وَ اَلۡقَوۡا اِلَی اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَئِذِ ۣالسَّلَمَ وَ ضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ يَوۡمَئِذٍ ٱلسَّلَمَۖ وَضَلَّ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
d. 16:29. (close)
a. 16:29. (close)
When disbelievers see that their false gods had disowned them they will change their attitude and in a humble and penitent tone will profess their sincere loyalty to God and say that their idol-worship was but a means to an end—to have concentration of mind in worship, and that it was prompted by a sincere desire to win the pleasure of God and not by any motive of rebellion against Him. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ زِدۡنٰہُمۡ عَذَابًا فَوۡقَ الۡعَذَابِ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یُفۡسِدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ زِدۡنَٰهُمۡ عَذَابٗا فَوۡقَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يُفۡسِدُونَ
e. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
b. 7:46; 11:20; 14:4. (close)
The verse mentions two classes of disbelievers; (1) those who are themselves misguided and (2) those who mislead others also. The latter class of disbelievers will have double punishment in the next life. The irony of it lies in the fact that the clever people who deceived their simple-minded followers into believing that they would be responsible for their salvation will find their own punishment to be double the punishment of their credulous followers for whose salvation they proudly said they would be responsible. (close)
وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ فِیۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ جِئۡنَا بِکَ شَہِیۡدًا عَلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ؕ وَ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ تِبۡیَانًا لِّکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً وَّ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۹۰﴾
وَيَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٖ شَهِيدًا عَلَيۡهِم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡۖ وَجِئۡنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِۚ وَنَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ تِبۡيَٰنٗا لِّكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُدٗى وَرَحۡمَةٗ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
f. 4:42; 16:85. (close)
a. 10:38; 12:112. (close)
c. 4:42; 16:85. (close)
d. 10:38; 12:112. (close)
This verse brings to completion the theme of the preceding verses and purports to say that when on the Day of Judgement various Prophets will present their own examples to establish the guilt of disbelievers, the Holy Prophet also will be presented as a witness against the latter. Disbelievers will be told that when the Holy Prophet who was like them and was one of them eschewed all idolatrous practices and succeeded not only himself in winning the pleasure of God but also led many others to the goal of their life, why could not they benefit by his example? Was this not due to his belief in the Divine teaching which was revealed to him and their rejection of that teaching and their refusal even to recognize its need?
The verse then proceeds to describe the eminent qualities of the Quran and says that it contains an exposition of all the spiritual needs of man and of the means which attract the Grace and Mercy of God.
The words کل شیء (everything) should not be understood to mean everything absolutely, but only all those things that pertain to the spiritual needs of man. So the verse means to say that all fundamental and basic principles which are necessary for the moral and spiritual development of man are embodied in the Quran. The fact that the exposition and explanation of some injunctions and principles is to be found in the Hadith may not be understood to contradict this claim of the Quran. The Hadith contains only explanations and expositions of the Quranic teaching and nothing over and above it or in opposition to it. The Holy Prophet was the greatest exponent of the Quran and so what he said in explanation of a certain injunction of the Quran was perfectly in harmony with it and was free from the possibility of error. This view is also corroborated by the Quran itself (53:4). Indeed they are in grievous error who say that the Prophet was an ordinary mortal like them and therefore they were not bound by all the interpretations, expositions and explanations of the Quranic verses given by him and that they could explain and interpret the Quran as well as he. (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡعَدۡلِ وَ الۡاِحۡسَانِ وَ اِیۡتَآیِٔ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ یَنۡہٰی عَنِ الۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ الۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ الۡبَغۡیِ ۚ یَعِظُکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ وَٱلۡإِحۡسَٰنِ وَإِيتَآيِٕ ذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَيَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَٱلۡبَغۡيِۚ يَعِظُكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ
1570. The verse contains three commandments and three prohibitions which briefly deal with all the various stages of the moral and spiritual development of man and with both its positive and negative sides. It enjoins justice, the doing of good to others and kindness as between kindred; and forbids indecency, manifest evil and transgression. Justice implies that a person should treat others as he is treated by them. He should return to others the good or evil to the extent or measure to which he receives it from them. Higher than ‘Adl (justice) is the stage of Ihsan (goodness) when man should do good to others regardless of what sort of treatment he receives from them, or even if he is maltreated by them. His conduct should not be actuated by considerations of reciprocity. At the last and highest stage of moral development, viz. Ita’i Dhil-Qurba (giving like kindred), a believer is expected to do good to others not in return for any good received from them, nor with the idea of doing more good than the good received, but to do good prompted by a natural impulse, as good is done to very near blood relations. His condition at this stage resembles that of a mother whose love for her children springs from natural impulse. After a believer has attained this stage his moral development becomes complete. These three stages of morals constitute the positive side of man’s moral development. Its negative side is portrayed in the three words, viz. Fahsha’ (indecency), Munkar (manifest evil) and Baghy (transgression). Fahsha’ signifies vice of which the knowledge is confined to the doer and Munkar signifies those evils which other men also see and condemn, though they may not suffer any loss or infringement of their own rights by them. Baghy, however, comprehends all those vices and evils which not only are seen, felt and denounced by other people but which do them positive harm also. These three simple words cover all conceivable vices. (close)
1891. Important Words:
ذی القربی (like kindred). قربی is infinitive noun from قرب which means, it or he was or became near قرابة like قربی is also infinitive noun from قرب but whereas the former is relationship in a general sense, the latter viz. قربی is relationship by the female side, but both words may also mean relationship or relationship by the female side (Lane).
منکر (manifest evil) is derived from نکر. They say نکرالرجل i.e. he did not know or recognize the man. نکرالامر (amra) means, he was ignorant of the affair. نکرالامر (amru) means, the affair was or became difficult, hard, arduous or severe or it was or became bad, evil, abominable, foul or disapproved. منکر means, ignored or unknown, denied or disacknowledged, any action deemed or declared to be bad, evil, hateful, foul, abominable, indecent, unbecoming, etc., (Lane & Aqrab).
احسان See 2:113.
فحشا See 4:16.
بغی See 2:91.
In the preceding verse the Quran claims to possess four great qualities: (1) It is an explanation of everything, (2) it is a guidance and (3) a mercy and (4) glad tidings for those who submit to God. The present and the following section (ruku‘) establish the truth of this claim and show that the Quran eminently fulfils the supreme purpose which its revelation was intended to serve. The present verse also, as it were in a nutshell, proves this claim of the Quran to be well-founded. It contains three commandments and three prohibitions. These three commandments and prohibitions briefly embody all the various stages of the moral and spiritual development of man. The verse thus constitutes a very good example of what has been said about the Quran in the preceding verse i.e. that it is an explanation of everything تبیانا لکل شیء. The verse ends with the words لعلکم تذکرون which mean, that you may remember the obligations which you owe to God and His creatures and also that you may extol the glory of God and celebrate His praise. Since these are the objects of man’s creation, the verse gives the Faithful the glad tidings that by following injunctions embodied in it they will achieve the purpose of their creation. It is indeed marvellous that the Quran should have, in the brief compass of a short verse, thrown light on all those matters which establish its above-mentioned great claim.
It is impossible to find such combination of brevity and compre-hensiveness in any other religious Scripture. And what is more remarkable is the fact that the words of the verse are quite plain and simple and can be easily understood by a person of ordinary intelligence.
A question cannot be understood to have been fully dealt with unless light is thrown on both its positive and negative aspects. Again, a religious Scripture cannot claim to be perfect unless it possesses the following essential characteristics:
1. It must enjoin the performance of such actions as lead to man’s moral and spiritual perfection and forbid the doing of such actions as are detrimental to the realization of such perfection.
2. It must prescribe laws which are applicable not to one particular individual or community but to the largest number of individuals and communities; and in the formulation of these laws due regard should have been paid to the dispositions and temperaments of all those people for whom it is intended, so that they may not find it difficult to act upon its teaching, every person according to his or her capacity.
3. The third characteristic that a perfect Law must possess is that its teaching should be practical and practicable and acting upon it should not lead to deterioration in human morals, intellect or civilization. The present verse beautifully combines all these essential qualities of a perfect Law. It has not failed to deal properly with both the positive and negative sides of the all-important question of the moral development of man. It has enjoined justice, the doing of good to others and kindness as between kindred; and has forbidden indecency, manifest evil and wrongful transgression.
Now strict justice implies that a person should treat others as he is treated by them. He should return to others the good or evil to the extent or measure to which he has received it from them. In relation to God عدل (justice), which is the first virtue mentioned, would mean that just as God has been good to man, man should render to God His due, and should not by his conduct render Him liable to criticism. He must not give to others what is due to God, for example, his love or devotion. The association of false gods with Him is also doing injustice to God. Similarly, it is contrary to the demands of عدل (justice) that a man should arrogate to himself an attribute which belongs exclusively to God. For example, it is the special prerogative of God to reveal religious Laws. Now if any man arrogates to himself this Divineprerogative and begins to frame a religious Law and seeks to give it the status of a revealed Law, he transgresses the bounds of justice. The observance of عدل in relation to God is calculated to abolish all kinds of shirk (idolatry), infidelity and disobedience to God. Higher than عدل (justice) is the stage of احسان (goodness). At this stage man should have no regard for the kind of treatment he receives from others. He should do good to others regardless of what sort of treatment he receives from them. He must do good to others even if he is maltreated by them. His conduct at this stage should not be actuated by considerations of reciprocity but he should do good to others regardless of the fact whether he has received any good from them or even if they have ill-treated him. This is certainly a higher stage of morals than the first stage of عدل. The qualities of forgiveness, charity, the giving of alms, social service, etc., all fall under this category. The promotion and patronage of knowledge and the systematization of its different branches also are included in this head because it has for its object the material and spiritual wellbeing of man.
The last and highest stage of moral development of man is ایتاء ذی القربی (giving like kindred). At this stage a man is expected to do good to others not in return for any good received from them, nor with the idea of doing more good than the good received, but prompted by a natural impulse, as good is done to very near blood relations. This is a much higher moral stage than the stage of احسان (doing of good). At the stage of احسان the doer of the good may have at the back of his mind the idea that the person concerned has done him some good and that he should do him a better turn and thus win public approbation. Or, in forgiving a person who has done him some wrong, he has the satisfaction that his act of forgiveness would turn a foe into a friend. But at the stage of ایتاء ذی القربی (giving like kindred) a person does good to others prompted as if by natural impulse. His condition at this stage resembles that of a mother whose love for her children is the result of a natural impulse. Her sacrifices and the hardships she willingly suffers for her children are prompted by no hope of return or appreciation. They spring from the natural fountain of love which God has implanted in her nature. At this stage the moral development of man becomes complete.
It may be noted that man’s relations with God cannot possibly go beyond the stage of عدل, for there can be no question of man’s doing good to God in any form. It is only his fellow human beings with whom he can deal according to his own moral condition at the stage of احسان or ایتاء ذی القربی. This implies a beautiful hint that in order to attain the nearness of God and to win His favour it is essential for man to do good to His creatures. A description of these three stages of morals constitutes the positive side of the subject of man’s moral development. Its negative side is portrayed in the three prohibitions which are explained by the three Arabic words viz. فحشاء (indecency), منکر (manifest evil) and بغی(wrongful transgression). فحشاء means such vices of which the knowledge is confined to the doer alone, while منکر means those evils which other men also see and condemn, though they may not suffer any loss or the infringement of their own rights by them. بغی (wrongful transgression), however, comprehends all those vices and evils which not only are seen, felt and hated by men but which do them definite harm also. These three simple words cover all conceivable vices.
A perfect teaching must have due regard for the moral requirements of men of different temperaments and dispositions. The verse under comment fully satisfies this very essential condition. For there are men who may be guilty of indecent acts but would not approve of wrongful acts of which the harm extends to others. There are others who would not infringe the rights of other people but who suffer from moral indecencies whose harm is confined to their own selves, such as back-biting, jealousy and the harbouring of ill-will against others. The three brief words mentioned above embody all the different forms of vice to which man can fall a victim. Thus this short verse of the Quran has covered, by its three commands and three prohibitions, the whole field of virtue and vice and contains requisite guidance for men holding different motives at the different stages of their moral development.
By an appropriate selection and arrangement of its words the verse has explained how a man can effectively eschew all vices and acquire all virtues. It mentions the three categories of virtues implying thereby that in acquiring them a man should first cultivate the quality of عدل (justice), then will he be able to cultivate the nobler and higher quality of احسان (goodness), and lastly, after he has acquired these two moral qualities, will he succeed in cultivating the quality of ایتاء ذی القربی, the highest and noblest of all the moral qualities. But in eschewing vices he should begin with the most obvious and harmful of them viz. بغی (wrongful transgression), and after he has been successful in conquering this vice he should try to master the less obvious vice of منکر (manifest evil) and when he has mastered this evil also he should try to bring under control the more subtle vice of فحشاء (indecency). The description of the good moral qualities and that of the corresponding vices together is intended to draw attention to the important fact that in the cultivation of good moral qualities one has to start from the lowest rung of the ladder, while in the renunciation of vices he has to begin with the most pronounced and harmful one. Thus for his moral perfection man has to traverse six stages of development and the gradation of these stages into six quite harmonizes with a well-known law of nature, viz. that everything has to go through six stages of evolution before it reaches perfection. The verse, as it were, embodies the complete course of moral and spiritual evolution and growth of man. (close)
وَ اَوۡفُوۡا بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ اِذَا عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ وَ لَا تَنۡقُضُوا الۡاَیۡمَانَ بَعۡدَ تَوۡکِیۡدِہَا وَ قَدۡ جَعَلۡتُمُ اللّٰہَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ کَفِیۡلًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
وَأَوۡفُواْ بِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ إِذَا عَٰهَدتُّمۡ وَلَا تَنقُضُواْ ٱلۡأَيۡمَٰنَ بَعۡدَ تَوۡكِيدِهَا وَقَدۡ جَعَلۡتُمُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ كَفِيلًاۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَفۡعَلُونَ
a. 6:153; 13:21; 17:35. (close)
1571. Obligations which the believers owe to God are covered by the words "covenant of Allah" and the duties they owe to their fellowmen are implied in the words, "the oaths." (close)
a. 6:153; 13:21; 17:35. (close)
This verse further explains and repeats the theme of the previous verse, viz. believers are enjoined faithfully to discharge the obligations they owe to God which are covered by the words "covenant of Allah" and the duties they owe to their fellow-men which are implied in the words, "the oaths". It must be remembered that oaths taken in defiance of God’s commandment are not binding.
The expression "covenant of Allah" means, taking the oath of allegiance at the hands of the Holy Prophet; or it means, entering into the Faith of Islam and thus binding oneself to abide by its ordinances. This interpretation of "the covenant of Allah" is based on vv. 3:77, 78; 9:4; 33:16; 48:11; which show that the words "covenant of Allah" mean "Islam".
The words, and break not the oaths after confirming them, refer to the covenants which men make among themselves in the name of God. As these covenants are made in the name of God, He has been declared as having been made their surety, and if they are broken, He would intervene and punish the offender. (close)
وَ لَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّتِیۡ نَقَضَتۡ غَزۡلَہَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ قُوَّۃٍ اَنۡکَاثًا ؕ تَتَّخِذُوۡنَ اَیۡمَانَکُمۡ دَخَلًۢا بَیۡنَکُمۡ اَنۡ تَکُوۡنَ اُمَّۃٌ ہِیَ اَرۡبٰی مِنۡ اُمَّۃٍ ؕ اِنَّمَا یَبۡلُوۡکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِہٖ ؕ وَ لَیُبَیِّنَنَّ لَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ مَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّتِي نَقَضَتۡ غَزۡلَهَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنكَٰثٗا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيۡمَٰنَكُمۡ دَخَلَۢا بَيۡنَكُمۡ أَن تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرۡبَىٰ مِنۡ أُمَّةٍۚ إِنَّمَا يَبۡلُوكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦۚ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ مَا كُنتُمۡ فِيهِ تَخۡتَلِفُونَ
b. 16:95. (close)
1572. This and the preceding verse lay the greatest stress on the inviolability of oaths which should be observed at all costs. (close)
1573. The Arabic expression is capable of three interpretations:
(1) Because one people (non-Muslims) are stronger and wealthier than the other people (Muslims), i.e. Muslims should not put other stronger people out of their guard by concluding with them a peace treaty, thus biding their time till a favourable opportunity arises and they are strong enough to dishonour it.
(2) For fear lest one people (non-Muslims) should become stronger and wealthier than the other people (Muslims).
(3) So that one people (Muslims) should become stronger than the other people (non-Muslims), i.e. Muslims should not make a treaty with non-Muslims with this object in view that by taking advantage of it they should add to their own strength and break it when they find themselves stronger than non-Muslims. (close)
a. 16:95. (close)
1893. Important Words:
انکاثا (pieces) is the plural of نکث (nikthun) which is derived from نکث (nakatha). They say نکث الحبل i.e. he untwisted the end of a rope. نکث العھد means, he broke the covenant. نکث السواک means, he made the head of the tooth-stick to be disintegrated, dis-united, or separated, in its fibres (Lane & Aqrab).
دخلا (means of deceit) is derived from دخل which means, he or it entered or went or got in. دخل (dakhalun) means, a thing that enters into another thing and is not of it; people or persons who assert their relationship to those of whom they are not; badness, corruptness or unsoundness; or a bad, a corrupt or an unsound state or quality. They say فی عقله دخلi.e. in his intellect is an unsoundness; rottenness; leanness or emaciation; perfidiousness, faithlessness or treachery; deceit, guile or circumvention. The Quranic expression ولا تتخذوا ایمانکم دخلا بینکم means, And make ye not your oaths to be a means of deceit or guile or circumvention between you. (Lane & Aqrab).
اربی (more powerful) is derived from ربا which means, it (the thing) increased or augmented; it increased by usury; ربت الارض means, the ground became large and swelled. اربیت means, I took more than I gave. اربی علی الخمیس ونحوھا means, he exceeded the age of fifty and the like. رباmeans, an excess and an addition. اربی means, more numerous, and more abundant in wealth (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse may be taken as a continuation of the subject matter of the previous verse or it may be understood to deal with a new subject. If it be taken as a continuation of the subject of the previous verse, it contains a warning to believers not to break covenants they have made with one another, for if solemn pledges are broken mutual trust disappears and the unity of the community becomes disintegrated. In fact, the strict observance of covenants and fulfilment of promises are really indispensable for the maintenance of communal concord and unity; for communal concord depends on mutual cooperation and the doing of good to one another. But these things are possible only when men abide by their promises and pledges. If promises solemnly made are not kept, general distrust prevails and the result is total disintegration of the unity of the community.
The verse may not only refer to the covenants which individuals make with one another, but may also comprise that solemn compact which Muslims make at the hands of their Imam or Khalifah, binding themselves to obey him and under his guidance to strive for the progress of the community and the Faith. The Faithful are warned in this verse that since God has organized them into a united and disciplined community under one Leader to whom they have sworn allegiance, they should remain true to him and refrain from creating discord. If they failed to live up to their high ideals, Islam would lose the prestige and power it has gained through their sacrifices. The verse also teaches the great truth, which Muslim statesmen and leaders may well bear in mind, that discord created by a few individuals breaks up a whole organization and all the labour expended on the organization of the community is wasted and fresh and renewed efforts have to be made to reorganize it. They should therefore be always on their guard against mischief-makers because if they allowed their organization to be broken up, they would be like that foolish woman who, "after having made it strong, breaks her yarn into pieces".
The verse seems also to refer to compacts which Muslims in future were destined to make with other nations. In that case, it would be taken as having started a new subject and the Muslims would be regarded as having been enjoined to remain faithful to their treaties, for it is on the strict observance of treaties that the peace of the world depends. The words, you make your oaths to be a means of deceit between you, refer not only to compacts which individuals make with one another but also to the treaties which nations make with one another. Both are inviolable and both must be strictly observed.
The words ان تکون امة ھی اربی من امة may be interpreted in three different ways: (1) because one people (non-Muslims) are stronger and wealthier than the other people (Muslims) i.e. to gain time by hoodwinking the stronger party; (2) lest one people (non-Muslims) should become stronger and wealthier than the other people (Muslims) i.e. to exploit the weaker party; and (3) that one people (Muslims) may become stronger and wealthier than the other people (non-Muslims) i.e. to weaken the stronger party. According to the first rendering, the verse would mean that Muslims should not use the treaties which they make with another nation in order to deceive them because they happen to be stronger in numbers and resources. That is to say, Muslims should not seek to put other people off their guard by concluding with them a treaty of peace, thus biding their time till a favourable opportunity arises and they are strong enough to dishonour their treaty.
According to the second rendering, the verse would mean that Muslims should not make treaties with a weaker nation with the evil intent of exploiting it and fraudulently taking possession of its country. According to the third rendering, however, the verse would mean that Muslims should not make treaties with other people with the object of weakening their strength or impeding their progress. These are the noble and sublime Islamic teachings with regard to the sacredness and inviolability of international treaties. To see one’s country great and powerful is a natural desire but under no circumstances is it permissible to Muslims to achieve it at the cost of treaties solemnly made or by fraudulent means. Treaties should be entered into with the noble object of maintaining international peace, and not for deceiving or harming other nations. The West may well learn a lesson from this noble teaching of the Quran.
The words, Surely, Allah tries you therewith, mean that such opportunities come as a trial, and God will see whether Muslims act upon the moral precepts of Islam or are led astray by the love of the world and imitate the example of other people. These teachings furnish remarkable evidence of the truth of the Quran and of the supremacy of Islam over other religions. The verse was revealed at Mecca, when Muslims did not possess even a single yard of land, but they were given teachings which were meant to guide the conduct of leaders of great nations and rulers of empires, and the instructions given were so noble and sublime that it was not possible to deny their superiority over other similar teachings. All the unrest and lack of trust so widespread among the nations of the world today is due to non-observance of these teachings. (close)
وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَجَعَلَکُمۡ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ یُّضِلُّ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۴﴾
وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمۡ أُمَّةٗ وَٰحِدَةٗ وَلَٰكِن يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهۡدِي مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَلَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 5:49; 11:119. (close)
a. 5:49; 11:119. (close)
The verse means to say that the authors of such treaties as are concluded with the intent to deceive other peoples have in view no object other than that of establishing their own dominion in the world. But, says the Quran, if it had been the will of God that there should be only one dominant power in the earth, He Himself would have made one. There is therefore no justification in having recourse to dishonest means for the purpose of subduing other nations. A nation which seeks to impose its will and foist its domination upon other peoples against their consent will itself someday fall victim to the evil designs of another nation and lose its freedom. (close)
وَ لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَکُمۡ دَخَلًۢا بَیۡنَکُمۡ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌۢ بَعۡدَ ثُبُوۡتِہَا وَ تَذُوۡقُوا السُّوۡٓءَ بِمَا صَدَدۡتُّمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ لَکُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۵﴾
وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ أَيۡمَٰنَكُمۡ دَخَلَۢا بَيۡنَكُمۡ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمُۢ بَعۡدَ ثُبُوتِهَا وَتَذُوقُواْ ٱلسُّوٓءَ بِمَا صَدَدتُّمۡ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَكُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٞ
1574. Such conduct will weaken your power. (close)
The injunction contained in the previous verse has been repeated in the present one in order to bring home to Muslims the fact that although in principle it is not right to conclude treaties with dishonest motives, yet Muslims should particularly abstain from concluding such treaties, inasmuch as they are the bearers of the Divine Law and dishonest conduct on their part, even though it be in political affairs, will make men turn away from Islam. The words, or your foot will slip after it has been firmly established, mean that such conduct on the part of Muslims will weaken their power after it had become established in the earth. These words implied the great promise that although Muslims were being bitterly persecuted at Mecca by their opponents, yet the time was soon coming when God would establish their power on earth because such rules of conduct could only be laid down for a people who were destined to play a very prominent part in the politics of the world. The fulfilment of this prophecy under most unfavourable circumstances constitutes conclusive proof of the Quran being the revealed word of God. (close)
وَ لَا تَشۡتَرُوۡا بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا ؕ اِنَّمَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
وَلَا تَشۡتَرُواْ بِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ ثَمَنٗا قَلِيلًاۚ إِنَّمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ هُوَ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
b. 3:78. (close)
1575. When people attain to power they generally fall victim to all sorts of temptations. Their enemies employ spies and informers among them and offer large bribes to know their State secrets. The Muslims are warned against succumbing to such temptations in the words: And barter not the covenant of Allah for a paltry price. (close)
a. 3:78. (close)
A great future was promised to Muslims in the foregoing verses. They were to attain power and glory. But, says the present verse, when people attain to power they fall victim to all sorts of temptations. Their enemies employ spies and informers from among them and offer large bribes to get possession of their State secrets. So Muslims are warned against succumbing to such temptations in the words: And barter not the covenant of Allah for a paltry price. They are warned that they would establish a republic at Medina, and their enemies would offer large bribes to some of their own members to disclose the secrets of the Muslim State to them, but these bribes, however large, would be quite a paltry thing compared with the boons which they would receive from God if they remained loyal to their State and led righteous lives.
The words, If you only knew, mean that Muslims could not even imagine, in the very difficult conditions under which they lived at Mecca, that they would ever rise to such great power as was ultimately theirs. (close)
مَا عِنۡدَکُمۡ یَنۡفَدُ وَ مَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ بَاقٍ ؕ وَ لَنَجۡزِیَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ صَبَرُوۡۤا اَجۡرَہُمۡ بِاَحۡسَنِ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾
مَا عِندَكُمۡ يَنفَدُ وَمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ بَاقٖۗ وَلَنَجۡزِيَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُوٓاْ أَجۡرَهُم بِأَحۡسَنِ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
c. 11:12; 39:11. (close)
b. 11:12; 39:11. (close)
The verse means to say that the sums of money which will be offered to you as bribes will soon be spent but the boons and favours which God will confer on you will endure not only in this world but will extend to the next.
The words, according to the best of their works, mean that while rewarding Muslims, God will take into consideration their best works and will reward them according to those works. In fact, the good works which a man does are of various degrees; some being of a higher standard of excellence than others. For the purpose of rewarding Muslims God will not consider their deeds of the lower type nor even of the middling standard, but will take into consideration their best works and will reward them according to these. Nay, God’s reward will exceed even their best works, for it will be at least ten times as much as their best deeds (6:161). But this great reward, it is added, will be conferred only on those who do not waver under hardships nor barter away their faith for a paltry price. (close)