وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ اَزۡوَاجًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَزۡوَاجِکُمۡ بَنِیۡنَ وَ حَفَدَۃً وَّ رَزَقَکُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ ؕ اَفَبِالۡبَاطِلِ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ وَ بِنِعۡمَتِ اللّٰہِ ہُمۡ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۷۳﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٰجٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَزۡوَٰجِكُم بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةٗ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِۚ أَفَبِٱلۡبَٰطِلِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَبِنِعۡمَتِ ٱللَّهِ هُمۡ يَكۡفُرُونَ
a. 4:2; 7:190; 30:22; 39:7. (close)
b. 29:68. (close)
1560. The verse refers to the instinct of private possession as an argument in support of the Unity of God. (close)
b. 29:68. (close)
1873. Important Words:
حفدة (grandsons) is derived from حفد which means, he was quick or went quickly; was continuous in his course or pace. حفد فی العمل means, he was quick and active, agile or prompt, in work. حفدہ means, he served him. حفدة means, assistants, helpers, or auxiliaries and servants; a man’s grandchildren or sons’ children or a son’s children; children or daughters who serve their parents in the house or a man’s children or grandchildren who serve him (Lane & Aqrab).
In this and the adjoining verses the two themes of the need of a revealed Law and the Unity of Godhead have been dealt with from various points of view, not at random, but in support of each other, and it has been made clear that while on the one hand man is apt to fall a victim to polytheistic beliefs and practices without a revealed Law, on the other the Unity of God requires that God should make provision for man’s guidance. As there is no other god except Him, He Himself must provide for the guidance of His creatures. The Oneness of God implies His perfection and that perfection demands that the creation of man must have a purpose, for a purposeless creation suggests a defective Creator. Again, if man were considered to have been created with a purpose, the fulfilment of that purpose would necessarily require an afterlife, for evidently such a purpose is incapable of being fulfilled in the brief span of man’s terrestrial existence. Now the purpose which requires limitless and infinite life for its fulfilment must be highly noble and sublime and so the Law which is intended to accomplish it must also proceed from God Himself. Thus the subjects of the Unity of God and the need of revealed guidance have been mentioned in support of each other in different forms in these verses and just as in the physical world we see that things receive support from one another, similarly in the spiritual realm various parts of the spiritual edifice support one another in order to establish the one supreme truth of the Oneness of God and the Unity and uniformity of creation.
The verse adduces another argument in support of the Unity of Godhead, viz. the human instinct of private possession. It was pointed out in the previous verse that the exclusive possession of wealth and power by certain individuals makes it necessary that there should be a revealed Law to maintain equality and justice between different classes. In this verse it is stated that the instinct of private possession prompts man to transmit his property to his natural heirs and not to strangers. How then can he, in fairness to God, dare set up 'partners' who should share Godhead with Him and thus set the seal on his ingratitude to Him? The way in which man displays his ingratitude to God is dealt with in the next verse. (close)
وَ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَمۡلِکُ لَہُمۡ رِزۡقًا مِّنَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۷۴﴾
وَيَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمۡلِكُ لَهُمۡ رِزۡقٗا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ شَيۡـٔٗا وَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ
c. 10:19; 22:72; 29:18. (close)
a. 10:19; 22:72; 29:18. (close)
This verse exposes the stupidity of the course followed by polytheists. It purports to say that while they cannot bear to see their property going into the possession of anyone save their own natural descendants, in the case of God they attribute His powers and authority to persons upon whom He has bestowed no such privilege. This course is all the more unjust because the property which they call their own is really not theirs but is entrusted to them by God. If in spite of the fact that they are not the real owners of the property which is in their possession, they consider themselves competent to bequeath it to anyone they like, why should it not be in the power of God to make anyone He likes to be the recipient of His revealed Law?
The verse also points out that polytheistic beliefs tend to mar man’s material and spiritual progress. A polytheist attributes those powers to false gods which they do not possess and thus his attention is turned away from that Being Who is the source of all power and Who can bestow great favours upon him. It is thus that the intellectual progress and mental advancement of those communities and individuals who hold polytheistic beliefs becomes retarded and impeded while those who believe in the Oneness of God continue to make some progress even in the period of their decline and decay. (close)
فَلَا تَضۡرِبُوۡا لِلّٰہِ الۡاَمۡثَالَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۷۵﴾
فَلَا تَضۡرِبُواْ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡأَمۡثَالَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
1561. It is highly presumptuous on the part of man to devise a law regarding God while he is quite ignorant of His great and unlimited powers. (close)
The verse means to say that it is foolish on the part of man to devise a law regarding God Himself while he is quite ignorant of His unlimited powers. God has reserved to Himself the right to grant to His servants such privileges in respect of religion as He in His infinite, infallible wisdom regards suitable and for this purpose He chooses him whom He considers really deserving, on account of his sincerity and devotion, to be raised to the rank of His spiritual heir.
In some Scriptures some of the Prophets have been called "sons of God". Such expressions have been used metaphorically and only mean that God chose them to be the heirs to His heavenly kingdom. But men out of their ignorance and perversity take such expressions literally and begin to regard God’s honoured servants as His sons in the physical sense of the word. By applying to them the epithet "the sons of God", these Divine Scriptures meant to demonstrate their spiritual eminence and very deep connection with Him. It is foolish to read in such terms any significance unworthy of God.
The words, Allah knows and you know not, signify that such expressions when used in heavenly Scriptures do not conflict with God’s attributes. For example, the epithet "son" when used by God about a person means one who has such close spiritual connection with Him as is possessed by a son with his parents. But when disbelievers use this term, they use it in its physical sense and thus detract, on the one hand, from the Supreme Exaltedness of God and, on the other, from the dignity of those whom in their folly they wish to honour; because a physical relationship cannot equal the honour and dignity which result from spiritual nearness to God. (close)
ضَرَبَ اللّٰہُ مَثَلًا عَبۡدًا مَّمۡلُوۡکًا لَّا یَقۡدِرُ عَلٰی شَیۡءٍ وَّ مَنۡ رَّزَقۡنٰہُ مِنَّا رِزۡقًا حَسَنًا فَہُوَ یُنۡفِقُ مِنۡہُ سِرًّا وَّ جَہۡرًا ؕ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوٗنَ ؕ اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۷۶﴾
۞ضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًا عَبۡدٗا مَّمۡلُوكٗا لَّا يَقۡدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَيۡءٖ وَمَن رَّزَقۡنَٰهُ مِنَّا رِزۡقًا حَسَنٗا فَهُوَ يُنفِقُ مِنۡهُ سِرّٗا وَجَهۡرًاۖ هَلۡ يَسۡتَوُۥنَۚ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِۚ بَلۡ أَكۡثَرُهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
1562. The disbelievers are like a person who has lost all freedom of will and action and is the slave of his own low desires and fancies. (close)
a. 2:275; 13:23. (close)
1563. The implied reference may be to the Holy Prophet—God’s servant par excellence. (1) He served mankind secretly (by praying for them at night) and openly (by tangible acts of service). (2) He served mankind at all hours of the day and night. (close)
a. 2:275; 13:23. (close)
The previous verse pointed out that when God uses an endearing term for some of His beloved servants, it connotes something quite different from such an expression when used by idolaters. The present verse presents the Holy Prophet as one whom God loves, and gives the reason of God’s love for him. It deals with this subject in a parable. It likens disbelievers to a person who has lost his freedom and is the slave of his own lust and, being in the possession of another, has lost all freedom of will and action. Can such a person in any way be like him who, being free from all sorts of superstitious beliefs and evil practices, spends his great God-given powers in the service of His creatures? Evidently the latter person is by far superior to the former in every respect and deserves in a far greater degree to be blessed with Divinerevelation. The implied reference is to the Holy Prophet.
The words, secretly and openly, may be understood in three senses: (1) The Holy Prophet served mankind secretly i.e. by praying for them at night and openly i.e. by tangible acts of service. His whole life was, as it were, a continuous and uninterrupted act of selfless service. (2) He served mankind day and night i.e. he served mankind with might and main at all hours of the day and night. (3) His service, though generally unrecognized by those whom he served, did sometimes receive approbation and recognition from them. The verse means to say that all the great natural powers of the Holy Prophet were fully and completely employed in the service of humanity and in this service he gave no thought to his own comfort and it made no difference to him whether or not his service was acknowledged.
The verse also suggests that there are some good deeds which remain unknown to men in this life and hence go without recognition. Such good deeds demand that there should be a "day" when they may be recognized and suitably rewarded. (close)
وَ ضَرَبَ اللّٰہُ مَثَلًا رَّجُلَیۡنِ اَحَدُہُمَاۤ اَبۡکَمُ لَا یَقۡدِرُ عَلٰی شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُوَ کَلٌّ عَلٰی مَوۡلٰٮہُ ۙ اَیۡنَمَا یُوَجِّہۡہُّ لَایَاۡتِ بِخَیۡرٍ ؕ ہَلۡ یَسۡتَوِیۡ ہُوَ ۙ وَ مَنۡ یَّاۡمُرُ بِالۡعَدۡلِ ۙ وَ ہُوَ عَلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿٪۷۷﴾
وَضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلٗا رَّجُلَيۡنِ أَحَدُهُمَآ أَبۡكَمُ لَا يَقۡدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَيۡءٖ وَهُوَ كَلٌّ عَلَىٰ مَوۡلَىٰهُ أَيۡنَمَا يُوَجِّههُّ لَا يَأۡتِ بِخَيۡرٍ هَلۡ يَسۡتَوِي هُوَ وَمَن يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
1564. This and the preceding verse refer to two different classes of disbelievers. The preceding verse refers to those disbelievers, who are slaves to superstitious beliefs and idolatrous practices and customs and, though possessing some means and the ability to do some useful work, are prevented from doing it because they are deprived of freedom of action. And the present verse refers to such disbelievers as are not only slaves to superstitious practices but are also totally lacking in the means and the ability to do any real good work. (close)
This verse contains another parable concerning the Holy Prophet and his enemies. It says that the Prophet’s enemies are mute and dumb. All sorts of crimes and sins are committed before their eyes, but they do not even open their lips to condemn them or to dissuade or check people from them. They have never said a word to safeguard the honour of God, their Lord and Master. It is only the Prophet who has always raised his voice against sin and iniquity.
Again, says the verse, if the Prophet’s adversaries could not bid others to do good works and not associate equals with God, they could, at least do good works themselves and declare the Holiness of God by their own example. But they did none of these things. They could neither carry their own burdens nor help others carry their burdens. But the Holy Prophetnot only himself practised virtue but exhorted and enjoined others to be just, equitable and God-fearing. Therefore he, and not they, deserved to be chosen for Divine favours.
The theme in this and the preceding verse is the same, but these two verses refer to two different classes of disbelievers. The preceding verse refers to such disbelievers as are slaves to superstitious beliefs and idolatrous practices and customs and though possessing the means and the ability to do some useful and effective work, abstain from doing it for fear of incurring public opprobrium; while the present verse refers to such disbelievers as are not only slaves to superstitious practices but also lack the means and the ability to do any good work. As contrasted with these two classes of disbelievers the Holy Prophet is not only free from all sorts of superstitious beliefs and foolish customs but is also endowed with great natural powers. He uses his great God-given gifts in the service of mankind while disbelievers are a burden and a sort of a stigma on the Holiness of God Who has created them. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ غَیۡبُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اَمۡرُ السَّاعَۃِ اِلَّا کَلَمۡحِ الۡبَصَرِ اَوۡ ہُوَ اَقۡرَبُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۷۸﴾
وَلِلَّهِ غَيۡبُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَمَآ أَمۡرُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ إِلَّا كَلَمۡحِ ٱلۡبَصَرِ أَوۡ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 11:124; 18:27; 35:39. (close)
1565. "The unseen," i.e. the eventual defeat and discomfiture of disbelief and the victory of Islam. (close)
a. 7:188; 54:51. (close)
a. 11:124; 18:27; 35:39. (close)
b. 7:188; 54:51. (close)
The verse purports to say that as disbelievers have stood in the way of the Holy Prophet whom God has chosen for the bestowal of His favours, they will be visited with sudden and terrible punishment. This prophecy will certainly be fulfilled because it has been made by God Who has power over all things.
It is interesting to note how the verse anticipates future critics of Islam who say that the unprecedented success which attended the Holy Prophet and Muslims was due only to natural causes. The verse forestalls this objection by saying that it is God, the Almighty and Knower of all secrets, Who is speaking of the imminent destruction of disbelievers. The fulfilment of this prophecy will not be a chance occurrence but one that will be brought about by the Almighty God. This prophecy was made towards the end of the Prophet’s stay in Mecca. And it is well-known that shortly after the power of the idolatrous Arabs was broken, it was followed by the overthrow of the Persian and Roman Empires, the two great military powers of the time. All this was foretold at a time when the Prophet and his followers were being persecuted in Mecca. Who can say that all this was only the inevitable result of natural causes and was not due to a special decree of the All-Powerful God?
The words, the twinkling of an eye, mean, "within a short time". The prophecy implied in the words, "the matter of the Promised Hour," met its remarkable fulfilment in the Battle of Badr and finally in the conquest of Mecca. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ اَخۡرَجَکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بُطُوۡنِ اُمَّہٰتِکُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا ۙ وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ السَّمۡعَ وَ الۡاَبۡصَارَ وَ الۡاَفۡـِٕدَۃَ ۙ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۹﴾
وَٱللَّهُ أَخۡرَجَكُم مِّنۢ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَٰتِكُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ شَيۡـٔٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلسَّمۡعَ وَٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرَ وَٱلۡأَفۡـِٔدَةَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
b. 39:7. (close)
c. 23:79; 67:24. (close)
1566. The faculties of hearing, seeing and understanding have been mentioned in the order in which they help man to acquire knowledge. First of all a newborn child makes use of the power of hearing. The faculty of seeing develops later and that of understanding is the last to mature. (close)
c. 23:79; 67:24. (close)
The verse makes a most moving appeal to the gratitude of man. It says that God has endowed him with faculties of sight, hearing and understanding so that by their proper use he might fulfil the great object of his creation. But it is a pity that he not only does not make proper use of these faculties for the attainment of this noble object but often misuses them and thus, instead of winning the pleasure of God, deserves and draws upon himself His punishment.
The verse continues the main theme of the chapter and gives one more argument in support of the need for Divinerevelation viz. that when man is born he is devoid of all kinds of knowledge but is endowed with the faculties of hearing, sight and understanding. With their help he gradually acquires knowledge of the physical world. He depends upon these Divine gifts for the acquisition of material knowledge but in the matter of spiritual knowledge he has the hardihood to deny the need of Divine guidance.
The words, that you might be grateful, point to the fact that the gifts of God as mentioned in this verse should have naturally led man to grateful appreciation of Divine grace, but instead they serve to make him proud and so deny the need of Divine assistance.
One point worthy of special note in this verse is that the faculties of hearing, seeing and understanding have been mentioned in the order in which they help man to acquire knowledge. Scientists have only recently discovered the fact that first of all a new-born child makes use of the power of hearing. The faculty of seeing develops later and the faculty of understanding is the last to mature. The fact that in many of the lower animals the eyes of the young remain closed for several days after birth confirms the above view. The fact that the Quran should have mentioned a physiological truth which was not generally known at the time of its revelation certainly constitutes an unanswerable argument in favour of its Divine origin. (close)
اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلَی الطَّیۡرِ مُسَخَّرٰتٍ فِیۡ جَوِّ السَّمَآءِ ؕ مَا یُمۡسِکُہُنَّ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۰﴾
أَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ إِلَى ٱلطَّيۡرِ مُسَخَّرَٰتٖ فِي جَوِّ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَا يُمۡسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
d. 67:20. (close)
1567. The verse only contains a reference to the punishment which was soon to overtake the disbelievers of Mecca. The keeping back of the birds signifies the withholding of the punishment that was in store for them. Arabic poetry abounds in verses where birds are spoken of as following in the rear of a victorious army to feed on the dead bodies of the enemy killed and left on the field of battle. And the hovering of birds, according to Arabic idiom, is symbolic of the defeat and destruction of a people (see 67:20). The present verse declares that God has withheld Muslims from waging war against disbelievers. But once they were given permission to fight the disbelievers will be defeated and destroyed and their dead bodies will be eaten by the birds which they see flying in the sky. (close)
a. 67:20. (close)
Some commentators of the Quran erroneously consider that this verse alludes to the Almightiness of God Who has given the birds the power to fly in the air but there is no such allusion here to any such power and might of God. The verse only contains a reference to the punishment that was soon to overtake the disbelievers of Mecca. The keeping back of the birds signifies the withholding of the punishment that was in store for them. Arabic poetry abounds in verses where birds are spoken of as attending a victorious army to feed on the dead bodies of the enemy killed and left on the field of battle. The great poet Nabighah says:
اذا ما غدی بالجیش حلق فوقه
عصا ثب طیر تھتدی بالعصائب
i.e. When he marches out, flocks of birds attend his victorious army, knowing that he will surely defeat his enemy and thus would provide a good feast for them. So the hovering of birds according to Arabic idiom is symbolic of the defeat and destruction of a people. Verses 105:2-5 contain a clear reference to this significance of the Arabic idiom. The verse under comment means to say that God has withheld Muslims from waging war against disbelievers. But once they were given permission to fight, the disbelievers will be defeated and destroyed and their dead bodies will be eaten by the birds which they see flying in the sky. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ سَکَنًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ جُلُوۡدِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ بُیُوۡتًا تَسۡتَخِفُّوۡنَہَا یَوۡمَ ظَعۡنِکُمۡ وَ یَوۡمَ اِقَامَتِکُمۡ ۙ وَ مِنۡ اَصۡوَافِہَا وَ اَوۡبَارِہَا وَ اَشۡعَارِہَاۤ اَثَاثًا وَّ مَتَاعًا اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۸۱﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۢ بُيُوتِكُمۡ سَكَنٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّن جُلُودِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ بُيُوتٗا تَسۡتَخِفُّونَهَا يَوۡمَ ظَعۡنِكُمۡ وَيَوۡمَ إِقَامَتِكُمۡ وَمِنۡ أَصۡوَافِهَا وَأَوۡبَارِهَا وَأَشۡعَارِهَآ أَثَٰثٗا وَمَتَٰعًا إِلَىٰ حِينٖ
1881. Important Words:
اثاثا (household goods) is derived from the word which means, it was or became much in quantity; abundant or numerous and great or large.
اث النبات means, the herbage was or became abundant or plenteous and tangled or luxuriant.اثاث means, goods; or utensils and furniture of a house or tent; household goods; all property consisting of camels, and sheep or goats and slaves and utensils and furniture or household goods or abundant property (Lane).
Disbelievers are told here not to excite the displeasure of God by rejecting His Prophet and thus deprive themselves of His great blessings and boons. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلٰلًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجِبَالِ اَکۡنَانًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمُ الۡحَرَّ وَ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمۡ بَاۡسَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَہٗ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَٰلٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجِبَالِ أَكۡنَٰنٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمۡ سَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ ٱلۡحَرَّ وَسَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأۡسَكُمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُسۡلِمُونَ
1882. Important Words:
اکنانا (places of shelter) is the plural of کن (kinnun) which is derived from کن (kanna). They say کن العلم فی نفسه i.e. he kept the knowledge secret in his heart.کن (kinnun) means, a place of retreat or concealment; the shelter of a wall; a thing which serves for veiling, covering or protecting (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse continues the theme of the preceding verse and enumerates some more Divine blessings, e.g., shades of trees, shelters in the mountains, trees that save men from the heat of the sun, armour that protects them in battle, etc. Disbelievers are told that all these Divine gifts and favours were bestowed upon them that they might live in peace and comfort and be grateful to God, but they have, instead, proved ungrateful to Him and have used them to frustrate His purpose. So they shall very soon reap the consequences of their ingratitude.
The expression لعلکم تسلمون (that you may submit to Him) may also mean that you may protect and save others from harm by means of these favours. Read in this sense the sentence would mean that these blessings were bestowed upon the Meccans in order that they might protect themselves and in gratitude to God protect others from harm, but they instead made these very favours the means of oppressing others. (close)