وَ یَجۡعَلُوۡنَ لِلّٰہِ مَا یَکۡرَہُوۡنَ وَ تَصِفُ اَلۡسِنَتُہُمُ الۡکَذِبَ اَنَّ لَہُمُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕ لَا جَرَمَ اَنَّ لَہُمُ النَّارَ وَ اَنَّہُمۡ مُّفۡرَطُوۡنَ ﴿۶۳﴾
وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكۡرَهُونَۚ وَتَصِفُ أَلۡسِنَتُهُمُ ٱلۡكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّارَ وَأَنَّهُم مُّفۡرَطُونَ
The verse reverts to the subject of the previous verse in a different form and says that disbelievers are foolish to think that they can ever come to a happy end by attributing to God abominable things which they dislike for themselves, and that just as they consigned God to oblivion in this life, so would He abandon them in the next life to burn in the fire of Hell. (close)
تَاللّٰہِ لَقَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اُمَمٍ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِکَ فَزَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ فَہُوَ وَلِیُّہُمُ الۡیَوۡمَ وَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۴﴾
تَٱللَّهِ لَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمَمٖ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
d. 6:43; 22:53. (close)
a. 6:44; 8:49. (close)
a. 6:43; 22:53. (close)
b. 6:44; 8:49. (close)
The verse purports to say that the disbelievers of Mecca like disbelievers of former Prophets have been lulled by Satan into a false sense of security. Like their predecessors and prototypes, they labour under the delusion that they would not have to answer for their wrongdoings. They feel themselves to be secure while a terrible punishment is about to overtake them. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ اِلَّا لِتُبَیِّنَ لَہُمُ الَّذِی اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ ۙ وَ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾
وَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِي ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَهُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 6:158; 12:112; 16:90. (close)
a. 6:158; 12:112; 16:90. (close)
The verse sets forth the existence of differences among the nations of the world as a reason for Divine revelation to be sent down to them because the Divine Word alone can resolve these differences. These differences also constitute a justification for the Quranic revelation. If men could only be convinced that the Quran was the revealed word of God, they would certainly give up their own views in its favour.
The verse also suggests that disbelievers cannot reasonably object to the advent of a new Prophet because a new Prophet comes only when the people cease to observe the teaching of the previous Prophet and deviate from the right path. So their deviation from the right path and their differences justify the appearance of a new Prophet.
The question may be asked, if, for instance, the Jews had remained loyal to the teachings of Moses, would the Holy Prophet not have come? The question is hypothetical. In any case differences and disagreements would have continued to exist in the world and consequently there would have always remained the need for a new Divine Messenger. But God has already provided an answer to the question in the words, "Had there been in the earth angels walking about in peace and quiet, We should have certainly sent down to them from heaven an angel as a Messenger" (17:96) i.e. if all men had become pure and holy like angels, there was no need for any Prophet to come. The word of God would then have descended directly upon every individual. But since angels have never lived on this earth nor has the world ceased to be a place of sin and iniquity, the Prophets also have not ceased to appear to bring about reconciliation between the sinful people and their Compassionate and Merciful Creator. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَاَحۡیَا بِہِ الۡاَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّسۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿٪۶۶﴾
وَٱللَّهُ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ فَأَحۡيَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَآۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَسۡمَعُونَ
c. 2:165; 13:18. (close)
a. 2:165; 13:18. (close)
By 'water' here is meant Divine revelation and the attention of disbelievers has been drawn to the fact that if Prophets have been appearing in the past to give life to the dead, why should the present generation not have their Prophet? (close)
وَ اِنَّ لَکُمۡ فِی الۡاَنۡعَامِ لَعِبۡرَۃً ؕ نُسۡقِیۡکُمۡ مِّمَّا فِیۡ بُطُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡۢ بَیۡنِ فَرۡثٍ وَّ دَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَآئِغًا لِّلشّٰرِبِیۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾
وَإِنَّ لَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ لَعِبۡرَةٗۖ نُّسۡقِيكُم مِّمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِۦ مِنۢ بَيۡنِ فَرۡثٖ وَدَمٖ لَّبَنًا خَالِصٗا سَآئِغٗا لِّلشَّـٰرِبِينَ
d. 23:22. (close)
1555. ‘Ibrah, meaning 'an indication or evidence whereby one passes from ignorance to knowledge' (Lane), alludes to some subtle process taking place inside the bellies of the animals. A study of the process of conversion of grass or leaves of trees which the animals eat into milk in the bellies of the animals leads to the conclusion that the natural propensities and inclinations of man cannot lead him to the right path unless they are controlled and regulated by some heavenly agency which is Divine revelation. (close)
b. 23:22. (close)
1867. Important Words:
سائغا (pleasant) is derived from ساغ. They say ساغ فی الحلق i.e. it (beverage) was easy and agreeable to swallow or it passed the faeces easily and agreeably. ساغ له ما فعل means, what he did was allowable to him. ساغت به الارض means, the ground or earth sank with him; or sank with him and swallowed him up or enclosed him. سائغ applied to beverage or wine and food, means, descending easily and agreeably down the throat or easy and agreeable to swallow; not choking (Lane & Aqrab).
The word انعام translated as "cattle" includes the camel, the cow, the goat, the sheep, etc. All these are very useful animals. Their flesh and milk form the principal articles of man’s food. They are also used as means of conveyance and for carrying loads. In short they are of great use to man in many ways.
While drawing attention to the great and manifold benefits that man derives from these animals, the verse uses the word عبرة which means, 'an indication or evidence whereby one passes from ignorance to knowledge'. The word seems to allude to some subtle process taking place inside the bellies of some of these animals by pondering over which one is led 'to pass from ignorance to knowledge'. The subtle process is something like this. The cattle eat grass, herbage, leaves of trees, etc. Of this faecal matter is formed in their intestines in the course of digestion. Part of that faecal matter becomes converted into blood which supplies the nutrients to form sweet and wholesome milk. Intelligent and reverential study of this conversion of grass or leaves of trees into milk in the bellies of the animals leads to the inevitable conclusion that the natural propensities and inclinations of man cannot lead him to the right path unless they are controlled and regulated by some heavenly machine which is Divine revelation.
This verse affords one more evidence of the Divine origin of the Quran. The process the Quran has described of the formation of milk from faeces and blood was not known to man until very recent times. It was not known to the old commentators of the Quran. They have, therefore, greatly stumbled and erred in explaining this verse. For example, Zamakhshari, the well-known author of Al-Kashshaf, says that when food goes into the belly of an animal its lower portion forms the faeces, the middle portion milk and the upper part becomes turned into blood. The verse under comment, however, clearly, states that the matter of which milk is made passes through the forms of faeces and blood before it assumes the form of milk. This fact has been discovered by scientists only in recent times.
The verse does not mean that man cannot produce milk synthetically. What is here meant is that he cannot produce it in such quantity that it may become an article of food. This is only possible in the way mentioned in this verse. Synthetically prepared milk can no more be a substitute for natural milk than artificial showers of rain are for natural rain.
The verse also suggests that just as man can only corrupt food but cannot convert it into milk, even so can he only corrupt Divine teaching but it is not in his power to convert the defective laws devised by himself into eternal spiritual truths. (close)
وَ مِنۡ ثَمَرٰتِ النَّخِیۡلِ وَ الۡاَعۡنَابِ تَتَّخِذُوۡنَ مِنۡہُ سَکَرًا وَّ رِزۡقًا حَسَنًا ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۸﴾
وَمِن ثَمَرَٰتِ ٱلنَّخِيلِ وَٱلۡأَعۡنَٰبِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنۡهُ سَكَرٗا وَرِزۡقًا حَسَنًاۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَعۡقِلُونَ
a. 13:5; 16:12; 23:20; 36:35. (close)
1555A. When things created by God remain in their natural and unadulterated form they constitute pure, wholesome and invigorating food. But when man interferes with their natural use he corrupts them. Similarly, as long as Divine Teaching remains intact, it is a source of great spiritual benefit, but when it is interfered with, it loses all its usefulness. (close)
The verse means to say that when things created by God remain in their natural and unadulterated form they constitute pure, wholesome and invigorating food. But when man interferes with their natural use he corrupts them. Similarly, as long as Divine teaching remains intact, it is a source of great spiritual benefit, but when man interferes with it, it loses its usefulness and becomes harmful. The verse also points out that all wise and thoughtful persons can easily understand that everything is best suited for the purpose which it has been designed by God to serve and that to use it for any other purpose is only to destroy its usefulness. Similarly, it is not given to man to devise spiritual teachings or to interfere with those revealed by God without spoiling them or destroying their usefulness. (close)
وَ اَوۡحٰی رَبُّکَ اِلَی النَّحۡلِ اَنِ اتَّخِذِیۡ مِنَ الۡجِبَالِ بُیُوۡتًا وَّ مِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَ مِمَّا یَعۡرِشُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۶۹﴾
وَأَوۡحَىٰ رَبُّكَ إِلَى ٱلنَّحۡلِ أَنِ ٱتَّخِذِي مِنَ ٱلۡجِبَالِ بُيُوتٗا وَمِنَ ٱلشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعۡرِشُونَ
1556. Revelation here signifies the natural instincts with which God has endowed all creatures. The verse contains a beautiful hint that the entire universe depends for its smooth and successful working on revelation (or inspiration), whether manifest or hidden. In other words, all things and creatures serve the purpose of their existence only by working according to their natural instincts and inborn faculties and aptitudes. The bee has been selected as a prominent example, because its wonderful organization and work impress even a casual observer and are discernible even by the naked eye. (close)
This verse gives a third example, which is clearer and more expressive than the previous two examples, of the need of Divine revelation. By وحی (inspiration or revelation), in this verse, is meant the natural instincts with which God has endowed all creatures. The verse contains the beautiful hint that the entire universe depends for its smooth and successful working on وحی whether manifest or hidden. In other words all things and creatures serve the purpose of their existence only by working according to their natural instincts and inborn faculties and aptitudes. The bee has been selected as a prominent example, because its wonderful organization and work impresses even a casual observer and is discernible by the naked eye. But the fact that, even the bee cannot improve upon its wonderful skill, work and organization shows that some other Being is the source and fountain-head of its skill and organization and that Being has imparted to it this skill, intelligence and knowledge.
The verse also draws attention to the fact that bees are of various kinds. Some make their hives in mountains, others make them in trees, and yet others make them in trellises. In the same way all men do not possess similar natural aptitudes and capabilities, neither are they of equal spiritual rank. Some rise high like lofty mountains while others are of comparatively lower spiritual status. Similarly, like the different colours, tastes and flavours of the honey produced by the bees, the revelations of various Prophets are also not of the same pattern. They differ in their quality and scope and the manner of their approach to the problems they have to deal with. The verse also implies that all great inventions have been due to وحی (Divine inspiration).
For the different kinds of وحی see 4:164; 5:112; 8:13; 16:69; 28:8 & 99:6. (close)
ثُمَّ کُلِیۡ مِنۡ کُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ فَاسۡلُکِیۡ سُبُلَ رَبِّکِ ذُلُلًا ؕ یَخۡرُجُ مِنۡۢ بُطُوۡنِہَا شَرَابٌ مُّخۡتَلِفٌ اَلۡوَانُہٗ فِیۡہِ شِفَآءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّتَفَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾
ثُمَّ كُلِي مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ فَٱسۡلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلٗاۚ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۢ بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٞ مُّخۡتَلِفٌ أَلۡوَٰنُهُۥ فِيهِ شِفَآءٞ لِّلنَّاسِۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
1557. The subject of the bee has been further elaborated in this verse. God inspires the bee to collect its food from different fruits and flowers and then by means of the mechanism provided in its body and by the methods revealed to it by God it converts the collected food into honey. Honey possesses different colours and flavours, but all its different varieties are highly useful for men. This suggests that revelation has continued to descend on Prophets at different times and that the teachings of one Prophet differed in some details from the teachings of others, nevertheless all were the means of moral and spiritual regeneration for the people for whom they were designed. (close)
The subject of the bee has been further elaborated in this verse. It says that God inspires the bee to collect its food from different fruits and flowers and then, by means of the mechanism provided in its body and by the methods revealed to it by God, it converts the collected food into honey. That honey possesses different colours and flavours but all its different varieties are highly useful for men. This fact suggests that revelation has continued to descend on Prophets at different times and that the teachings of one Prophet differed in detail from the teachings of another, nevertheless all these revelations had this essential common quality that they proved a means of moral and spiritual regeneration for the peoples for whom they were designed.
At various places in the Quran the same words have been used with reference to the Quranic revelation as have been used here with reference to honey. Honey provides a cure for the physical diseases of man and the most essential quality of the Quranic revelation also is that it is a cure for the spiritual maladies of man. See 10:58, 17:83 & 41:45.
The words, and follow the ways of thy Lord, suggest that it is possible for every man to become a recipient of Divinerevelation. The only condition he has to fulfil for this purpose is that he should obediently follow the path designed by God and not let his natural instincts become corrupt and vitiated. If he keeps his nature pure and unsullied and is guided by his natural instincts, in the course of time he becomes the recipient of revelation which may be compared to honey in its purity and usefulness.
The verse also implies that when all creatures have been granted وحی according to their respective natural capacities, though those capacities are very limited, it is inconceivable that man, who has been endowed with far greater natural powers and for whom unlimited avenues of spiritual progress have been kept open, should have remained deprived of this great blessing. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ خَلَقَکُمۡ ثُمَّ یَتَوَفّٰٮکُمۡ ۟ۙ وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّرَدُّ اِلٰۤی اَرۡذَلِ الۡعُمُرِ لِکَیۡ لَا یَعۡلَمَ بَعۡدَ عِلۡمٍ شَیۡئًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿٪۷۱﴾
وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمۡ ثُمَّ يَتَوَفَّىٰكُمۡۚ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰٓ أَرۡذَلِ ٱلۡعُمُرِ لِكَيۡ لَا يَعۡلَمَ بَعۡدَ عِلۡمٖ شَيۡـًٔاۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٞ قَدِيرٞ
a. 22:6. (close)
a. 22:6. (close)
In vv. 52-54, it was explained that the false gods of disbelievers were unable to devise a Law for the guidance of mankind, and in the immediately preceding verses it has been made clear that disbelievers too cannot make such a Law. The present verse, however, makes a more general statement and says that a perfect Law can only be framed by Him Who has full control over man’s birth, death and reasoning faculties, Who knows his needs and requirements and knows also how to satisfy them. God being Almighty and All-Knowing, all these things are subject to His control. He selects as His Messenger only him of whom He knows that his intellect would not suffer decline. History bears testimony to the fact that whereas there have been thousands of Prophets, there never was one whose reason or intellect ever declined or was impaired. This fact clearly shows that God Who had sent these Messengers had full control over their mental powers. Hence the Almighty and the All-Knowing God alone can send down revelation embodying principles and teaching which can lead man to the realization of the noble and grand purpose of his life.
Nations, like individuals, are subject to the law of decline and death. After attaining to the highest stages of knowledge they begin to show signs of senility and decay or relapse into ignorance. When one nation suffers intellectual or moral death, God makes another nation take its place and gives it a new Prophet and a new Law. The use of the Divine attributes of "All-Knowing" and "Powerful" at the end of the verse suggests that the function of giving true guidance properly belongs to Him Whose knowledge and powers never suffer decline or impairment. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ فَضَّلَ بَعۡضَکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ فِی الرِّزۡقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِیۡنَ فُضِّلُوۡا بِرَآدِّیۡ رِزۡقِہِمۡ عَلٰی مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُہُمۡ فَہُمۡ فِیۡہِ سَوَآءٌ ؕ اَفَبِنِعۡمَۃِ اللّٰہِ یَجۡحَدُوۡنَ ﴿۷۲﴾
وَٱللَّهُ فَضَّلَ بَعۡضَكُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖ فِي ٱلرِّزۡقِۚ فَمَا ٱلَّذِينَ فُضِّلُواْ بِرَآدِّي رِزۡقِهِمۡ عَلَىٰ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُهُمۡ فَهُمۡ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌۚ أَفَبِنِعۡمَةِ ٱللَّهِ يَجۡحَدُونَ
b. 24:23; 30:29. (close)
1558. In every age some individuals or nations, by their superior intellect and harder work, come to acquire ascendancy and control over other individuals or nations. This is neither unfair nor unjust so long as proper opportunities are not denied to the less fortunate peoples also to make proper use of their talents and intelligence to earn the good things of life. But the "haves" have always set their face against all attempts on the part of the "have-nots" to better their condition and to have a share in the power and privileges they enjoy. In order to save the world from the tyranny of those in possession of power and privileges and to open the doors of progress and advancement to real merit and talent and thereby to rehabilitate justice and equality among mankind, God raises Reformers. Their advent heralds a new era and the dispossessed and the "have-nots" have their rights restored to them. Briefly, but very beautifully, the verse has laid down the Islamic law with regard to private ownership. Whereas on the one hand Islam has recognized the right of private ownership by emphasizing the word "their" in the expression 'of their worldly gifts' it has, by using the words 'will restore,' also laid down the principle of the collective ownership of all things by all human beings as such, because only that thing is "restored" to another person which belongs to him. In fact, the Qur’an has accepted the principle of dual ownership of everything—the right to possess a property to be recognized in the person who earns it by the sweat of his brow and the right in that property of all human beings as human beings. Islam, in reality, neither believes in the right of unrestricted private ownership nor in complete and unreserved possession of wealth and the means of its production by the State. It adopts the middle course. (close)
1559. The expression clearly includes all persons under one’s control such as private servants, subordinates, labourers, ryots etc. (close)
a. 24:23; 30:29. (close)
This verse contains another very important argument in favour of Divine revelation. The object and purpose of Divineguidance, it says, is not only to bring about reformation in religious beliefs and doctrines but also to maintain a just balance in the distribution of material wealth and political rights and power. It is a divine law that in every age some individuals or nations, by their superior intellect and harder work, come to acquire ascendancy and control over other individuals or nations. This is neither unfair nor unjust so long as proper opportunities are not denied to the less fortunate peoples also to make proper use of their talents and intelligence for earning the good things of life. But the "haves" have always set their face against all attempts by the "have-nots" to better their material condition and to have a share in the power and privileges the "haves" enjoy. The only way to save the world from the tyranny of those in possession of power and privilege and to open the doors of progress and advancement to real merit and talent and thereby to rehabilitate justice and equality among mankind is that God should send His Messengers. Their advent heralds a new era and the dispossessed and the "have-nots" have their rights restored to them.
So when people become separated from the era of a Prophet by a long time and vested interests grow and become entrenched and power and privileges flow from father to son and common people are denied all share in the government and even so-called religious leaders come to trade upon the superstitious fears of their followers and monopolize all religious authority and common men are not even considered competent to be consulted on religious or secular matters, God raises a Prophet who wages a relentless war against this tyranny and untruth and the so-called leaders who held the reins of power in their hands on the plea of supposed superior abilities are dethroned and man begins to breathe in an atmosphere of true freedom.
Briefly but very beautifully the verse has laid down the Islamic law with regard to private ownership. Whereas on the one hand Islam has recognized the right of private ownership by emphasizing the word their in the expression, "of their worldly gifts", it has, by using the words "will restore" (برادی) also accepted the principle of the collective ownership of all things by all human beings as such, because only that thing is "restored" to another person which belongs to him. In fact, Islam has accepted the principle of dual ownership of everything—the right of possession of a property by the person who earns it and the right in the possession of that property of all human beings as human beings. Moreover, by its institution of Zakah, the prohibition about hoarding wealth and taking and giving of interest, Islam has sought to prevent the accumulation of wealth in a few hands and thus by its free circulation has kept the avenues of progress equally open for all men. Islam, in reality, neither believes in the right of unrestricted private ownership nor in complete and unreserved possession of wealth and the means of its production by the State. It adopts the middle course.
Ordinarily, the words "whom their right hands possess" mean slaves, and in the Quran these words have generally been used in this sense; but they possess a much wider significance and include all persons under one’s control such as private servants, subordinates, labourers, ryots etc. (close)