وَ اِذَا مَسَّکُمُ الضُّرُّ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ ضَلَّ مَنۡ تَدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اِیَّاہُ ۚ فَلَمَّا نَجّٰٮکُمۡ اِلَی الۡبَرِّ اَعۡرَضۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ الۡاِنۡسَانُ کَفُوۡرًا ﴿۶۸﴾
وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فِي ٱلۡبَحۡرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدۡعُونَ إِلَّآ إِيَّاهُۖ فَلَمَّا نَجَّىٰكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡبَرِّ أَعۡرَضۡتُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱلۡإِنسَٰنُ كَفُورًا
d. 10:13; 11:10, 11; 23:65; 30:34; 39:9; 41:50-52; 70:21, 22. (close)
1634. Such is the nature of man that when he is in distress he becomes humble and prays to God and promises and vows to lead a virtuous life. But once he is out of danger he is as arrogant and boastful as ever. (close)
a. 10:13; 11:10-11; 23:65; 30:34; 39:9; 41:50-52; 70:21-22. (close)
Such is the nature of man that when he is in distress, he becomes humble and prays to God and promises and vows to lead a virtuous life if he were to regain his lost peace of mind. But when the danger is over, he is as arrogant and boastful as ever. The verse, in fact, embodies a warning for Muslims that they should not forget God in their days of prosperity so that He may not forget them in their time of adversity. (close)
اَفَاَمِنۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یَّخۡسِفَ بِکُمۡ جَانِبَ الۡبَرِّ اَوۡ یُرۡسِلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوۡا لَکُمۡ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۶۹﴾
أَفَأَمِنتُمۡ أَن يَخۡسِفَ بِكُمۡ جَانِبَ ٱلۡبَرِّ أَوۡ يُرۡسِلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ حَاصِبٗا ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُواْ لَكُمۡ وَكِيلًا
e. 67:17, 18. (close)
b. 67:17-18. (close)
1998. Important Words:
حاصبا (violent sandstorm) is derived from حصب and حصبه means, he pelted him or pelted him with pebbles. They say حصبت الریح بالحصباء i.e. the wind cast or drove along small pebbles. حصب النار means, he kindled the fire. حصب (hasabun) means, a stone that is thrown; firewood. حاصبا means, a thrower or pelter of stones; a punishment from God; dust containing pebbles; pebbles cast about by the wind; small particles of snow and hail scattered about; a large number of men on foot. ریح حاصب means, a violent wind that raises, drives along or casts down pebbles from the sky; clouds or clouds casting down snow and hail (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse implies a prophetic allusion to the Battle of Badr which was yet to be fought. The Arabs, being an inland people, were very much afraid of the sea. It purports to warn the Meccan disbelievers that they were afraid of the sea but God could destroy them on land also. This happened on the battlefield of Badr where their power got a severe shaking.
The verse also seems to suggest to Muslims the benefits of sea-going, hinting that, since dangers at sea are no greater than those on land, why should they remain contented with life on land and not improve their commercial relations with other nations which is possible mainly through constant sea-voyaging? (close)
اَمۡ اَمِنۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یُّعِیۡدَکُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَارَۃً اُخۡرٰی فَیُرۡسِلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ قَاصِفًا مِّنَ الرِّیۡحِ فَیُغۡرِقَکُمۡ بِمَا کَفَرۡتُمۡ ۙ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوۡا لَکُمۡ عَلَیۡنَا بِہٖ تَبِیۡعًا ﴿۷۰﴾
أَمۡ أَمِنتُمۡ أَن يُعِيدَكُمۡ فِيهِ تَارَةً أُخۡرَىٰ فَيُرۡسِلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ قَاصِفٗا مِّنَ ٱلرِّيحِ فَيُغۡرِقَكُم بِمَا كَفَرۡتُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُواْ لَكُمۡ عَلَيۡنَا بِهِۦ تَبِيعٗا
a. 67:18. (close)
a. 67:18. (close)
1999. Important Words:
قاصفا (storm-blast) is active participle from قصف. They say قصف الشیء i.e. he broke the thing. قصف البعیرmeans, the camel roared violently. قصف الرعد means, it thundered violently. ریح قاصف means, strong wind and رعد قاصف means, violent thunder (Aqrab).
It is strange that in fulfilment of the warning contained in this verse, some of the disbelievers were actually drowned in the Red Sea when they fled from Mecca after its conquest by the Holy Prophet. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ کَرَّمۡنَا بَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ وَ حَمَلۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ وَ رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ وَ فَضَّلۡنٰہُمۡ عَلٰی کَثِیۡرٍ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَا تَفۡضِیۡلًا ﴿٪۷۱﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ كَرَّمۡنَا بَنِيٓ ءَادَمَ وَحَمَلۡنَٰهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ وَرَزَقۡنَٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِ وَفَضَّلۡنَٰهُمۡ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٖ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَا تَفۡضِيلٗا
1635. God has equally honoured all the children of Adam and has not favoured any particular nation or tribe. The verse demolishes all foolish notions of superiority based on colour, creed, race or nationality. It further says that all avenues of progress and prosperity have been kept open equally for all men and these avenues lie as much in travel by land as by sea. (close)
1635A. The laying of stress on travel by sea in the Qur’an seems to be rather strange. The fact, that a Book revealed to an Arab, and of all Arabs the Holy Prophet, who throughout his life never experienced a sea-voyage, should have so much emphasized the importance of sea-voyaging, does indeed show that the Qur’an could not have been his composition. He did not and could not know the great benefits of sea-voyaging. (close)
1635B. As a class man, being God’s vicegerent on earth, is superior to all other creation. (close)
The verse means to say that God has equally honoured all the children of Adam and has not favoured any particular nation or tribe. It seeks to demolish all foolish notions of superiority based on colour, creed, race or nationality. It further says that all avenues of progress and prosperity have been kept open, equally for all men and these avenues lie as much in travel by land as by sea. The laying of stress on travel by sea in the Quran seems strange. The fact that an Arab, and of all Arabs the Holy Prophet, who throughout his whole life never experienced a sea voyage, should have so much emphasized the importance of sea-voyaging does indeed show that the Quran could not be his composition. He did not and could not know the great benefits of sea-voyaging.
The words, and exalted them far above many, may seem to suggest that man is superior only to certain species of creation and not all creation. But a little deeper reflection over the expression makes such an inference appear quite unwarranted. The verse speaks of all mankind and it is true that all men are not superior to all other creatures. There are men morally so degraded as to be worse than animals and beasts. There are others who are superior even to the angels. There are others still who are so righteous as to occupy a higher spiritual position than even the most exalted angels. In short, all men are not superior to all other creatures, but some men do top the whole creation and man as such is superior to most of the creation, for the sun, the moon, the stars, and animals have been created for him and are engaged in his service. Hence, mankind as a class is superior to most of God’s creatures, while man in his perfect spiritual state is certainly superior to the whole creation. (close)
یَوۡمَ نَدۡعُوۡا کُلَّ اُنَاسٍۭ بِاِمَامِہِمۡ ۚ فَمَنۡ اُوۡتِیَ کِتٰبَہٗ بِیَمِیۡنِہٖ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَقۡرَءُوۡنَ کِتٰبَہُمۡ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ فَتِیۡلًا ﴿۷۲﴾
يَوۡمَ نَدۡعُواْ كُلَّ أُنَاسِۭ بِإِمَٰمِهِمۡۖ فَمَنۡ أُوتِيَ كِتَٰبَهُۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ يَقۡرَءُونَ كِتَٰبَهُمۡ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ فَتِيلٗا
b. 69:20; 84:8, 9. (close)
1636. The right hand is a symbol of blessing while the left is that of punishment. Also in the human body the right side enjoys a certain superiority over the left since the tissues of the right side generally are stronger than those of the left. Giving of the record of one’s deeds in one’s right hand as mentioned in this verse signifies that it will be a favourable and blessed record. Again, the right hand signifies strength and power (69:46). The holding by believers of their records in their right hands is meant to signify that they had taken hold of virtue with strength and resolution, while the holding by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they did not strive after virtue with requisite strength and zeal. (close)
a. 69:20; 84:8, 9. (close)
The word امام (Leader) here means a spiritual Leader or a Prophet. On the Day of Judgement every people will be summoned along with their Prophet, for he will have to render an account of how he discharged his divine mission and how his people received and treated his Message (4:42; 16:85, 90; Bukhari, Kitabut-Tafsir).
According to Islam the right hand is a symbol of blessing while the left is a symbol of punishment. In the human body the right side enjoys a certain superiority over the left since the tissues of the right side generally are stronger than those of the left. The giving of the record of one’s deeds in one’s right hand as mentioned in this verse signifies that it will be a good and favourable record.
A certain preference for the right hand is a trait common among all races. Medical science has established the fact that the right hand of man is comparatively stronger than the left. Various explanations for this phenomenon have been offered by scientists, some of which are based on psycho-physics and others on social habits. At any rate among normal men the percentage of left-handed persons has been found to vary from 4 to 8, while among the mentally defective the percentage is much higher (Enc. Brit., 14th Edition, under Handedness).
It may well be concluded from these facts that the right hand is better suited for the performance of work than the left. So it is quite reasonable to regard the right arm as the symbol of strength. The receiving by believers of the records of works in their right hands may therefore be understood to point to the fact that they were industrious, diligent and self-sacrificing, while the receiving by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they were slow, lazy and selfish, the left hand being symbolic of weakness.
Moreover, the right hand is reserved for doing works which are generally regarded as clean while the left hand is reserved for unclean works. Thus the holding by believers of their records in their right hands would signify that their works were good and pure and the works of disbelievers were unclean and dirty as they would hold their records in their left hands.
According to some commentators of the Quran the word یمین (right hand) also signifies strength and power (69:46). According to this sense of the word the holding by believers of their records in their right hands would signify that they had taken hold of virtue with strength and resolution while the holding by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they did not strive after virtue with requisite strength and zeal.
The word یمین (right hand) also means a blessed thing as in the hadith کلتا یدی ربی یمین i.e. both the hands of my Lord are full of blessings. (Bihar, vol. 2, p. 503). In this sense the words, "whoso shall be given his book in his right hand" would symbolize that the believers’ record would be a blessed one.
The words, such will read their book, only point to a common habit of man. The possessor of a good record naturally reads it again and again while he whose record is bad conceals it and avoids reading it. See also v. 15 above. For the word فتیلا (a whit) see 4:50. (close)
وَ مَنۡ کَانَ فِیۡ ہٰذِہٖۤ اَعۡمٰی فَہُوَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَعۡمٰی وَ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۷۳﴾
وَمَن كَانَ فِي هَٰذِهِۦٓ أَعۡمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ أَعۡمَىٰ وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلٗا
a. 20:125. (close)
1637. Those, who do not make proper use of their spiritual eyes in this world, would remain deprived of spiritual sight in the life to come. The Qur’an speaks of those who do not ponder over the Signs of God and do not benefit by them as "blind." Such men will remain spiritually blind in the next life also. (close)
a. 20:125. (close)
The verse means to say that those who do not make proper use of their spiritual eyes in this world would remain deprived of spiritual sight in the life to come. The Quran speaks of those who do not ponder over the Signs of God and do not benefit by them as "blind." Such men will remain blind in the next life also, i.e. they would not be able to see God with their spiritual eyes. The verse does not refer to any physical blindness because the human soul will shed its physical tabernacle here and men will rise on the Judgement Day free from all physical maladies and ailments. See also 6:106. (close)
وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَفۡتِنُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ لِتَفۡتَرِیَ عَلَیۡنَا غَیۡرَہٗ ٭ۖ وَ اِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوۡکَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۴﴾
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَفۡتِنُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ لِتَفۡتَرِيَ عَلَيۡنَا غَيۡرَهُۥۖ وَإِذٗا لَّٱتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلٗا
b. 10:16; 68:10. (close)
1638. Disbelievers were determined to put the Holy Prophet to great hardship on account of the Teaching which had been revealed to him so that they might compel him to alter it and devise other than the one embodied in the Qur’an. It is to these evil designs of disbelievers and their complete failure in getting them carried out that reference has been made in this verse. (close)
a. 10:16; 68:10. (close)
2003. Important Words:
عن (on account of). As a preposition it denotes transition, a compensation, superiority and a cause. It is synonymous with بand من and بعد denotes the meaning of فی etc. (Lane).
The verse means to say that disbelievers were determined to put the Holy Prophet to great hardship on account of the teachings which had been revealed to him so that they might compel him to alter them and devise others than those embodied in the Quran. But they failed in their purpose. This chapter was revealed when the Holy Prophet was about to leave for Medina. Disbelievers, having failed in all their evil designs to nip Islam in the bud, had made up their minds to make a last attempt to imprison the Holy Prophet, to expel him ignominiously from Mecca or in the last resort to kill him; but they failed in all their evil designs and plans. It is to these evil designs of disbelievers and their complete failure in carrying them out that reference has been made in this verse; and to take the verse to mean that the Prophet showed weakness in respect of his great Mission is obviously impossible. The verse thus refers to the designs and intentions of disbelievers with regard to the Holy Prophet and not to any actual or potential act of weakness on his part. The state of mind of disbelievers depicted in the words, then they would have certainly taken thee for a special friend, took concrete form when they once went in a deputation to the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, and proposed to him that if his nephew would only refrain from criticizing their idols, they would make him their leader and chief. See also 8:31. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ ثَبَّتۡنٰکَ لَقَدۡ کِدۡتَّ تَرۡکَنُ اِلَیۡہِمۡ شَیۡئًا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿٭ۙ۷۵﴾
وَلَوۡلَآ أَن ثَبَّتۡنَٰكَ لَقَدۡ كِدتَّ تَرۡكَنُ إِلَيۡهِمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا قَلِيلًا
c. 25:33. (close)
1639. The Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Qur’an had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would hardly have stooped to practise Shirk. (close)
a. 25:33. (close)
Verses 14:29 and 25:33 help to explain the meaning of the present verse. In these verses respectively we have, Allah strengthens the believers with the word that is firmly established both in the present life and in the Hereafter; and, it is thus revealed that We may strengthen thy heart therewith. These verses show that in the verse under comment the words, if We had not strengthened thee, refer to the revelation of the Quran. The verse means to say that the Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Quran had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would never have stooped to practising shirk. In the event, however, of the Quran not having been revealed to him and his not having been blessed with heavenly light he might have perhaps compromised with disbelievers on some very minor details of doctrine or practice. But after the Quran had been revealed to him, there remained absolutely no possibility of any compromise with them on his part. The verse thus sheds a flood of light on the purity of the Prophet’s heart and the greatness of his spiritual stature and does not refer to any possible weakening in his Mission on his part on account of persecution or temptations held out to him by his enemies. (close)
اِذًا لَّاَذَقۡنٰکَ ضِعۡفَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ وَ ضِعۡفَ الۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَکَ عَلَیۡنَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۷۶﴾
إِذٗا لَّأَذَقۡنَٰكَ ضِعۡفَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ وَضِعۡفَ ٱلۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيۡنَا نَصِيرٗا
The verse purports to say that if in the absence of the revelation of the Quran, the Prophet should have inclined to disbelievers, his inclination towards them would have done them no good and would not have saved them from Divine punishment. The verse drives home the supreme truth that all the Prophet’s greatness was due to his being the recipient of Divine revelation; without such revelation he was no more than an ordinary mortal. (close)
وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَسۡتَفِزُّوۡنَکَ مِنَ الۡاَرۡضِ لِیُخۡرِجُوۡکَ مِنۡہَا وَ اِذًا لَّا یَلۡبَثُوۡنَ خِلٰفَکَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۷﴾
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَسۡتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُخۡرِجُوكَ مِنۡهَاۖ وَإِذٗا لَّا يَلۡبَثُونَ خِلَٰفَكَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
1640. The enemies of the Holy Prophet wanted to brand him with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved for him the loss of citizenship of that town. (close)
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
2006. Important Words:
خلافک (after thee). خلاف is derived from خلف which means, he succeeded or remained after another. خالف عنا means, he remained behind us or after us. قعدت خلافه means, I remained behind him or after him. خلاف means, after or behind; the contrary or opposite, the sleeve of a shirt, etc. The Quranic expression اذا لا یلبثون خلافک الا قلیلا means, in that case they should not have remained after thee but a little while (Lane). See also 7:70, 170; 9:87.
As the Arabic expression استفزہ من الارض means, he expelled him from the land (17:65), the words لیخرجوک (that they might expel thee) occurring immediately after لیستفزونک evidently do not imply simple expulsion because in that case there would have been useless repetition of the same meaning. They signify legal banishment which entails loss of rights of citizenship. Disbelievers wanted to brand the Prophet with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved loss of citizenship of that town. (close)