اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلَی الطَّیۡرِ مُسَخَّرٰتٍ فِیۡ جَوِّ السَّمَآءِ ؕ مَا یُمۡسِکُہُنَّ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۰﴾
أَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ إِلَى ٱلطَّيۡرِ مُسَخَّرَٰتٖ فِي جَوِّ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَا يُمۡسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
d. 67:20. (close)
1567. The verse only contains a reference to the punishment which was soon to overtake the disbelievers of Mecca. The keeping back of the birds signifies the withholding of the punishment that was in store for them. Arabic poetry abounds in verses where birds are spoken of as following in the rear of a victorious army to feed on the dead bodies of the enemy killed and left on the field of battle. And the hovering of birds, according to Arabic idiom, is symbolic of the defeat and destruction of a people (see 67:20). The present verse declares that God has withheld Muslims from waging war against disbelievers. But once they were given permission to fight the disbelievers will be defeated and destroyed and their dead bodies will be eaten by the birds which they see flying in the sky. (close)
a. 67:20. (close)
Some commentators of the Quran erroneously consider that this verse alludes to the Almightiness of God Who has given the birds the power to fly in the air but there is no such allusion here to any such power and might of God. The verse only contains a reference to the punishment that was soon to overtake the disbelievers of Mecca. The keeping back of the birds signifies the withholding of the punishment that was in store for them. Arabic poetry abounds in verses where birds are spoken of as attending a victorious army to feed on the dead bodies of the enemy killed and left on the field of battle. The great poet Nabighah says:
اذا ما غدی بالجیش حلق فوقه
عصا ثب طیر تھتدی بالعصائب
i.e. When he marches out, flocks of birds attend his victorious army, knowing that he will surely defeat his enemy and thus would provide a good feast for them. So the hovering of birds according to Arabic idiom is symbolic of the defeat and destruction of a people. Verses 105:2-5 contain a clear reference to this significance of the Arabic idiom. The verse under comment means to say that God has withheld Muslims from waging war against disbelievers. But once they were given permission to fight, the disbelievers will be defeated and destroyed and their dead bodies will be eaten by the birds which they see flying in the sky. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ سَکَنًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ جُلُوۡدِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ بُیُوۡتًا تَسۡتَخِفُّوۡنَہَا یَوۡمَ ظَعۡنِکُمۡ وَ یَوۡمَ اِقَامَتِکُمۡ ۙ وَ مِنۡ اَصۡوَافِہَا وَ اَوۡبَارِہَا وَ اَشۡعَارِہَاۤ اَثَاثًا وَّ مَتَاعًا اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۸۱﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۢ بُيُوتِكُمۡ سَكَنٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّن جُلُودِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ بُيُوتٗا تَسۡتَخِفُّونَهَا يَوۡمَ ظَعۡنِكُمۡ وَيَوۡمَ إِقَامَتِكُمۡ وَمِنۡ أَصۡوَافِهَا وَأَوۡبَارِهَا وَأَشۡعَارِهَآ أَثَٰثٗا وَمَتَٰعًا إِلَىٰ حِينٖ
1881. Important Words:
اثاثا (household goods) is derived from the word which means, it was or became much in quantity; abundant or numerous and great or large.
اث النبات means, the herbage was or became abundant or plenteous and tangled or luxuriant.اثاث means, goods; or utensils and furniture of a house or tent; household goods; all property consisting of camels, and sheep or goats and slaves and utensils and furniture or household goods or abundant property (Lane).
Disbelievers are told here not to excite the displeasure of God by rejecting His Prophet and thus deprive themselves of His great blessings and boons. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلٰلًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجِبَالِ اَکۡنَانًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمُ الۡحَرَّ وَ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمۡ بَاۡسَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَہٗ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَٰلٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجِبَالِ أَكۡنَٰنٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمۡ سَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ ٱلۡحَرَّ وَسَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأۡسَكُمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُسۡلِمُونَ
1882. Important Words:
اکنانا (places of shelter) is the plural of کن (kinnun) which is derived from کن (kanna). They say کن العلم فی نفسه i.e. he kept the knowledge secret in his heart.کن (kinnun) means, a place of retreat or concealment; the shelter of a wall; a thing which serves for veiling, covering or protecting (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse continues the theme of the preceding verse and enumerates some more Divine blessings, e.g., shades of trees, shelters in the mountains, trees that save men from the heat of the sun, armour that protects them in battle, etc. Disbelievers are told that all these Divine gifts and favours were bestowed upon them that they might live in peace and comfort and be grateful to God, but they have, instead, proved ungrateful to Him and have used them to frustrate His purpose. So they shall very soon reap the consequences of their ingratitude.
The expression لعلکم تسلمون (that you may submit to Him) may also mean that you may protect and save others from harm by means of these favours. Read in this sense the sentence would mean that these blessings were bestowed upon the Meccans in order that they might protect themselves and in gratitude to God protect others from harm, but they instead made these very favours the means of oppressing others. (close)
فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۸۳﴾
فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
a. 3:21; 5:93. (close)
a. 3:21; 5:93. (close)
The words, If they turn away, mean that in spite of this offer of peace made to disbelievers, they are determined to compel the Prophet to flee from Mecca. By doing so they are incurring a grave responsibility. (close)
یَعۡرِفُوۡنَ نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ یُنۡکِرُوۡنَہَا وَ اَکۡثَرُہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۴﴾
يَعۡرِفُونَ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنكِرُونَهَا وَأَكۡثَرُهُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ
The addition of the particle ال to the word کافرون is intended to intensify its meaning. Whereas the expression اکثرھم کافرون means, most of them are disbelievers, the words, اکثرھم الکافرون mean, most of them are confirmed disbelievers. The verse means to say that the disbelievers of Mecca have not only denied the material favours of God, but have rejected His spiritual favours also. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ مِنۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا ثُمَّ لَا یُؤۡذَنُ لِلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُسۡتَعۡتَبُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾
وَيَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٖ شَهِيدٗا ثُمَّ لَا يُؤۡذَنُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَلَا هُمۡ يُسۡتَعۡتَبُونَ
b. 4:42; 16:90. (close)
1568. The verse says that Messengers were sent to all peoples and nations of the world. This is a claim which has been put forth by the Qur’an alone of all the revealed Scriptures. The truth of this claim, revealed to the world about fourteen hundred years ago by the Qur’an, has now begun to dawn upon mankind. (close)
a. 30:58; 41:25. (close)
a. 4:42; 16:90. (close)
b. 30:58; 41:25. (close)
After mentioning the ingratitude and iniquities of disbelievers in the preceding verses, the present verse again reverts to the subject of the life after death. This is done to warn disbelievers that not only will they be punished in this life for their disbelief and misdeeds, but will also receive a heavier punishment in the life to come. The fact that all the peoples who ever lived on this earth will be present to see their humiliation on the Day of Judgement will intensify their shame and agony. All the Prophets will also be there to bear witness against them. See also 4:42-43.
The verse constitutes yet one more testimony to the truth of the Quran. It says that Messengers were sent to all peoples and nations of the world. This is a claim in which the Quran stands alone among all the revealed Scriptures. The truth of this claim has now begun to dawn upon mankind. It was revealed to the world about fourteen hundred years ago by the Quran.
The expression لایوذن (shall not be permitted) does not mean, as wrongly understood by some commentators, that disbelievers shall not be permitted to speak to God, because in several verses of the Quran we are told that on the Day of Judgement disbelievers will confess their guilt and in its extenuation will proffer various kinds of excuses before God. The expression either means that disbelievers shall not be permitted to enter Heaven or that permission shall not be granted to anyone to intercede with God on their behalf. The latter meaning is supported by vv. 2:256; 10:4; 20:110; 34:24; 53:27; wherein it is stated that intercession is only possible after Divine permission. V 77:37 contains another interpretation of the words لایوذن viz. that disbelievers shall not be allowed to make excuses.
The words, We shall raise up a witness, may also mean that the Prophets will bear witness against the disbelievers by their personal example. The Prophets would, as it were, say to disbelievers that when they (the Prophets) could spiritually rise so high by acting upon Divine teaching why could not they (the disbelievers)? The verse thus implies that every Prophet by his personal example serves as a living example of the great moral and spiritual reformation which his teaching is capable of effecting. This is why no religious teaching has ever been revealed except through a Prophet. (close)
وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوا الۡعَذَابَ فَلَا یُخَفَّفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡظَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾
وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يُنظَرُونَ
b. 2:166. (close)
a. 2:166. (close)
The punishment referred to in this verse relates to the next life. (close)
وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا شُرَکَآءَہُمۡ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ شُرَکَآؤُنَا الَّذِیۡنَ کُنَّا نَدۡعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِکَ ۚ فَاَلۡقَوۡا اِلَیۡہِمُ الۡقَوۡلَ اِنَّکُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۸۷﴾
وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ شُرَكَآءَهُمۡ قَالُواْ رَبَّنَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ شُرَكَآؤُنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِكَۖ فَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡقَوۡلَ إِنَّكُمۡ لَكَٰذِبُونَ
c. 30:14. (close)
1569. This altercation between false gods and their followers shows that friendships based on sin and denial of truth never endure. (close)
b. 30:14. (close)
It is indeed strange that disbelievers who in this life oppose Divine Messengers for the sake of their false gods will on the Day of Judgement, inveigh against those very false gods and request that they be severely punished because they led them to disbelief and ruin. In return the false gods will denounce their erstwhile followers with the quick and emphatic retort, "Surely, you are liars". This altercation between the false gods and their followers before God shows that friendships based on sin and the denial of truth never endure.
The words القوا الیھم القول mean, (a) they would say emphatically; (b) they would reply quickly. The words, it will not be made light for them, occurring in the preceding verse show that the excuses of disbelievers will not be accepted and they will be sternly told that if their false gods had tempted and inveigled them they should have resisted that temptation. (close)
وَ اَلۡقَوۡا اِلَی اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَئِذِ ۣالسَّلَمَ وَ ضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ يَوۡمَئِذٍ ٱلسَّلَمَۖ وَضَلَّ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
d. 16:29. (close)
a. 16:29. (close)
When disbelievers see that their false gods had disowned them they will change their attitude and in a humble and penitent tone will profess their sincere loyalty to God and say that their idol-worship was but a means to an end—to have concentration of mind in worship, and that it was prompted by a sincere desire to win the pleasure of God and not by any motive of rebellion against Him. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ زِدۡنٰہُمۡ عَذَابًا فَوۡقَ الۡعَذَابِ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یُفۡسِدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ زِدۡنَٰهُمۡ عَذَابٗا فَوۡقَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يُفۡسِدُونَ
e. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
b. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
The verse mentions two classes of disbelievers; (1) those who are themselves misguided and (2) those who mislead others also. The latter class of disbelievers will have double punishment in the next life. The irony of it lies in the fact that the clever people who deceived their simple-minded followers into believing that they would be responsible for their salvation will find their own punishment to be double the punishment of their credulous followers for whose salvation they proudly said they would be responsible. (close)