وَ لَقَدۡ کَرَّمۡنَا بَنِیۡۤ اٰدَمَ وَ حَمَلۡنٰہُمۡ فِی الۡبَرِّ وَ الۡبَحۡرِ وَ رَزَقۡنٰہُمۡ مِّنَ الطَّیِّبٰتِ وَ فَضَّلۡنٰہُمۡ عَلٰی کَثِیۡرٍ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَا تَفۡضِیۡلًا ﴿٪۷۱﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ كَرَّمۡنَا بَنِيٓ ءَادَمَ وَحَمَلۡنَٰهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ وَرَزَقۡنَٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِ وَفَضَّلۡنَٰهُمۡ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٖ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقۡنَا تَفۡضِيلٗا
1635. God has equally honoured all the children of Adam and has not favoured any particular nation or tribe. The verse demolishes all foolish notions of superiority based on colour, creed, race or nationality. It further says that all avenues of progress and prosperity have been kept open equally for all men and these avenues lie as much in travel by land as by sea. (close)
1635A. The laying of stress on travel by sea in the Qur’an seems to be rather strange. The fact, that a Book revealed to an Arab, and of all Arabs the Holy Prophet, who throughout his life never experienced a sea-voyage, should have so much emphasized the importance of sea-voyaging, does indeed show that the Qur’an could not have been his composition. He did not and could not know the great benefits of sea-voyaging. (close)
1635B. As a class man, being God’s vicegerent on earth, is superior to all other creation. (close)
The verse means to say that God has equally honoured all the children of Adam and has not favoured any particular nation or tribe. It seeks to demolish all foolish notions of superiority based on colour, creed, race or nationality. It further says that all avenues of progress and prosperity have been kept open, equally for all men and these avenues lie as much in travel by land as by sea. The laying of stress on travel by sea in the Quran seems strange. The fact that an Arab, and of all Arabs the Holy Prophet, who throughout his whole life never experienced a sea voyage, should have so much emphasized the importance of sea-voyaging does indeed show that the Quran could not be his composition. He did not and could not know the great benefits of sea-voyaging.
The words, and exalted them far above many, may seem to suggest that man is superior only to certain species of creation and not all creation. But a little deeper reflection over the expression makes such an inference appear quite unwarranted. The verse speaks of all mankind and it is true that all men are not superior to all other creatures. There are men morally so degraded as to be worse than animals and beasts. There are others who are superior even to the angels. There are others still who are so righteous as to occupy a higher spiritual position than even the most exalted angels. In short, all men are not superior to all other creatures, but some men do top the whole creation and man as such is superior to most of the creation, for the sun, the moon, the stars, and animals have been created for him and are engaged in his service. Hence, mankind as a class is superior to most of God’s creatures, while man in his perfect spiritual state is certainly superior to the whole creation. (close)
یَوۡمَ نَدۡعُوۡا کُلَّ اُنَاسٍۭ بِاِمَامِہِمۡ ۚ فَمَنۡ اُوۡتِیَ کِتٰبَہٗ بِیَمِیۡنِہٖ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَقۡرَءُوۡنَ کِتٰبَہُمۡ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ فَتِیۡلًا ﴿۷۲﴾
يَوۡمَ نَدۡعُواْ كُلَّ أُنَاسِۭ بِإِمَٰمِهِمۡۖ فَمَنۡ أُوتِيَ كِتَٰبَهُۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ يَقۡرَءُونَ كِتَٰبَهُمۡ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ فَتِيلٗا
b. 69:20; 84:8, 9. (close)
1636. The right hand is a symbol of blessing while the left is that of punishment. Also in the human body the right side enjoys a certain superiority over the left since the tissues of the right side generally are stronger than those of the left. Giving of the record of one’s deeds in one’s right hand as mentioned in this verse signifies that it will be a favourable and blessed record. Again, the right hand signifies strength and power (69:46). The holding by believers of their records in their right hands is meant to signify that they had taken hold of virtue with strength and resolution, while the holding by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they did not strive after virtue with requisite strength and zeal. (close)
a. 69:20; 84:8, 9. (close)
The word امام (Leader) here means a spiritual Leader or a Prophet. On the Day of Judgement every people will be summoned along with their Prophet, for he will have to render an account of how he discharged his divine mission and how his people received and treated his Message (4:42; 16:85, 90; Bukhari, Kitabut-Tafsir).
According to Islam the right hand is a symbol of blessing while the left is a symbol of punishment. In the human body the right side enjoys a certain superiority over the left since the tissues of the right side generally are stronger than those of the left. The giving of the record of one’s deeds in one’s right hand as mentioned in this verse signifies that it will be a good and favourable record.
A certain preference for the right hand is a trait common among all races. Medical science has established the fact that the right hand of man is comparatively stronger than the left. Various explanations for this phenomenon have been offered by scientists, some of which are based on psycho-physics and others on social habits. At any rate among normal men the percentage of left-handed persons has been found to vary from 4 to 8, while among the mentally defective the percentage is much higher (Enc. Brit., 14th Edition, under Handedness).
It may well be concluded from these facts that the right hand is better suited for the performance of work than the left. So it is quite reasonable to regard the right arm as the symbol of strength. The receiving by believers of the records of works in their right hands may therefore be understood to point to the fact that they were industrious, diligent and self-sacrificing, while the receiving by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they were slow, lazy and selfish, the left hand being symbolic of weakness.
Moreover, the right hand is reserved for doing works which are generally regarded as clean while the left hand is reserved for unclean works. Thus the holding by believers of their records in their right hands would signify that their works were good and pure and the works of disbelievers were unclean and dirty as they would hold their records in their left hands.
According to some commentators of the Quran the word یمین (right hand) also signifies strength and power (69:46). According to this sense of the word the holding by believers of their records in their right hands would signify that they had taken hold of virtue with strength and resolution while the holding by disbelievers of their records in their left hands would signify that they did not strive after virtue with requisite strength and zeal.
The word یمین (right hand) also means a blessed thing as in the hadith کلتا یدی ربی یمین i.e. both the hands of my Lord are full of blessings. (Bihar, vol. 2, p. 503). In this sense the words, "whoso shall be given his book in his right hand" would symbolize that the believers’ record would be a blessed one.
The words, such will read their book, only point to a common habit of man. The possessor of a good record naturally reads it again and again while he whose record is bad conceals it and avoids reading it. See also v. 15 above. For the word فتیلا (a whit) see 4:50. (close)
وَ مَنۡ کَانَ فِیۡ ہٰذِہٖۤ اَعۡمٰی فَہُوَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَعۡمٰی وَ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۷۳﴾
وَمَن كَانَ فِي هَٰذِهِۦٓ أَعۡمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ أَعۡمَىٰ وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلٗا
a. 20:125. (close)
1637. Those, who do not make proper use of their spiritual eyes in this world, would remain deprived of spiritual sight in the life to come. The Qur’an speaks of those who do not ponder over the Signs of God and do not benefit by them as "blind." Such men will remain spiritually blind in the next life also. (close)
a. 20:125. (close)
The verse means to say that those who do not make proper use of their spiritual eyes in this world would remain deprived of spiritual sight in the life to come. The Quran speaks of those who do not ponder over the Signs of God and do not benefit by them as "blind." Such men will remain blind in the next life also, i.e. they would not be able to see God with their spiritual eyes. The verse does not refer to any physical blindness because the human soul will shed its physical tabernacle here and men will rise on the Judgement Day free from all physical maladies and ailments. See also 6:106. (close)
وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَفۡتِنُوۡنَکَ عَنِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ لِتَفۡتَرِیَ عَلَیۡنَا غَیۡرَہٗ ٭ۖ وَ اِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوۡکَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۴﴾
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَفۡتِنُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ لِتَفۡتَرِيَ عَلَيۡنَا غَيۡرَهُۥۖ وَإِذٗا لَّٱتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلٗا
b. 10:16; 68:10. (close)
1638. Disbelievers were determined to put the Holy Prophet to great hardship on account of the Teaching which had been revealed to him so that they might compel him to alter it and devise other than the one embodied in the Qur’an. It is to these evil designs of disbelievers and their complete failure in getting them carried out that reference has been made in this verse. (close)
a. 10:16; 68:10. (close)
2003. Important Words:
عن (on account of). As a preposition it denotes transition, a compensation, superiority and a cause. It is synonymous with بand من and بعد denotes the meaning of فی etc. (Lane).
The verse means to say that disbelievers were determined to put the Holy Prophet to great hardship on account of the teachings which had been revealed to him so that they might compel him to alter them and devise others than those embodied in the Quran. But they failed in their purpose. This chapter was revealed when the Holy Prophet was about to leave for Medina. Disbelievers, having failed in all their evil designs to nip Islam in the bud, had made up their minds to make a last attempt to imprison the Holy Prophet, to expel him ignominiously from Mecca or in the last resort to kill him; but they failed in all their evil designs and plans. It is to these evil designs of disbelievers and their complete failure in carrying them out that reference has been made in this verse; and to take the verse to mean that the Prophet showed weakness in respect of his great Mission is obviously impossible. The verse thus refers to the designs and intentions of disbelievers with regard to the Holy Prophet and not to any actual or potential act of weakness on his part. The state of mind of disbelievers depicted in the words, then they would have certainly taken thee for a special friend, took concrete form when they once went in a deputation to the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, and proposed to him that if his nephew would only refrain from criticizing their idols, they would make him their leader and chief. See also 8:31. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ ثَبَّتۡنٰکَ لَقَدۡ کِدۡتَّ تَرۡکَنُ اِلَیۡہِمۡ شَیۡئًا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿٭ۙ۷۵﴾
وَلَوۡلَآ أَن ثَبَّتۡنَٰكَ لَقَدۡ كِدتَّ تَرۡكَنُ إِلَيۡهِمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا قَلِيلًا
c. 25:33. (close)
1639. The Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Qur’an had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would hardly have stooped to practise Shirk. (close)
a. 25:33. (close)
Verses 14:29 and 25:33 help to explain the meaning of the present verse. In these verses respectively we have, Allah strengthens the believers with the word that is firmly established both in the present life and in the Hereafter; and, it is thus revealed that We may strengthen thy heart therewith. These verses show that in the verse under comment the words, if We had not strengthened thee, refer to the revelation of the Quran. The verse means to say that the Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Quran had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would never have stooped to practising shirk. In the event, however, of the Quran not having been revealed to him and his not having been blessed with heavenly light he might have perhaps compromised with disbelievers on some very minor details of doctrine or practice. But after the Quran had been revealed to him, there remained absolutely no possibility of any compromise with them on his part. The verse thus sheds a flood of light on the purity of the Prophet’s heart and the greatness of his spiritual stature and does not refer to any possible weakening in his Mission on his part on account of persecution or temptations held out to him by his enemies. (close)
اِذًا لَّاَذَقۡنٰکَ ضِعۡفَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ وَ ضِعۡفَ الۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَکَ عَلَیۡنَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۷۶﴾
إِذٗا لَّأَذَقۡنَٰكَ ضِعۡفَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ وَضِعۡفَ ٱلۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيۡنَا نَصِيرٗا
The verse purports to say that if in the absence of the revelation of the Quran, the Prophet should have inclined to disbelievers, his inclination towards them would have done them no good and would not have saved them from Divine punishment. The verse drives home the supreme truth that all the Prophet’s greatness was due to his being the recipient of Divine revelation; without such revelation he was no more than an ordinary mortal. (close)
وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَسۡتَفِزُّوۡنَکَ مِنَ الۡاَرۡضِ لِیُخۡرِجُوۡکَ مِنۡہَا وَ اِذًا لَّا یَلۡبَثُوۡنَ خِلٰفَکَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۷﴾
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَسۡتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُخۡرِجُوكَ مِنۡهَاۖ وَإِذٗا لَّا يَلۡبَثُونَ خِلَٰفَكَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
1640. The enemies of the Holy Prophet wanted to brand him with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved for him the loss of citizenship of that town. (close)
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
2006. Important Words:
خلافک (after thee). خلاف is derived from خلف which means, he succeeded or remained after another. خالف عنا means, he remained behind us or after us. قعدت خلافه means, I remained behind him or after him. خلاف means, after or behind; the contrary or opposite, the sleeve of a shirt, etc. The Quranic expression اذا لا یلبثون خلافک الا قلیلا means, in that case they should not have remained after thee but a little while (Lane). See also 7:70, 170; 9:87.
As the Arabic expression استفزہ من الارض means, he expelled him from the land (17:65), the words لیخرجوک (that they might expel thee) occurring immediately after لیستفزونک evidently do not imply simple expulsion because in that case there would have been useless repetition of the same meaning. They signify legal banishment which entails loss of rights of citizenship. Disbelievers wanted to brand the Prophet with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved loss of citizenship of that town. (close)
سُنَّۃَ مَنۡ قَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَکَ مِنۡ رُّسُلِنَا وَ لَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحۡوِیۡلًا ﴿٪۷۸﴾
سُنَّةَ مَن قَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَاۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحۡوِيلًا
b. 33:63; 35:44; 48:24. (close)
b. 33:63; 35:44; 48:24. (close)
The verse means to say that it is invariably God’s way with His Messengers that whenever anyone of them is expelled from his native land by his people with indignity and dishonour, that people is visited with Divine punishment. A striking illustration of this divine law is to be found in the case of the tribe of Thamud and the Jews. The former sought to put obstacles in the way of the Prophet Salih’s missionary expedition by killing his she-camel and the latter put Jesus on the cross. The Thamud met with the destruction of their bodies and souls while the Jews suffered only moral and political death. But the Meccans were spared this punishment because the Holy Prophet left Mecca in pursuance of God’s own command and was not expelled from it by his people. (close)
اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ لِدُلُوۡکِ الشَّمۡسِ اِلٰی غَسَقِ الَّیۡلِ وَ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ ؕ اِنَّ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ کَانَ مَشۡہُوۡدًا ﴿۷۹﴾
أَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِدُلُوكِ ٱلشَّمۡسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَقُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِۖ إِنَّ قُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ كَانَ مَشۡهُودٗا
c. 11:115; 20:131; 30:18, 19; 50:40. (close)
1641. Dalakatish-Shamsu means, (1) the sun declined from the meridian; (2) it became yellow; (3) it set. Ghasaq means, the darkness of the night, or when redness in the horizon after sunset disappears (Lane). This verse seems to denote the hours of the five daily Prayers of Islam. The three meanings of Duluk indicate the times of Afternoon Prayer, the Late Afternoon Prayer and the Sunset Prayer. The expression, Ghasaqil-Lail, includes the times of Sunset Prayer but particularly refers to the Night Prayer, and the words Qur’anal- Fajr indicate the hour of the Morning Prayer. (close)
a. 11:115; 20:131; 30:18, 19; 50:40. (close)
2008. Important Words:
ل (at) means, at, on or upon; nigh, near or about; (Lane & Aqrab). For other meanings of لام see 17:62.
دلوک (declining and paling) is derived from دلک. They say دلکه الدھر i.e. the time proved him and made him expert. دلکت الشمس means, (1) the sun declined from the meridian; (2) or it became yellow; (3) or it set (Lane & Aqrab).
غسق (darkness) is the noun-infinitive from غسق (ghasaqa). They say غسق اللیل i.e. the night became dark. غسقت عینیه means, his eyes became dark or shed tears. غسق(ghasaqun) means, the beginning of the darkness of night or the darkness of the night or the darkness of the beginning of the night or when شفق or redness in the horizon after sunset disappears (Lane).
The words of this verse denote the hours of the five daily Prayers of Islam. The three meanings of the word دلوک as given under Important Words indicate the times of ظھر (afternoon Prayer) and عصر (late afternoon Prayer) and مغرب (sun-set Prayer). The words غسق اللیل include the times of مغرب (sun-set Prayer) but particularly refer to عشاء (night Prayer). The words قرآن الفجر (the recitation of the Quran at dawn) indicate the hour of فجر (morning Prayer).
In this and the following verses Muslims are warned to be prepared to meet great hardships and privations at the hands of the Jews of Medina. These people were very punctilious about outward acts of worship. The slightest slackness in Prayers on the part of Muslims would make them criticize Islam and the Holy Prophet. Moreover, Islam was destined to make great headway in Medina in the near future and as success and prosperity generally make men prone to a life of ease and they become indifferent towards Prayers, so Muslims are particularly warned to be on their guard against any slackness in Prayers. (close)
وَ مِنَ الَّیۡلِ فَتَہَجَّدۡ بِہٖ نَافِلَۃً لَّکَ ٭ۖ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّبۡعَثَکَ رَبُّکَ مَقَامًا مَّحۡمُوۡدًا ﴿۸۰﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ فَتَهَجَّدۡ بِهِۦ نَافِلَةٗ لَّكَ عَسَىٰٓ أَن يَبۡعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامٗا مَّحۡمُودٗا
a. 50:41; 52:50; 73:3-5; 76:27. (close)
1642. In addition to the meaning given in the text Nafilah means a special favour, and signifies that Prayers are not a burden to weary the flesh but a privilege and a special favour from God. (close)
1643. Perhaps no other person has been so much maligned and abused as the Holy Prophet of Islam and certainly no other person has been the recipient of so much Divine praise and the object of the invocation of so many Divine blessings and favours upon him as he. The Tahajjud Prayer is best suited for the believer’s spiritual exaltation as in the stillness of the night, being all alone with his Creator, he enjoys special Divine communion. (close)
2009. Important Words:
فتھجد به (wake up for it in the latter part of the night). تھجد is derived from ھجد (hajada). ھجد (hajada) and ھجد (hajjada) and تھجد (tahajjada) mean the same thing i.e. (1) he slept or slept in the night or in the latter part of the night; (2) he remained awake or was sleepless or wakeful in the night; (3) he awoke from sleep to pray or for some other purpose; (4) he prayed in the night. Hence praying in the latter part of the night is called تھجد (tahajjud). Some say that ھجود which is the noun infinitive from ھجد means, to sleep in the day and ھجوع means, to sleep in the night or simply to sleep (Lane & Aqrab).
نافلة (as a supererogatory service) is derived from نفل. They say نفل الرجل i.e. he presented to the man a thing for which he desired no return or reward. نفل الامیر الجند means, the commander gave to the soldiers the booty. نفل (nafal) is to do more than one is bound to do by duty or of which the doing is not obligatory. نافلة means, what accedes to or exceeds the original; a voluntary gift by way of alms or as a good work; a gift; a deed beyond what is incumbent or obligatory; grandson or grandchild; supererogatory Prayer (Lane & Aqrab).
The words نافلة لک (as supererogatory service for thee) refer to the Tahajjud Prayer offered in the latter part of the night. The word نافلة, as its meanings show, implies that the Tahajjud Prayer is not obligatory for Muslims. The verse may also be taken to indicate that this Prayer was obligatory only for the Holy Prophet, and not for any other Prophet. The word نافلة further means a special favour and signifies that Prayers are not a burden to weary the flesh but a privilege and a favour from God.
The expression, It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to an exalted station, embodies a great prophecy. Perhaps no other person has been so much maligned and abused as the Holy Prophet of Islam and certainly no other person has been the recipient of so much Divine praise and the object of the invocation of so many Divine blessings and favours upon him as he. The implied prophecy was that whereas the sons of darkness would abuse and condemn the Prophet, the good, the noble and the righteous would invoke God’s blessings upon him and God Himself would proclaim his praises from His Exalted Throne. Thus the Prophet’s praise by God and His Elect would far outweigh the undeserved abuse heaped upon him by the sons of darkness.
The expression مقاما محمود (exalted station) may also be understood to imply the special prerogative of شفاعة (intercession) which God bestowed upon the Holy Prophet. There is a well-known hadith that the followers of all other Prophets, having despaired of the intercession of their own Prophets on the Day of Judgement, will seek the Holy Prophet’s intercession and he will intercede for them, and thus they will acknowledge his greatness. The advent of the Promised Messiah and Mahdi is another manifestation of this مقام محمود(exalted station) of the Holy Prophet. When denunciation of him reached its climax, and he was also deserted by his own so-called followers and friends, God raised the Promised Messiah and Mahdi from among his followers and through him vindicated his honour. The Promised Messiah refuted and rebutted the charges of his enemies, and by imparting to his followers true knowledge of the manifold excellences and beauties of his teaching and character, inspired them with a new love and veneration for him. The mention of the grant of the مقام محمود after the command for obligatory and supererogatory Prayers implies the hint that the real remedy for him who receives mockery and abuse from the people of the world is not to retaliate with mockery and abuse but to turn to God and seek His help. This is sure to turn enemies into friends, as happened in the Prophet’s case. His bitterest enemies became his most devoted followers. Of the many exalted stations the Holy Prophet was destined to obtain, the first was his possession of Medina from where spread his praise and holiness to the ends of the earth. This is why the next verse refers to his Migration to Medina. (close)