مَنۡ کَانَ یُرِیۡدُ الۡعَاجِلَۃَ عَجَّلۡنَا لَہٗ فِیۡہَا مَا نَشَآءُ لِمَنۡ نُّرِیۡدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَا لَہٗ جَہَنَّمَ ۚ یَصۡلٰٮہَا مَذۡمُوۡمًا مَّدۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۱۹﴾
مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ٱلۡعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّلۡنَا لَهُۥ فِيهَا مَا نَشَآءُ لِمَن نُّرِيدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَا لَهُۥ جَهَنَّمَ يَصۡلَىٰهَا مَذۡمُومٗا مَّدۡحُورٗا
b. 3:146; 42:21. (close)
a. 3:146; 42:21. (close)
1948. Important Words:
العاجلة (the present life) is the feminine of عاجل which is derived from عجل which means, he hastened, made haste or speed; he was or became hasty, quick or expeditious. عاجل means, present; ready, not delayed; and is the contrary of آجل which means, delayed, postponed, not present, future, etc. العاجلة signifies the present hour or time; the present abode, world, life or state of existence (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse admonishes us not to confine our efforts to the achievement of the paltry material benefits of this life, which are easy to get, and not to regard these gains as a mark of God’s grace and pleasure because people who are devoid of all Divine love and are even under the displeasure of God may also succeed in achieving material prosperity by making proper use of the material resources at their disposal. Such prosperity is never the result of God’s grace. Only that prosperity can be regarded as the result of God’s grace which is accompanied by spiritual advancement. True believers, therefore, should look more to lasting spiritual blessings though they may be late in coming. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَرَادَ الۡاٰخِرَۃَ وَ سَعٰی لَہَا سَعۡیَہَا وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ کَانَ سَعۡیُہُمۡ مَّشۡکُوۡرًا ﴿۲۰﴾
وَمَنۡ أَرَادَ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةَ وَسَعَىٰ لَهَا سَعۡيَهَا وَهُوَ مُؤۡمِنٞ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ كَانَ سَعۡيُهُم مَّشۡكُورٗا
c. 3:146; 42:21. (close)
1604. The pronoun 'it' refers to the Hereafter and the meaning is that only such efforts, as are calculated to secure the good of the Hereafter, will be productive of really good results. (close)
b. 3:146; 42:21. (close)
The pronoun ھا (it) in the expression سعیھا (as it should be striven for) refers to the Hereafter, the meaning being that only such efforts as are calculated to secure the good of the Hereafter will be productive of really good results.
The words, and is a believer, have been added to point out that the securing of the good of the Hereafter depends upon right belief and purity of heart. Efforts made for material prosperity may bear fruit even in the absence of right belief but efforts made for the attainment of the good of the next life are effective only when they are accompanied by true faith. The verse should not be understood to mean that the good deeds of the Faithful only are acceptable to God. What it means is that good deeds accompanied by true belief in the next life will be fully rewarded in the Hereafter, while the reward of those good deeds which are done without any such belief in the Hereafter is confined to only the material benefits of this world. (close)
کُلًّا نُّمِدُّ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ وَ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ مِنۡ عَطَآءِ رَبِّکَ ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ عَطَـآءُ رَبِّکَ مَحۡظُوۡرًا ﴿۲۱﴾
كُلّٗا نُّمِدُّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مِنۡ عَطَآءِ رَبِّكَۚ وَمَا كَانَ عَطَآءُ رَبِّكَ مَحۡظُورًا
1605. Divine aid is of two kinds: (1) general aid, as a result of which good works and efforts of all sorts of peoples—Muslims, Christians, Jews, Hindus, etc. bear fruit according to their scope and magnitude; and (2) special grace and succour of God which is confined to spiritual matters and which is given to His true servants only and is denied to disbelievers. (close)
1950. Important Words:
نمد (We render aid) is derived from مد. They say مد الحبل i.e. he pulled, strained or stretched the rope. امدہ means, he granted him delay or respite. امدہ بمال کثیر means, he gave him much wealth. امدالامیر الجند بالخیل والرجال means, the commander aided or succoured his army with horses and men (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse removes the misapprehension which might have arisen from the previous verse that good deeds only of the Faithful are rewarded. We are here told that Divine aid is of two kinds: (1) general aid, as a result of which all good works and efforts of all sorts of people, Muslims, Christians, Jews, Hindus etc., bear fruit according to their scope and magnitude and (2) special grace and succour of God which is confined to spiritual matters and which is given to God’s true servants only and is denied to disbelievers. (close)
اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَہُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ ؕ وَ لَلۡاٰخِرَۃُ اَکۡبَرُ دَرَجٰتٍ وَّ اَکۡبَرُ تَفۡضِیۡلًا ﴿۲۲﴾
ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَهُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖۚ وَلَلۡأٓخِرَةُ أَكۡبَرُ دَرَجَٰتٖ وَأَكۡبَرُ تَفۡضِيلٗا
a. 6:33; 12:58; 16:42. (close)
In this world we find that some persons occupy higher positions than others. But in the life to come differences in rank will be much more clearly marked. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that a section of the inmates of Paradise enjoying very high spiritual positions will find those of still higher ranks to be so far exalted above them that the latter’s dwelling-places will appear to them like distant stars raised high in the firmament (Muslim, Kitabul-Jannat). (close)
لَا تَجۡعَلۡ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اِلٰـہًا اٰخَرَ فَتَقۡعُدَ مَذۡمُوۡمًا مَّخۡذُوۡلًا ﴿٪۲۳﴾
لَّا تَجۡعَلۡ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا ءَاخَرَ فَتَقۡعُدَ مَذۡمُومٗا مَّخۡذُولٗا
b. 17:40; 26:214; 28:89. (close)
1606. Shirk (associating false gods with Allah) causes man to sink morally and spiritually. Never has a people, steeped in Shirk, been known to have made any real moral or material progress. In fact all evils spring from Shirk. (close)
a. 17:40; 26:214; 28:89. (close)
This verse gives the reason why the rewards of the Hereafter will be given only to those who have faith in it. The reason given here is that men will be made to live with those to whom they are attached. Thus those who love God will scale spiritual heights and will become at one with Him. On the other hand those who are devoted to their false gods will be dragged down to the depths of spiritual degradation. In fact shirk (idolatry) causes man to sink morally and spiritually. Never has a people steeped in shirk been known to have made any real progress. No moral or material progress is possible unless shirk is eradicated. (close)
وَ قَضٰی رَبُّکَ اَلَّا تَعۡبُدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِیَّاہُ وَ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا ؕ اِمَّا یَبۡلُغَنَّ عِنۡدَکَ الۡکِبَرَ اَحَدُہُمَاۤ اَوۡ کِلٰہُمَا فَلَا تَقُلۡ لَّہُمَاۤ اُفٍّ وَّ لَا تَنۡہَرۡہُمَا وَ قُلۡ لَّہُمَا قَوۡلًا کَرِیۡمًا ﴿۲۴﴾
۞وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعۡبُدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِيَّاهُ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنًاۚ إِمَّا يَبۡلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ ٱلۡكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَآ أَوۡ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل لَّهُمَآ أُفّٖ وَلَا تَنۡهَرۡهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوۡلٗا كَرِيمٗا
c. 2:84; 4:37; 12:41; 41:15. (close)
d. 6:152; 29:9; 31:15; 46:16. (close)
1607. With this verse begin those principles and rules of conduct by observing which a people can preserve the integrity of their organization and render it safe against disintegration and decline. Pride of place is given to belief in the Oneness of God and condemnation of Shirk (setting up equals with Allah), because belief in Divine Unity is a seed out of which grow all virtues, and lack of which lies at the root of all sins. It constitutes the basis and the foundation for both the law of nature and the law of the Shari‘ah. That the whole law of the Shari‘ah is based on belief in the Unity of God is too patent a reality to need any explanation; but even the law of nature and all scientific progress are also based on it. For, if it be supposed that there are more gods than one, it necessarily follows that there are more than one law of nature. But in the absence of one fixed and uniform natural law all progress of science will come to an end, because all the discoveries and inventions made by science are due to the belief that an ordered, fixed and unchangeable system pervades the whole universe. The second important commandment laid down in the verse concerns man’s moral conduct. His obligations towards his parents form the most important part of it, because it is his parents who first of all direct a man’s attention to God and it is in the parental mirror that Divine attributes are reflected and on a minor human scale are given practical expression. But whereas the commandment in relation to God is negative, in the case of parents it is positive. Man is told that since it is not possible for him to make a return of God’s favours, he should at least refrain from Shirk, but as in the case of parents he is in a position to return their love and kindness, though only very inadequately, he is given a positive commandment to be kind and generous to them. (close)
1608. In Arabic the word Uff is used to express one’s disgust by words of mouth and Nahr is used to express it by actual deed. By combining these two words the verse means that one should never speak harshly to one’s parents, much less act unkindly towards them. (close)
b. 2:84; 4:37; 12:41; 41:15. (close)
c. 6:152; 29:9; 31:15; 46:16. (close)
1953. Important Words:
اف (a word expressive of disgust) is derived from اف (affa) which means, he said اف (uff) by reason of anxiety or disquietude of mind, or by reason of vexation, distress of mind or disgust. اف is a word expressive of vexation, distress of mind or disgust, dislike, displeasure or hatred; dirt of the ear or paring of the nail; alas, woe or fie. They say اف لك i.e. fie upon thee! The Quranic expression فلا تقل لھما اف means, And say not thou to them اف i.e. do not thou deem anything of their affairs burdensome nor be contracted in bosom thereby, nor be tough or harsh or coarse to them; or do not thou say to them anything expressive of the least disgust (Lane & Aqrab).
ولا تنھرھما (nor reproach them). نھر means, he chid him; he checked him, restrained him or forbade him, with rough speech. (Lane & Aqrab).
کریما (excellent) is derived from کرم which means, it was or became highly esteemed or valued; excellent, precious or rare. They say کرمت ارضه i.e. his land was or became productive or fertile. اکرمه means, he treated him with honour or courtesy. کریم therefore means, generous; noble; high-born; highly esteemed or valued; excellent, precious or rare. It is the contrary of لئیم which means, ignoble; low-born, etc. (Lane & Aqrab).
With this verse begin those principles and rules of conduct by observing which a people can preserve the integrity of their organization and make it safe against disintegration and decline.
In this connection pride of place is given to the maintenance of belief in the Unity and Oneness of God and refutation of shirk (setting up equals with God), because it is in the heyday of their glory and splendour that a people fall a prey to superstitious ideas and idolatrous practices. In fact shirk is at the root of all sins. Man sins because he lacks true faith in God and His attributes. Belief in the Unity of God is like a seed out of which grow all virtues. It is the pivot round which the teachings of all religions and codes of morality revolve. This belief constitutes the basis and the foundation for both the law of nature and the Law of Shari‘ah. That the Law of Shari‘ah is based on belief in the Unity of God is too patent a fact to need any explanation; but even the law of nature and all scientific progress are also based on it. For if it be supposed that there are more gods than one, it necessarily follows that there is more than one law of nature. But in the absence of one fixed and uniform natural law all progress of science will have come to an end, because all the discoveries and inventions made by science are due to the belief that an ordered, fixed and unchangeable system pervades the whole universe. Without such a belief man could never have devoted his attention and labour to fathom the secrets of the unknown. The second most important precept laid down in the verse under comment concerns man’s moral conduct. His obligations towards his parents form the most important part of it, because it is the parents who first of all direct our attention to God. It is in the parental mirror that the Divine attributes of Mercy, Compassion, Love and Providence are reflected and on a minor human scale are given practical expression. They point to the Being from Whom all things take their origin. The long chain of man’s parentage shows that his existence is not the result of mere accident or chance. It turns our thoughts to the Great Originator and Creator. It also shows that a great and noble purpose underlies the creation of man.
The commandment given in relation to God is negative. Man is told that as it is not possible for him to make a return of God’s favours, he should at least refrain from shirk (setting up equals with Him). In the case of parents, however, he is given a positive commandment, because he is in a position to return their love and kindness, though only very inadequately. So he is commanded to be generous to them.
The words, with thee, are significant. They show that when the parents of a person are dependent on him and live with him, he must be specially on his guard against using any harsh words about them. The words have been added because when a man’s parents are living with him, there is always the likelihood for differences to arise and consequently for the embitterment of mutual relations. Moreover, when a person spends his money for another he is inclined to think that he has a right to exercise his authority over him. The Quran therefore has emphasized that extra care should be taken in our relations towards our parents.
In Arabic the word اف (uff) is used to express one’s disgust by words of mouth and نھر (nahr) is used to express it by an actual deed. So by the combination of these two words in this verse the Quran means to say that we should never speak harshly to our parents, much less act unkindly towards them. (close)
وَ اخۡفِضۡ لَہُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحۡمَۃِ وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ ارۡحَمۡہُمَا کَمَا رَبَّیٰنِیۡ صَغِیۡرًا ﴿ؕ۲۵﴾
وَٱخۡفِضۡ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ ٱلذُّلِّ مِنَ ٱلرَّحۡمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ٱرۡحَمۡهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرٗا
a. 14:42; 46:16; 71:29. (close)
1609. By a beautiful simile the verse inculcates kindness to parents. As parental love is incapable of being adequately repaid, the deficiency in this respect is enjoined to be made up by prayer for them. The prayer shows that in old age parents need to be tended as carefully and affectionately as little children are looked after in their childhood by their parents. (close)
1954. Important Words:
جناح الذل (wing of humility). جناح is derived from جنح which means, he or it inclined, leaned or propended. They say جنح الطائرi.e. the bird contracted its wings to descend and approached like one falling and repairing to a place of refuge. جنح اللیلmeans, the night came on. جناح means wing; hand; upper arm or arm from the shoulder to the elbow; edge; side; wing of an army; protection; a part or portion of a thing. The Arabs say ھو مقصوص الجناح i.e. he has his wings clipped, meaning, he lacks strength or power or ability. One would say انا فی جناح فلان i.e. I am under the protection of such a one. خفض له جناحه means, he lowered to him his wing. The Quranic expression واخفض لھما جناح الذل means, And make soft to them thy submissive side i.e. treat them with gentleness and submissiveness or lower to them the wing of submissiveness, meaning, be submissive to them (Lane & Aqrab).
ذل (dhull) is derived from ذل (dhalla) which means, he or it was or became low, abject, despicable, humble and weak; he or it (an animal) was or became easy, tractable, submissive or manageable; it (a road) was or became beaten or trodden so as to be rendered easy to walk or ride upon; it (a tank) was or became broken. ذل (dhull) is synonymous with ذل (dhill) and means, lowness; paltriness, abasement, and weakness; easiness, tractableness; submissiveness; also gentleness; and mercy. According to Imam Raghib ذل (dhull) is a consequence of subjection and ذل (dhill) is what is after refractoriness (Lane, Aqrab & Mufradat).
The verse uses a beautiful simile to teach the Faithful to be always kind to their parents. It purports to say that as ordinarily a person can never fully repay the love and affection his parents gave him when he was yet a child, he should make up the deficiency by praying for them. The words of the prayer imply that in old age parents need to be tended as carefully and affectionately as little children are looked after in their childhood. (close)
رَبُّکُمۡ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا فِیۡ نُفُوۡسِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡا صٰلِحِیۡنَ فَاِنَّہٗ کَانَ لِلۡاَوَّابِیۡنَ غَفُوۡرًا ﴿۲۶﴾
رَّبُّكُمۡ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا فِي نُفُوسِكُمۡۚ إِن تَكُونُواْ صَٰلِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُۥ كَانَ لِلۡأَوَّـٰبِينَ غَفُورٗا
This verse shows that if a person serves his parents sincerely and wholeheartedly, then God, out of His Mercy, makes up for his remissness and lapse, if any. It is to this commandment about being kind to one’s parents in their old age that the Holy Prophet referred when he said, "Unfortunate is that person who got an opportunity to serve one of his parents and failed to earn God’s forgiveness" (Kathir, vol. 6, p. 61). (close)
وَ اٰتِ ذَاالۡقُرۡبٰی حَقَّہٗ وَ الۡمِسۡکِیۡنَ وَ ابۡنَ السَّبِیۡلِ وَ لَا تُبَذِّرۡ تَبۡذِیۡرًا ﴿۲۷﴾
وَءَاتِ ذَا ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ حَقَّهُۥ وَٱلۡمِسۡكِينَ وَٱبۡنَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَلَا تُبَذِّرۡ تَبۡذِيرًا
a. 16:91; 30:39. (close)
a. 16:91; 30:39. (close)
1956. Important Words:
تبذر (squander) is derived from بذر (badhdhara) which is the intensified form of بذر (badhara) which means, he sowed seed; he scattered seed upon the ground; he scattered or dispersed or he scattered or dispersed much; he divulged what was secret; he talked much. They say بذر الخلق i.e. He (God) scattered or dispersed mankind in the earth. بذرت الارضmeans, the land put forth its herbage in a scattered state. بذرالعلم means, he disseminated and diffused knowledge. بذر المال (badhdhara) means, he dissipated or squandered wealth by extravagant expenditure and destroyed and wasted it; he expended his wealth so largely as not to leave of it whereby he might subsist, or he expended it in acts of disobedience; or he squandered it in a way that was not right (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse declares that the relatives of a rich person are entitled to a share in his property, and so are wayfarers and poor people. A person’s relatives help him in various ways to earn his wealth. For instance, ‘A’ succeeds in getting a highly lucrative post as the result of the good education his parents have given him, depriving their other children of a similar education. The latter, therefore, possess a right in the wealth of ‘A’ because he rose to his high position at their expense. It is clearly stated in 51:20 that the poor and the needy have a right to share the property of the rich.
As for the wayfarer, the Holy Prophet is reported to have said that a wayfarer could claim, as of right, three days’ free entertainment from the residents of a place which he might visit, and if it were denied to him, he could demand it even by reasonable force (Dawud, Kitabul-At‘ima).
This injunction can only be carried out in a country where the Law of Islam is in force, for according to it the residents of a place, as a whole, are bound to act as the host to a wayfarer. If this injunction were carried into practice many of the social evils which are to be found in hotels and restaurants would disappear.
This general commandment about entertainment of guests and visitors is also eminently calculated to promote peace and goodwill among different nations. The chief cause of international strife is mutual hatred. So if the entertainment of visitors should become popular in the way in which it has been inculcated by Islam, much international hatred would disappear. Those who returned to their country after having enjoyed the hospitality of a people would naturally remain favourably inclined towards them and would be slow to pick a quarrel with them. Thus this practice would prove a good means of promoting brotherly relations between different peoples.
One meaning of the word تبذیر as shown under Important Words is, "to spend for a wrong cause." Thus, if a person gives away even his whole property for the cause of religion he will not be guilty of تبذیر for the money so spent will have been spent for a right cause. (close)
اِنَّ الۡمُبَذِّرِیۡنَ کَانُوۡۤا اِخۡوَانَ الشَّیٰطِیۡنِ ؕ وَ کَانَ الشَّیۡطٰنُ لِرَبِّہٖ کَفُوۡرًا ﴿۲۸﴾
إِنَّ ٱلۡمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوٓاْ إِخۡوَٰنَ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينِۖ وَكَانَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ لِرَبِّهِۦ كَفُورٗا
b. 6:142; 7:32; 25:68. (close)
1610. He who does not make right use of God-given gifts is guilty of ingratitude to Him, and he who, squanders away his wealth, in fact, seeks to shirk the responsibilities which lie upon him for its proper use. (close)
a. 6:142; 7:32; 25:68. (close)
The verse purports to say that God has bestowed His favours upon men that they may make right use of them. A person who does not make right use of God’s gifts is guilty of ingratitude to Him. He who squanders away his wealth, in fact, seeks to shirk the responsibilities which lie upon him in connection with its proper use. (close)