یَخَافُوۡنَ رَبَّہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہِمۡ وَ یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ مَا یُؤۡمَرُوۡنَ ﴿٪ٛ۵۱﴾
يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُم مِّن فَوۡقِهِمۡ وَيَفۡعَلُونَ مَا يُؤۡمَرُونَ۩
a. 66:7. (close)
This verse describes the most prominent attribute of angels, viz. that they are mere instruments for the manifestation of the Divine will and, unlike men, have not been endowed with a free will. Incidentally the verse demolishes the popular notion about the two fallen angels in Babylon—Harut and Marut. (close)
وَ قَالَ اللّٰہُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اِلٰـہَیۡنِ اثۡنَیۡنِ ۚ اِنَّمَا ہُوَ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ ۚ فَاِیَّایَ فَارۡہَبُوۡنِ ﴿۵۲﴾
۞وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ إِلَٰهَيۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۖ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٞ وَٰحِدٞ فَإِيَّـٰيَ فَٱرۡهَبُونِ
b. 16:23. (close)
1551. A study of the working of the universe reveals a wonderful uniformity of the system running through it. If there had been more gods than one, this uniformity would have disappeared. Moreover, if there had been two gods, one would have to be subordinate to the other to carry out his orders. In that case the existence of one of the two would be superfluous. But if both of them had been of an equal status, then each of them would have his own separate sphere of influence and control. In such an event differences certainly would have arisen between them. But both these suppositions are absurd. Hence there must be One God, the Only Creator of the entire universe. (close)
b. See 16:23. (close)
The interdiction about the adoption of two gods in the first sentence of the verse does not imply that the adoption of more than two gods is permissible, for it is stated in the very next sentence that God is One. This form of speech has been used to lend emphasis to the statement and means that God is only One and not two, much less many.
Another implication of the verse is that all men, even polytheists and idolaters, believe that there is One Supreme God. They believe in other and lesser gods in the sense that they exercise local and restricted authority, e.g., some control rain, others control food, yet others diseases, etc. There are also gods presiding over the destinies of certain families and tribes. But the Quran most emphatically denies the division of the Godhead into two or three or more and the present verse lays the greatest stress on the Oneness of God and says that no one dare share Godhead with Him.
The verse may also be considered as a refutation of the belief held by the Magi that there are two gods, one of good and the other of evil. It purports to say that both good and evil consequences of actions proceed from one and the same God and that there is no other god beside Him.
A further implication of the verse is that when there is only one God, then He alone has the authority to make Laws and that He has sent down the Quran for the guidance of man.
Referring to the warnings given in the previous verse, the Quran declares here that when events predicted long before by the Prophet come to pass after his Migration from Mecca, it will establish the Oneness of God.
The verse also implies a comparison between the teachings of the Quran and those advocated by disbelievers and points out that man cannot do without the monotheistic teachings inculcated by the Quran. Polytheism tends to dissipate human attention and energies while monotheism gives him concentration, strength and peace of mind. (close)
وَ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَہُ الدِّیۡنُ وَاصِبًا ؕ اَفَغَیۡرَ اللّٰہِ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
وَلَهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَهُ ٱلدِّينُ وَاصِبًاۚ أَفَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ تَتَّقُونَ
c. 39:4. (close)
a. 39:4. (close)
1854. Important Words:
واصبا (forever) is derived from وصب which means, it continued; was constant; was fixed, settled or firm. They say وصب لبن الناقة i.e. the milk of the camel continued or was constant. وصب علی الامر means, he kept, attended or applied himself constantly, perseveringly or assiduously to the thing and managed it or conducted it well. The Quranic expression, وله الدین واصبا means, to Him shall be rendered obedience perpetually or constantly, whether man be content with that which he is commanded to do or not, or whether it be easy for him or not; to Him shall be rendered obedience, even if it be attended by successive fatigue (Lane).
In this verse the argument in refutation of polytheism is continued. The verse means to say that if we study the working of the universe we would find a wonderful uniformity of system running through it. If there had been more gods than one, this uniformity would not have existed. Moreover, if there had been two gods one would have to be subordinate to the other to carry out the latter’s orders. In that case his existence would have been superfluous. But if both of them had been of equal status, then each of them would have his own separate sphere of influence and control. In such an event, differences would certainly have arisen between the two. But both these suppositions are absurd. Hence there must be One God, the only Creator of the entire universe. (close)
وَ مَا بِکُمۡ مِّنۡ نِّعۡمَۃٍ فَمِنَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ اِذَا مَسَّکُمُ الضُّرُّ فَاِلَیۡہِ تَجۡـَٔرُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۵۴﴾
وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعۡمَةٖ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِۖ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فَإِلَيۡهِ تَجۡـَٔرُونَ
d. 4:80; 10:13, 23; 23:65; 30:34; 39:9. (close)
b. 4:80; 10:13, 23; 23:65; 30:34; 39:9. (close)
This verse refers to those signs and evidences in human nature which support the Unity of Godhead. Various blessings which man enjoys in life evidently all form parts of one common system. But foolish people attribute some of them to their false gods. When, however, they are overtaken by some sudden calamity they forget all these pseudo-gods and turn to the One True God. This proves that in their heart of hearts polytheists are never satisfied with their idolatrous beliefs. (close)
ثُمَّ اِذَا کَشَفَ الضُّرَّ عَنۡکُمۡ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡکُمۡ بِرَبِّہِمۡ یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۵۵﴾
ثُمَّ إِذَا كَشَفَ ٱلضُّرَّ عَنكُمۡ إِذَا فَرِيقٞ مِّنكُم بِرَبِّهِمۡ يُشۡرِكُونَ
e. 10:13, 24; 29:66; 30:34; 39:9. (close)
a. 10:13, 24; 29:66; 30:34; 39:9. (close)
By using the words "their Lord" the verse makes an appeal to the inherent noble sense of jealousy of man about a thing which he considers his own. The verse seems to say to disbelievers that when every man feels jealous of what belongs to him, why do they not feel ashamed of setting up equals with God Who is their own Lord and Creator? (close)
لِیَکۡفُرُوۡا بِمَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ ؕ فَتَمَتَّعُوۡا ۟ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾
لِيَكۡفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَيۡنَٰهُمۡۚ فَتَمَتَّعُواْ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ
f. 29:67; 30:35. (close)
b. 29:67; 30:35. (close)
The particle ل here expresses result or consequence. The verse means to say that the result of disbelievers’ setting up equals with God is that they begin to deny the favours which they receive from Him. But so long as they continue to be ungrateful to God they cannot hope to win His everlasting Grace. The verse warns disbelievers that God, out of His Mercy, averts from them His punishment time and again but if they refuse to mend their ways He would reject their prayers and punish them. (close)
وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِمَا لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ نَصِیۡبًا مِّمَّا رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ ؕ تَاللّٰہِ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِمَا لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ نَصِيبٗا مِّمَّا رَزَقۡنَٰهُمۡۗ تَٱللَّهِ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمۡ تَفۡتَرُونَ
a. 6:137. (close)
c. 6:137. (close)
The verse means to say that idolaters allege that their gods or idols have bestowed upon them such and such things while the gods themselves have no knowledge of any such bestowal of their favours upon them. The words لما لا یعلمون (of which they know nothing) signify that idolaters who imagine they have received gifts from their gods and goddesses do not know who their gods are.
The verse constitutes one more powerful argument in refutation of polytheism. Very often polytheists and idolaters are found to indulge in abstruse philosophical and metaphysical arguments in support of polytheism which confuse men’s minds. In this verse they are told that the possibility that a certain thing can exist and the fact that it actually exists are two vastly different things. Even admitting for the sake of argument that there can be more than one God, does this hypothetical possibility actually prove that a particular person who is believed by idolaters to be a god is really so? These abstruse philosophical discussions do not prove anything. The godhead of the pseudo-gods has to be proved by strong and cogent proofs. This is a line of argument which at once takes the ground from under the feet of idolaters. They cannot prove the godhead of any one of their many gods. A polytheist will always indulge in abstruse metaphysical discussion about polytheism, but will never be able to adduce one single solid argument to prove the godhead of any of his many gods. It is in pursuance of God’s own plan that the lives of the pseudo-gods of the polytheists show that they were so weak and helpless that in view of their weakness and helplessness not even the most confirmed polytheist could dare say that they were gods. (close)
وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِلّٰہِ الۡبَنٰتِ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ ۙ وَ لَہُمۡ مَّا یَشۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡبَنَٰتِ سُبۡحَٰنَهُۥ وَلَهُم مَّا يَشۡتَهُونَ
b. 6:101; 37:153, 154; 43:17; 52:40; 53:22. (close)
1552. The verse does not imply that the offence of disbelievers lies in attributing to God daughters and not sons though the Qur’an has also strongly denounced the attribution of a son to God (19:91, 92). The verse only points to the folly of the disbelievers that they attribute daughters to God while they themselves feel humiliated at daughters being attributed to them. (close)
a. 6:101; 37:153-154; 43:17; 52:40; 53:22. (close)
The verse does not imply that the offence of disbelievers lies in attributing to God daughters and not sons. In 19:91, 92, it has been clearly mentioned how it displeases God when a son is attributed to Him. The present verse only points to the folly of disbelievers that they go against their own accepted principles. The rejection of truth makes them impervious to this patent fact that they attribute daughters to God while they themselves feel humiliated at daughters being attributed to them. This shows how helpless human intellect, unaided by Divinerevelation, is to understand even very easy and simple things, let alone difficult and complicated religious problems. A possible objection that the Quran wrongly assumes that polytheists regard daughters as a source of humiliation is answered in the next verse. (close)
وَ اِذَا بُشِّرَ اَحَدُہُمۡ بِالۡاُنۡثٰی ظَلَّ وَجۡہُہٗ مُسۡوَدًّا وَّ ہُوَ کَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۚ۵۹﴾
وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجۡهُهُۥ مُسۡوَدّٗا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٞ
c. 43:18. (close)
1552A. Iswadda Wajhu-hu means, his face became black, i.e. his face became expressive of grief or overcast with gloom; he became grieved, sorrowful or confounded; he became disgraced (Lane). (close)
a. 43:18. (close)
یَتَوَارٰی مِنَ الۡقَوۡمِ مِنۡ سُوۡٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِہٖ ؕ اَیُمۡسِکُہٗ عَلٰی ہُوۡنٍ اَمۡ یَدُسُّہٗ فِی التُّرَابِ ؕ اَلَا سَآءَ مَا یَحۡکُمُوۡنَ ﴿۶۰﴾
يَتَوَٰرَىٰ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ مِن سُوٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِۦٓۚ أَيُمۡسِكُهُۥ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمۡ يَدُسُّهُۥ فِي ٱلتُّرَابِۗ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ
1553. The reference is to the barbarous custom of burying alive of female children which was in vogue among certain Arab tribes. They had a very low conception of their womenfolk and accorded them an extremely degraded position in their society. The Qur’an has strongly upheld the honour of women and has recognized all their legitimate rights, and in this respect it stands unique among all the Scriptures of the world. (close)
1860. Important Words:
ھون (disgrace) is the infinitive noun from ھان . They say ھان الرجل i.e. the man was or became low, base, vile, contemptible, despicable; he became weak and at rest. ھان علیه الامر means, the matter was easy and light to him. ھون (haun) means, ease and dignity and ھون (hun) means, disgrace (Lane & Aqrab).
In this and the previous verse the Quran has strongly condemned the low conception of the Arabs of their womenfolk and the degraded position they accorded them in their society. The Quran has throughout upheld the honour of woman and has recognized her rights, and in this respect it stands unique among all the Scriptures of the world. It may incidentally be stated here that it is generally believed that the practice of burying daughters alive was common among all Arab tribes. History lends no support to this popular misconception. Had it been so the number of men over women would have greatly predominated in Arabia. But that was never the case. Nevertheless, the birth of a daughter was looked upon as a source of humiliation and embarrassment to the parents. But the foul practice of burying daughters alive was confined to a few tribes outside Mecca who had an exaggerated notion of their greatness, and even among those tribes only the wealthy few resorted to this barbarous practice. (close)