the expression, یعقلون has been used in this verse. But as the phenomena of the animal and vegetable worlds are matters of common observation and can be studied and understood even by men of ordinary intelligence, the expression یتفکرون has been used in the preceding verse. (close)
وَ مَا ذَرَاَ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُخۡتَلِفًا اَلۡوَانُہٗ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّذَّکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾
وَمَا ذَرَأَ لَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُخۡتَلِفًا أَلۡوَٰنُهُۥٓۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
a. 13:5; 39:22. (close)
1534. One of the most wonderful features of God’s creation is that no two things or persons are exactly alike. But for this diversity there would have been indescribable confusion and chaos in the world. It would have been difficult to distinguish one thing from another or one person from another person. Similarly, there is such diversity in the dispositions and temperaments of men that it is beyond human power to devise a teaching which may equally suit all natures. No man has full knowledge of the diversity that exists in nature. God alone knows these differences and diversities and, therefore, He alone can give a Teaching which can equally suit and benefit all. (close)
1535. Each of the three words, viz. Yatafakkarun, Ya‘qilun and Yadhdhakkarun which have been placed at the end of vv. 12th, 13th and 14th respectively may be understood not only as especially appropriate to the theme of the particular verse in which it is used, but also as applicable to the general theme dealt with collectively in the three verses, their use in their particular places being determined by the degree of their importance. The word "reflection" has been used first because it constitutes the first means for, and of all moral qualities it is the first to be awakened in, the process of the moral reformation of man. From the habit of reflection grows understanding or 'making use of reason.' At this second stage man accomplishes his moral reformation. After this comes the third stage when temptations have been completely overcome and moral struggle ceases and man 'takes heed' and is self-admonished and the doing of good works becomes a part of his nature. (close)
a. 13:5; 39:22. (close)
One of the most wonderful features of God’s creation is that no two things or persons are exactly alike. But for this diversity there would have been indescribable confusion and chaos in the world. It would have been difficult to distinguish one thing from another or one person from another person. Similarly, there is such diversity in the dispositions and temperaments of men that it is beyond human power to devise a teaching that may equally suit all natures. No man has full knowledge of the diversity that exists in nature. God alone knows these differences and therefore He alone can give a teaching which can suit and benefit all men.
After animals, vegetables and the inorganic creation have been mentioned separately in the preceding two verses, the verse under comment proceeds to mention something common to all creation. A new topic about the difference in various colours is introduced in this verse. Colours, too, cast their influence upon man and work for his benefit. The effect of colour upon the human body and mind is only a recent discovery of science. It is a marvel of the Quran that it made clear reference to this effect more than thirteen centuries before its discovery by scientists. The verse points out that not only different objects in nature but also their distinctive hues and colours serve man’s physical needs. It is no wonder then that God should have made similar or even greater and better provision for his spiritual needs.
The verse also suggests that just as the colours and properties of things are too many and too diverse to be enumerated, so are men’s natures, dispositions and temperaments. It is beyond human understanding to comprehend this diversity of dispositions and natures which knows no limit or bound, much less to provide for the peculiar needs and requirements of each and every man. This applies more particularly to the moral and spiritual needs of man and points to the necessity of guidance from God Who alone has full knowledge of this diversity and knows also how the requirements of every individual can be adequately met.
The verse fittingly closes with the expression لقوم یذکرون (for a people who take heed) because the problem of the diversity of men’s natures and temperaments and the satisfaction of each man’s peculiar needs is so complex that it calls for deep and categorical consideration. Each of the three expressions viz. یتفکرون and یعقلون and یذکرون which have been placed at the end of vv. 12th, 13th, and 14th respectively may be understood not only as especially appropriate to the theme of the particular verse in which it is used, but also as applicable to the general theme dealt with collectively in the three verses, their use in their particular places being determined by the degree of their importance. The word reflection has been used first because it constitutes the first means, and of all moral qualities it is the first to be awakened in the process of the moral reformation of man. From the habit of reflection grows understanding or making the use of reasonat which stage man accomplishes his moral reformation. After this comes the third stage when temptations have been completely overcome and moral struggle ceases and man takes heed and is self-admonished and the doing of good works becomes a part of his nature. (close)