وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلٰلًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجِبَالِ اَکۡنَانًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمُ الۡحَرَّ وَ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمۡ بَاۡسَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَہٗ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَٰلٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجِبَالِ أَكۡنَٰنٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمۡ سَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ ٱلۡحَرَّ وَسَرَٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأۡسَكُمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَهُۥ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُسۡلِمُونَ
1882. Important Words:
اکنانا (places of shelter) is the plural of کن (kinnun) which is derived from کن (kanna). They say کن العلم فی نفسه i.e. he kept the knowledge secret in his heart.کن (kinnun) means, a place of retreat or concealment; the shelter of a wall; a thing which serves for veiling, covering or protecting (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse continues the theme of the preceding verse and enumerates some more Divine blessings, e.g., shades of trees, shelters in the mountains, trees that save men from the heat of the sun, armour that protects them in battle, etc. Disbelievers are told that all these Divine gifts and favours were bestowed upon them that they might live in peace and comfort and be grateful to God, but they have, instead, proved ungrateful to Him and have used them to frustrate His purpose. So they shall very soon reap the consequences of their ingratitude.
The expression لعلکم تسلمون (that you may submit to Him) may also mean that you may protect and save others from harm by means of these favours. Read in this sense the sentence would mean that these blessings were bestowed upon the Meccans in order that they might protect themselves and in gratitude to God protect others from harm, but they instead made these very favours the means of oppressing others. (close)
فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۸۳﴾
فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
a. 3:21; 5:93. (close)
a. 3:21; 5:93. (close)
The words, If they turn away, mean that in spite of this offer of peace made to disbelievers, they are determined to compel the Prophet to flee from Mecca. By doing so they are incurring a grave responsibility. (close)
یَعۡرِفُوۡنَ نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ یُنۡکِرُوۡنَہَا وَ اَکۡثَرُہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۴﴾
يَعۡرِفُونَ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنكِرُونَهَا وَأَكۡثَرُهُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ
The addition of the particle ال to the word کافرون is intended to intensify its meaning. Whereas the expression اکثرھم کافرون means, most of them are disbelievers, the words, اکثرھم الکافرون mean, most of them are confirmed disbelievers. The verse means to say that the disbelievers of Mecca have not only denied the material favours of God, but have rejected His spiritual favours also. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ مِنۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا ثُمَّ لَا یُؤۡذَنُ لِلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُسۡتَعۡتَبُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾
وَيَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٖ شَهِيدٗا ثُمَّ لَا يُؤۡذَنُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَلَا هُمۡ يُسۡتَعۡتَبُونَ
b. 4:42; 16:90. (close)
1568. The verse says that Messengers were sent to all peoples and nations of the world. This is a claim which has been put forth by the Qur’an alone of all the revealed Scriptures. The truth of this claim, revealed to the world about fourteen hundred years ago by the Qur’an, has now begun to dawn upon mankind. (close)
a. 30:58; 41:25. (close)
a. 4:42; 16:90. (close)
b. 30:58; 41:25. (close)
After mentioning the ingratitude and iniquities of disbelievers in the preceding verses, the present verse again reverts to the subject of the life after death. This is done to warn disbelievers that not only will they be punished in this life for their disbelief and misdeeds, but will also receive a heavier punishment in the life to come. The fact that all the peoples who ever lived on this earth will be present to see their humiliation on the Day of Judgement will intensify their shame and agony. All the Prophets will also be there to bear witness against them. See also 4:42-43.
The verse constitutes yet one more testimony to the truth of the Quran. It says that Messengers were sent to all peoples and nations of the world. This is a claim in which the Quran stands alone among all the revealed Scriptures. The truth of this claim has now begun to dawn upon mankind. It was revealed to the world about fourteen hundred years ago by the Quran.
The expression لایوذن (shall not be permitted) does not mean, as wrongly understood by some commentators, that disbelievers shall not be permitted to speak to God, because in several verses of the Quran we are told that on the Day of Judgement disbelievers will confess their guilt and in its extenuation will proffer various kinds of excuses before God. The expression either means that disbelievers shall not be permitted to enter Heaven or that permission shall not be granted to anyone to intercede with God on their behalf. The latter meaning is supported by vv. 2:256; 10:4; 20:110; 34:24; 53:27; wherein it is stated that intercession is only possible after Divine permission. V 77:37 contains another interpretation of the words لایوذن viz. that disbelievers shall not be allowed to make excuses.
The words, We shall raise up a witness, may also mean that the Prophets will bear witness against the disbelievers by their personal example. The Prophets would, as it were, say to disbelievers that when they (the Prophets) could spiritually rise so high by acting upon Divine teaching why could not they (the disbelievers)? The verse thus implies that every Prophet by his personal example serves as a living example of the great moral and spiritual reformation which his teaching is capable of effecting. This is why no religious teaching has ever been revealed except through a Prophet. (close)
وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوا الۡعَذَابَ فَلَا یُخَفَّفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡظَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾
وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يُنظَرُونَ
b. 2:166. (close)
a. 2:166. (close)
The punishment referred to in this verse relates to the next life. (close)
وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا شُرَکَآءَہُمۡ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ شُرَکَآؤُنَا الَّذِیۡنَ کُنَّا نَدۡعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِکَ ۚ فَاَلۡقَوۡا اِلَیۡہِمُ الۡقَوۡلَ اِنَّکُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۸۷﴾
وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ شُرَكَآءَهُمۡ قَالُواْ رَبَّنَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ شُرَكَآؤُنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِكَۖ فَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡقَوۡلَ إِنَّكُمۡ لَكَٰذِبُونَ
c. 30:14. (close)
1569. This altercation between false gods and their followers shows that friendships based on sin and denial of truth never endure. (close)
b. 30:14. (close)
It is indeed strange that disbelievers who in this life oppose Divine Messengers for the sake of their false gods will on the Day of Judgement, inveigh against those very false gods and request that they be severely punished because they led them to disbelief and ruin. In return the false gods will denounce their erstwhile followers with the quick and emphatic retort, "Surely, you are liars". This altercation between the false gods and their followers before God shows that friendships based on sin and the denial of truth never endure.
The words القوا الیھم القول mean, (a) they would say emphatically; (b) they would reply quickly. The words, it will not be made light for them, occurring in the preceding verse show that the excuses of disbelievers will not be accepted and they will be sternly told that if their false gods had tempted and inveigled them they should have resisted that temptation. (close)
وَ اَلۡقَوۡا اِلَی اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَئِذِ ۣالسَّلَمَ وَ ضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ يَوۡمَئِذٍ ٱلسَّلَمَۖ وَضَلَّ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
d. 16:29. (close)
a. 16:29. (close)
When disbelievers see that their false gods had disowned them they will change their attitude and in a humble and penitent tone will profess their sincere loyalty to God and say that their idol-worship was but a means to an end—to have concentration of mind in worship, and that it was prompted by a sincere desire to win the pleasure of God and not by any motive of rebellion against Him. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ زِدۡنٰہُمۡ عَذَابًا فَوۡقَ الۡعَذَابِ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یُفۡسِدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ زِدۡنَٰهُمۡ عَذَابٗا فَوۡقَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يُفۡسِدُونَ
e. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
b. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
The verse mentions two classes of disbelievers; (1) those who are themselves misguided and (2) those who mislead others also. The latter class of disbelievers will have double punishment in the next life. The irony of it lies in the fact that the clever people who deceived their simple-minded followers into believing that they would be responsible for their salvation will find their own punishment to be double the punishment of their credulous followers for whose salvation they proudly said they would be responsible. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ فِیۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ جِئۡنَا بِکَ شَہِیۡدًا عَلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ؕ وَ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ تِبۡیَانًا لِّکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً وَّ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۹۰﴾
وَيَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٖ شَهِيدًا عَلَيۡهِم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡۖ وَجِئۡنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِۚ وَنَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ تِبۡيَٰنٗا لِّكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
f. 4:42; 16:85. (close)
a. 10:38; 12:112. (close)
c. 4:42; 16:85. (close)
d. 10:38; 12:112. (close)
This verse brings to completion the theme of the preceding verses and purports to say that when on the Day of Judgement various Prophets will present their own examples to establish the guilt of disbelievers, the Holy Prophet also will be presented as a witness against the latter. Disbelievers will be told that when the Holy Prophet who was like them and was one of them eschewed all idolatrous practices and succeeded not only himself in winning the pleasure of God but also led many others to the goal of their life, why could not they benefit by his example? Was this not due to his belief in the Divine teaching which was revealed to him and their rejection of that teaching and their refusal even to recognize its need?
The verse then proceeds to describe the eminent qualities of the Quran and says that it contains an exposition of all the spiritual needs of man and of the means which attract the Grace and Mercy of God.
The words کل شیء (everything) should not be understood to mean everything absolutely, but only all those things that pertain to the spiritual needs of man. So the verse means to say that all fundamental and basic principles which are necessary for the moral and spiritual development of man are embodied in the Quran. The fact that the exposition and explanation of some injunctions and principles is to be found in the Hadith may not be understood to contradict this claim of the Quran. The Hadith contains only explanations and expositions of the Quranic teaching and nothing over and above it or in opposition to it. The Holy Prophet was the greatest exponent of the Quran and so what he said in explanation of a certain injunction of the Quran was perfectly in harmony with it and was free from the possibility of error. This view is also corroborated by the Quran itself (53:4). Indeed they are in grievous error who say that the Prophet was an ordinary mortal like them and therefore they were not bound by all the interpretations, expositions and explanations of the Quranic verses given by him and that they could explain and interpret the Quran as well as he. (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡعَدۡلِ وَ الۡاِحۡسَانِ وَ اِیۡتَآیِٔ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ یَنۡہٰی عَنِ الۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ الۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ الۡبَغۡیِ ۚ یَعِظُکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ وَٱلۡإِحۡسَٰنِ وَإِيتَآيِٕ ذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَيَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَٱلۡبَغۡيِۚ يَعِظُكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ
1570. The verse contains three commandments and three prohibitions which briefly deal with all the various stages of the moral and spiritual development of man and with both its positive and negative sides. It enjoins justice, the doing of good to others and kindness as between kindred; and forbids indecency, manifest evil and transgression. Justice implies that a person should treat others as he is treated by them. He should return to others the good or evil to the extent or measure to which he receives it from them. Higher than ‘Adl (justice) is the stage of Ihsan (goodness) when man should do good to others regardless of what sort of treatment he receives from them, or even if he is maltreated by them. His conduct should not be actuated by considerations of reciprocity. At the last and highest stage of moral development, viz. Ita’i Dhil-Qurba (giving like kindred), a believer is expected to do good to others not in return for any good received from them, nor with the idea of doing more good than the good received, but to do good prompted by a natural impulse, as good is done to very near blood relations. His condition at this stage resembles that of a mother whose love for her children springs from natural impulse. After a believer has attained this stage his moral development becomes complete. These three stages of morals constitute the positive side of man’s moral development. Its negative side is portrayed in the three words, viz. Fahsha’ (indecency), Munkar (manifest evil) and Baghy (transgression). Fahsha’ signifies vice of which the knowledge is confined to the doer and Munkar signifies those evils which other men also see and condemn, though they may not suffer any loss or infringement of their own rights by them. Baghy, however, comprehends all those vices and evils which not only are seen, felt and denounced by other people but which do them positive harm also. These three simple words cover all conceivable vices. (close)
1891. Important Words:
ذی القربی (like kindred). قربی is infinitive noun from قرب which means, it or he was or became near قرابة like قربی is also infinitive noun from قرب but whereas the former is relationship in a general sense, the latter viz. قربی is relationship by the female side, but both words may also mean relationship or relationship by the female side (Lane).
منکر (manifest evil) is derived from نکر. They say نکرالرجل i.e. he did not know or recognize the man. نکرالامر (amra) means, he was ignorant of the affair. نکرالامر (amru) means, the affair was or became difficult, hard, arduous or severe or it was or became bad, evil, abominable, foul or disapproved. منکر means, ignored or unknown, denied or disacknowledged, any action deemed or declared to be bad, evil, hateful, foul, abominable, indecent, unbecoming, etc., (Lane & Aqrab).
احسان See 2:113.
فحشا See 4:16.
بغی See 2:91.
In the preceding verse the Quran claims to possess four great qualities: (1) It is an explanation of everything, (2) it is a guidance and (3) a mercy and (4) glad tidings for those who submit to God. The present and the following section (ruku‘) establish the truth of this claim and show that the Quran eminently fulfils the supreme purpose which its revelation was intended to serve. The present verse also, as it were in a nutshell, proves this claim of the Quran to be well-founded. It contains three commandments and three prohibitions. These three commandments and prohibitions briefly embody all the various stages of the moral and spiritual development of man. The verse thus constitutes a very good example of what has been said about the Quran in the preceding verse i.e. that it is an explanation of everything تبیانا لکل شیء. The verse ends with the words لعلکم تذکرون which mean, that you may remember the obligations which you owe to God and His creatures and also that you may extol the glory of God and celebrate His praise. Since these are the objects of man’s creation, the verse gives the Faithful the glad tidings that by following injunctions embodied in it they will achieve the purpose of their creation. It is indeed marvellous that the Quran should have, in the brief compass of a short verse, thrown light on all those matters which establish its above-mentioned great claim.
It is impossible to find such combination of brevity and compre-hensiveness in any other religious Scripture. And what is more remarkable is the fact that the words of the verse are quite plain and simple and can be easily understood by a person of ordinary intelligence.
A question cannot be understood to have been fully dealt with unless light is thrown on both its positive and negative aspects. Again, a religious Scripture cannot claim to be perfect unless it possesses the following essential characteristics:
1. It must enjoin the performance of such actions as lead to man’s moral and spiritual perfection and forbid the doing of such actions as are detrimental to the realization of such perfection.
2. It must prescribe laws which are applicable not to one particular individual or community but to the largest number of individuals and communities; and in the formulation of these laws due regard should have been paid to the dispositions and temperaments of all those people for whom it is intended, so that they may not find it difficult to act upon its teaching, every person according to his or her capacity.
3. The third characteristic that a perfect Law must possess is that its teaching should be practical and practicable and acting upon it should not lead to deterioration in human morals, intellect or civilization. The present verse beautifully combines all these essential qualities of a perfect Law. It has not failed to deal properly with both the positive and negative sides of the all-important question of the moral development of man. It has enjoined justice, the doing of good to others and kindness as between kindred; and has forbidden indecency, manifest evil and wrongful transgression.
Now strict justice implies that a person should treat others as he is treated by them. He should return to others the good or evil to the extent or measure to which he has received it from them. In relation to God عدل (justice), which is the first virtue mentioned, would mean that just as God has been good to man, man should render to God His due, and should not by his conduct render Him liable to criticism. He must not give to others what is due to God, for example, his love or devotion. The association of false gods with Him is also doing injustice to God. Similarly, it is contrary to the demands of عدل (justice) that a man should arrogate to himself an attribute which belongs exclusively to God. For example, it is the special prerogative of God to reveal religious Laws. Now if any man arrogates to himself this Divineprerogative and begins to frame a religious Law and seeks to give it the status of a revealed Law, he transgresses the bounds of justice. The observance of عدل in relation to God is calculated to abolish all kinds of shirk (idolatry), infidelity and disobedience to God. Higher than عدل (justice) is the stage of احسان (goodness). At this stage man should have no regard for the kind of treatment he receives from others. He should do good to others regardless of what sort of treatment he receives from them. He must do good to others even if he is maltreated by them. His conduct at this stage should not be actuated by considerations of reciprocity but he should do good to others regardless of the fact whether he has received any good from them or even if they have ill-treated him. This is certainly a higher stage of morals than the first stage of عدل. The qualities of forgiveness, charity, the giving of alms, social service, etc., all fall under this category. The promotion and patronage of knowledge and the systematization of its different branches also are included in this head because it has for its object the material and spiritual wellbeing of man.
The last and highest stage of moral development of man is ایتاء ذی القربی (giving like kindred). At this stage a man is expected to do good to others not in return for any good received from them, nor with the idea of doing more good than the good received, but prompted by a natural impulse, as good is done to very near blood relations. This is a much higher moral stage than the stage of احسان (doing of good). At the stage of احسان the doer of the good may have at the back of his mind the idea that the person concerned has done him some good and that he should do him a better turn and thus win public approbation. Or, in forgiving a person who has done him some wrong, he has the satisfaction that his act of forgiveness would turn a foe into a friend. But at the stage of ایتاء ذی القربی (giving like kindred) a person does good to others prompted as if by natural impulse. His condition at this stage resembles that of a mother whose love for her children is the result of a natural impulse. Her sacrifices and the hardships she willingly suffers for her children are prompted by no hope of return or appreciation. They spring from the natural fountain of love which God has implanted in her nature. At this stage the moral development of man becomes complete.
It may be noted that man’s relations with God cannot possibly go beyond the stage of عدل, for there can be no question of man’s doing good to God in any form. It is only his fellow human beings with whom he can deal according to his own moral condition at the stage of احسان or ایتاء ذی القربی. This implies a beautiful hint that in order to attain the nearness of God and to win His favour it is essential for man to do good to His creatures. A description of these three stages of morals constitutes the positive side of the subject of man’s moral development. Its negative side is portrayed in the three prohibitions which are explained by the three Arabic words viz. فحشاء (indecency), منکر (manifest evil) and بغی(wrongful transgression). فحشاء means such vices of which the knowledge is confined to the doer alone, while منکر means those evils which other men also see and condemn, though they may not suffer any loss or the infringement of their own rights by them. بغی (wrongful transgression), however, comprehends all those vices and evils which not only are seen, felt and hated by men but which do them definite harm also. These three simple words cover all conceivable vices.
A perfect teaching must have due regard for the moral requirements of men of different temperaments and dispositions. The verse under comment fully satisfies this very essential condition. For there are men who may be guilty of indecent acts but would not approve of wrongful acts of which the harm extends to others. There are others who would not infringe the rights of other people but who suffer from moral indecencies whose harm is confined to their own selves, such as back-biting, jealousy and the harbouring of ill-will against others. The three brief words mentioned above embody all the different forms of vice to which man can fall a victim. Thus this short verse of the Quran has covered, by its three commands and three prohibitions, the whole field of virtue and vice and contains requisite guidance for men holding different motives at the different stages of their moral development.
By an appropriate selection and arrangement of its words the verse has explained how a man can effectively eschew all vices and acquire all virtues. It mentions the three categories of virtues implying thereby that in acquiring them a man should first cultivate the quality of عدل (justice), then will he be able to cultivate the nobler and higher quality of احسان (goodness), and lastly, after he has acquired these two moral qualities, will he succeed in cultivating the quality of ایتاء ذی القربی, the highest and noblest of all the moral qualities. But in eschewing vices he should begin with the most obvious and harmful of them viz. بغی (wrongful transgression), and after he has been successful in conquering this vice he should try to master the less obvious vice of منکر (manifest evil) and when he has mastered this evil also he should try to bring under control the more subtle vice of فحشاء (indecency). The description of the good moral qualities and that of the corresponding vices together is intended to draw attention to the important fact that in the cultivation of good moral qualities one has to start from the lowest rung of the ladder, while in the renunciation of vices he has to begin with the most pronounced and harmful one. Thus for his moral perfection man has to traverse six stages of development and the gradation of these stages into six quite harmonizes with a well-known law of nature, viz. that everything has to go through six stages of evolution before it reaches perfection. The verse, as it were, embodies the complete course of moral and spiritual evolution and growth of man. (close)