وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ ثَبَّتۡنٰکَ لَقَدۡ کِدۡتَّ تَرۡکَنُ اِلَیۡہِمۡ شَیۡئًا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿٭ۙ۷۵﴾
وَلَوۡلَآ أَن ثَبَّتۡنَٰكَ لَقَدۡ كِدتَّ تَرۡكَنُ إِلَيۡهِمۡ شَيۡـٔٗا قَلِيلًا
c. 25:33. (close)
1639. The Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Qur’an had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would hardly have stooped to practise Shirk. (close)
a. 25:33. (close)
Verses 14:29 and 25:33 help to explain the meaning of the present verse. In these verses respectively we have, Allah strengthens the believers with the word that is firmly established both in the present life and in the Hereafter; and, it is thus revealed that We may strengthen thy heart therewith. These verses show that in the verse under comment the words, if We had not strengthened thee, refer to the revelation of the Quran. The verse means to say that the Prophet’s nature was so pure that even if the Quran had not been revealed to him and he had no knowledge of God’s great intentions about him, he would never have stooped to practising shirk. In the event, however, of the Quran not having been revealed to him and his not having been blessed with heavenly light he might have perhaps compromised with disbelievers on some very minor details of doctrine or practice. But after the Quran had been revealed to him, there remained absolutely no possibility of any compromise with them on his part. The verse thus sheds a flood of light on the purity of the Prophet’s heart and the greatness of his spiritual stature and does not refer to any possible weakening in his Mission on his part on account of persecution or temptations held out to him by his enemies. (close)
اِذًا لَّاَذَقۡنٰکَ ضِعۡفَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ وَ ضِعۡفَ الۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَکَ عَلَیۡنَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۷۶﴾
إِذٗا لَّأَذَقۡنَٰكَ ضِعۡفَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ وَضِعۡفَ ٱلۡمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيۡنَا نَصِيرٗا
The verse purports to say that if in the absence of the revelation of the Quran, the Prophet should have inclined to disbelievers, his inclination towards them would have done them no good and would not have saved them from Divine punishment. The verse drives home the supreme truth that all the Prophet’s greatness was due to his being the recipient of Divine revelation; without such revelation he was no more than an ordinary mortal. (close)
وَ اِنۡ کَادُوۡا لَیَسۡتَفِزُّوۡنَکَ مِنَ الۡاَرۡضِ لِیُخۡرِجُوۡکَ مِنۡہَا وَ اِذًا لَّا یَلۡبَثُوۡنَ خِلٰفَکَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۷۷﴾
وَإِن كَادُواْ لَيَسۡتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُخۡرِجُوكَ مِنۡهَاۖ وَإِذٗا لَّا يَلۡبَثُونَ خِلَٰفَكَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
1640. The enemies of the Holy Prophet wanted to brand him with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved for him the loss of citizenship of that town. (close)
a. 8:31; 60:2. (close)
2006. Important Words:
خلافک (after thee). خلاف is derived from خلف which means, he succeeded or remained after another. خالف عنا means, he remained behind us or after us. قعدت خلافه means, I remained behind him or after him. خلاف means, after or behind; the contrary or opposite, the sleeve of a shirt, etc. The Quranic expression اذا لا یلبثون خلافک الا قلیلا means, in that case they should not have remained after thee but a little while (Lane). See also 7:70, 170; 9:87.
As the Arabic expression استفزہ من الارض means, he expelled him from the land (17:65), the words لیخرجوک (that they might expel thee) occurring immediately after لیستفزونک evidently do not imply simple expulsion because in that case there would have been useless repetition of the same meaning. They signify legal banishment which entails loss of rights of citizenship. Disbelievers wanted to brand the Prophet with the stigma of legal banishment so that he might lose all dignity with his people, but God Himself commanded him to leave Mecca and thus saved him from this stigma which involved loss of citizenship of that town. (close)
سُنَّۃَ مَنۡ قَدۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَکَ مِنۡ رُّسُلِنَا وَ لَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحۡوِیۡلًا ﴿٪۷۸﴾
سُنَّةَ مَن قَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا قَبۡلَكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَاۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحۡوِيلًا
b. 33:63; 35:44; 48:24. (close)
b. 33:63; 35:44; 48:24. (close)
The verse means to say that it is invariably God’s way with His Messengers that whenever anyone of them is expelled from his native land by his people with indignity and dishonour, that people is visited with Divine punishment. A striking illustration of this divine law is to be found in the case of the tribe of Thamud and the Jews. The former sought to put obstacles in the way of the Prophet Salih’s missionary expedition by killing his she-camel and the latter put Jesus on the cross. The Thamud met with the destruction of their bodies and souls while the Jews suffered only moral and political death. But the Meccans were spared this punishment because the Holy Prophet left Mecca in pursuance of God’s own command and was not expelled from it by his people. (close)
اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ لِدُلُوۡکِ الشَّمۡسِ اِلٰی غَسَقِ الَّیۡلِ وَ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ ؕ اِنَّ قُرۡاٰنَ الۡفَجۡرِ کَانَ مَشۡہُوۡدًا ﴿۷۹﴾
أَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِدُلُوكِ ٱلشَّمۡسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَقُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِۖ إِنَّ قُرۡءَانَ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ كَانَ مَشۡهُودٗا
c. 11:115; 20:131; 30:18, 19; 50:40. (close)
1641. Dalakatish-Shamsu means, (1) the sun declined from the meridian; (2) it became yellow; (3) it set. Ghasaq means, the darkness of the night, or when redness in the horizon after sunset disappears (Lane). This verse seems to denote the hours of the five daily Prayers of Islam. The three meanings of Duluk indicate the times of Afternoon Prayer, the Late Afternoon Prayer and the Sunset Prayer. The expression, Ghasaqil-Lail, includes the times of Sunset Prayer but particularly refers to the Night Prayer, and the words Qur’anal- Fajr indicate the hour of the Morning Prayer. (close)
a. 11:115; 20:131; 30:18, 19; 50:40. (close)
2008. Important Words:
ل (at) means, at, on or upon; nigh, near or about; (Lane & Aqrab). For other meanings of لام see 17:62.
دلوک (declining and paling) is derived from دلک. They say دلکه الدھر i.e. the time proved him and made him expert. دلکت الشمس means, (1) the sun declined from the meridian; (2) or it became yellow; (3) or it set (Lane & Aqrab).
غسق (darkness) is the noun-infinitive from غسق (ghasaqa). They say غسق اللیل i.e. the night became dark. غسقت عینیه means, his eyes became dark or shed tears. غسق(ghasaqun) means, the beginning of the darkness of night or the darkness of the night or the darkness of the beginning of the night or when شفق or redness in the horizon after sunset disappears (Lane).
The words of this verse denote the hours of the five daily Prayers of Islam. The three meanings of the word دلوک as given under Important Words indicate the times of ظھر (afternoon Prayer) and عصر (late afternoon Prayer) and مغرب (sun-set Prayer). The words غسق اللیل include the times of مغرب (sun-set Prayer) but particularly refer to عشاء (night Prayer). The words قرآن الفجر (the recitation of the Quran at dawn) indicate the hour of فجر (morning Prayer).
In this and the following verses Muslims are warned to be prepared to meet great hardships and privations at the hands of the Jews of Medina. These people were very punctilious about outward acts of worship. The slightest slackness in Prayers on the part of Muslims would make them criticize Islam and the Holy Prophet. Moreover, Islam was destined to make great headway in Medina in the near future and as success and prosperity generally make men prone to a life of ease and they become indifferent towards Prayers, so Muslims are particularly warned to be on their guard against any slackness in Prayers. (close)
وَ مِنَ الَّیۡلِ فَتَہَجَّدۡ بِہٖ نَافِلَۃً لَّکَ ٭ۖ عَسٰۤی اَنۡ یَّبۡعَثَکَ رَبُّکَ مَقَامًا مَّحۡمُوۡدًا ﴿۸۰﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ فَتَهَجَّدۡ بِهِۦ نَافِلَةٗ لَّكَ عَسَىٰٓ أَن يَبۡعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامٗا مَّحۡمُودٗا
a. 50:41; 52:50; 73:3-5; 76:27. (close)
1642. In addition to the meaning given in the text Nafilah means a special favour, and signifies that Prayers are not a burden to weary the flesh but a privilege and a special favour from God. (close)
1643. Perhaps no other person has been so much maligned and abused as the Holy Prophet of Islam and certainly no other person has been the recipient of so much Divine praise and the object of the invocation of so many Divine blessings and favours upon him as he. The Tahajjud Prayer is best suited for the believer’s spiritual exaltation as in the stillness of the night, being all alone with his Creator, he enjoys special Divine communion. (close)
2009. Important Words:
فتھجد به (wake up for it in the latter part of the night). تھجد is derived from ھجد (hajada). ھجد (hajada) and ھجد (hajjada) and تھجد (tahajjada) mean the same thing i.e. (1) he slept or slept in the night or in the latter part of the night; (2) he remained awake or was sleepless or wakeful in the night; (3) he awoke from sleep to pray or for some other purpose; (4) he prayed in the night. Hence praying in the latter part of the night is called تھجد (tahajjud). Some say that ھجود which is the noun infinitive from ھجد means, to sleep in the day and ھجوع means, to sleep in the night or simply to sleep (Lane & Aqrab).
نافلة (as a supererogatory service) is derived from نفل. They say نفل الرجل i.e. he presented to the man a thing for which he desired no return or reward. نفل الامیر الجند means, the commander gave to the soldiers the booty. نفل (nafal) is to do more than one is bound to do by duty or of which the doing is not obligatory. نافلة means, what accedes to or exceeds the original; a voluntary gift by way of alms or as a good work; a gift; a deed beyond what is incumbent or obligatory; grandson or grandchild; supererogatory Prayer (Lane & Aqrab).
The words نافلة لک (as supererogatory service for thee) refer to the Tahajjud Prayer offered in the latter part of the night. The word نافلة, as its meanings show, implies that the Tahajjud Prayer is not obligatory for Muslims. The verse may also be taken to indicate that this Prayer was obligatory only for the Holy Prophet, and not for any other Prophet. The word نافلة further means a special favour and signifies that Prayers are not a burden to weary the flesh but a privilege and a favour from God.
The expression, It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to an exalted station, embodies a great prophecy. Perhaps no other person has been so much maligned and abused as the Holy Prophet of Islam and certainly no other person has been the recipient of so much Divine praise and the object of the invocation of so many Divine blessings and favours upon him as he. The implied prophecy was that whereas the sons of darkness would abuse and condemn the Prophet, the good, the noble and the righteous would invoke God’s blessings upon him and God Himself would proclaim his praises from His Exalted Throne. Thus the Prophet’s praise by God and His Elect would far outweigh the undeserved abuse heaped upon him by the sons of darkness.
The expression مقاما محمود (exalted station) may also be understood to imply the special prerogative of شفاعة (intercession) which God bestowed upon the Holy Prophet. There is a well-known hadith that the followers of all other Prophets, having despaired of the intercession of their own Prophets on the Day of Judgement, will seek the Holy Prophet’s intercession and he will intercede for them, and thus they will acknowledge his greatness. The advent of the Promised Messiah and Mahdi is another manifestation of this مقام محمود(exalted station) of the Holy Prophet. When denunciation of him reached its climax, and he was also deserted by his own so-called followers and friends, God raised the Promised Messiah and Mahdi from among his followers and through him vindicated his honour. The Promised Messiah refuted and rebutted the charges of his enemies, and by imparting to his followers true knowledge of the manifold excellences and beauties of his teaching and character, inspired them with a new love and veneration for him. The mention of the grant of the مقام محمود after the command for obligatory and supererogatory Prayers implies the hint that the real remedy for him who receives mockery and abuse from the people of the world is not to retaliate with mockery and abuse but to turn to God and seek His help. This is sure to turn enemies into friends, as happened in the Prophet’s case. His bitterest enemies became his most devoted followers. Of the many exalted stations the Holy Prophet was destined to obtain, the first was his possession of Medina from where spread his praise and holiness to the ends of the earth. This is why the next verse refers to his Migration to Medina. (close)
وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ اَدۡخِلۡنِیۡ مُدۡخَلَ صِدۡقٍ وَّ اَخۡرِجۡنِیۡ مُخۡرَجَ صِدۡقٍ وَّ اجۡعَلۡ لِّیۡ مِنۡ لَّدُنۡکَ سُلۡطٰنًا نَّصِیۡرًا ﴿۸۱﴾
وَقُل رَّبِّ أَدۡخِلۡنِي مُدۡخَلَ صِدۡقٖ وَأَخۡرِجۡنِي مُخۡرَجَ صِدۡقٖ وَٱجۡعَل لِّي مِن لَّدُنكَ سُلۡطَٰنٗا نَّصِيرٗا
1644. In acceptance of his prayers and supplications, the Holy Prophet in this verse has been vouchsafed the glad tidings that in fulfilment of the prophecy made in the words, Glory be to Him Who carried His servant by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Distant Mosque (17:2), he would be taken to Medina. In anticipation of the fulfilment of this prophecy he is commanded to pray that his entry in Medina may be doubly blessed and so may his departure from the town—Mecca—in which he is now living. (close)
2010. Important Words:
مدخل (entry) is derived from دخل, which means, he entered. ادخله of which the infinitive noun is ادخال or مدخل means, he caused him to enter. مدخل therefore means, to enter, entering or entry. The Quranic expression رب ادخلنی مدخل صدق means, O my Lord cause me to enter in a good or agreeable manner (or make my entry a good entry) (Lane).
In acceptance of his prayers and supplications, the Prophet in this verse has been vouchsafed the glad tidings that in fulfilment of the prophecy made in the words, Glory be to Him Who carried His servant by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Distant Mosque, he would be taken to Medina which would constitute the first of the various "exalted positions" (مقام محمود) which are to be bestowed upon him. In anticipation of the fulfilment of this prophecy, the Prophet is commanded to pray that his entry in Medina may be doubly blessed and so may be his departure from the town in which he is now living (Mecca). This prayer of the Prophet was amply fulfilled. His enemies desired to expel him from Mecca in ignominy and disgrace but he was foretold by God of their evil designs and in accordance with the divine plan he left Mecca of his own accord and arrived in perfect safety in Medina, where he succeeded in gathering round him a band of most faithful and devoted followers.
The question may be asked why the entry of the Prophet into Medina has been mentioned before his "coming forth" from Mecca, which is contrary to events as they took place. The answer to this seeming historical anomaly is that the order in the statement of events as they took place has been reversed in order to console the Holy Prophet. The news of his departure from Mecca would naturally have caused him great pain. In order to relieve him of this mental anguish God preceded the news of his departure from Mecca by the news of his entry into Medina where power and honour awaited him.
The word مدخل (entry) might also be taken to refer to the Holy Prophet’s subsequent victorious entry into Mecca. Read in this sense, the said "entry" may be understood to constitute another stage in the Holy Prophet’s march to his promised مقام محمود (exalted station) because with his triumphant re-entry into Mecca ended all opposition to Islam and the Prophet’s erstwhile opponents became his devoted followers.
The prayer contained in the words, And grant me from Thyself a helping power, was necessary because power is a great corrupter of men. The Prophet is taught to pray that instead of corrupting him the acquisition of power may prove a source of real help to him.
The prayer contained in this verse supports the interpretation of اسراء i.e. the Vision about the Prophet’s Night Journey mentioned in v. 2, namely that the flight of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Medina was sure to take place. (close)
وَ قُلۡ جَآءَ الۡحَقُّ وَ زَہَقَ الۡبَاطِلُ ؕ اِنَّ الۡبَاطِلَ کَانَ زَہُوۡقًا ﴿۸۲﴾
وَقُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ ٱلۡبَٰطِلُۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡبَٰطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقٗا
a. 21:19; 34:50. (close)
1645. It is among the marvels of Quranic diction that to convey a certain sense it selects that particular word which points to a long sequence of events. In this particular instance the sense of the vanishing of falsehood might as well have been expressed by some other word such as Halaka (perished) or Batala (became useless), but neither of these words would have conveyed the sense of gradual weakening and ultimate disappearance which is expressed by Zahaqa. The verse contains the hint that with the entry of the Holy Prophet into Medina, his power would continue to grow and that of his enemy decline till it would be finally broken. Again, it is a marvel of the style of the Qur’an that, without being poetry, its verses possess poetic rhythm and cadence without which it is not possible to give full expression to feelings of extreme delight. The verse under comment furnishes one such example. After the conquest of Mecca as the Holy Prophet was clearing the Ka‘bah of the idols which had desecrated it, he repeatedly recited this verse as he struck the idols (Bukhari). (close)
2011. Important Words:
زھق (has vanished away). They say زھق الباطل i.e. falsehood gradually weakened. زھق الشیء means, the thing perished, passed away or came to naught; became null, void or of no effect. زھقت نفسه means, his soul departed; he died (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse implies a beautiful hint that with the entry of the Holy Prophet into Medina his power would continue to grow and that of his enemy decline till it would be finally broken. So it came to pass when by the conquest of Mecca idolatry disappeared from Arabia forever.
The word زھق which has been translated as "has vanished away" actually conveys, as shown under Important Words, the sense of gradual weakening and ultimate disappearance. It is among the marvels of Quranic diction that to convey a certain sense it selects that particular word which points to a long sequence of events. In this particular instance the sense of the vanishing of falsehood might as well have been expressed by the word ھلك (perished) or بطل (became useless, vain or ineffective) but neither of these words would have conveyed the sense of gradual weakening and ultimate disappearance which is expressed by the word زھق. This word, in fact, implies a prophecy of the gradual weakening and ultimate disappearance of idolatry from Mecca, which was literally fulfilled as foretold.
It is another marvel of the style of the Quran that, without being poetry, its verses possess that poetic rhythm and cadence without which it is not possible to give full expression to feelings of extreme delight. The verse under comment furnishes one such example. After the conquest of Mecca when the Holy Prophet was busy clearing the Ka‘bah of the idols which had desecrated it, he repeated as he struck each of the idols the following verse of the Quran: وقل جاء الحق و زھق الباطل ان الباطل کان زھوقا i.e. And say, Truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood does indeed vanish away fast. One can imagine the deep emotion the Prophet’s Companions must have felt when they watched him strike down the idols one after the other and repeat this Quranic verse in a measured tone. It is only natural that they spontaneously joined him in reciting this verse on that august occasion. (close)
وَ نُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنِ مَا ہُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَّ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ۙ وَ لَا یَزِیۡدُ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ اِلَّا خَسَارًا ﴿۸۳﴾
وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ مَا هُوَ شِفَآءٞ وَرَحۡمَةٞ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَلَا يَزِيدُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ إِلَّا خَسَارٗا
b. 10:58; 12:112; 16:90. (close)
a. 10:58; 12:112; 16:90. (close)
The verse purports to say that as to a jaundiced eye all objects appear yellow, similarly to a mind which is swayed by jealousy and prejudice, even most pure and noble teachings appear impure and ignoble. Such was the case with disbelievers in regard to the teachings of the Quran.
The word "Quran" in this verse may also be taken to refer to the portion of the Quran already revealed, the portion containing prophecies about the prosperity and success of the Faithful and the ruin and destruction of disbelievers. The verse means to say that the time has come for the fulfilment of those prophecies and that the flight of the Prophet from Mecca would usher in an era of triumph for Islam and would bring discomfiture and humiliation to disbelievers. (close)
وَ اِذَاۤ اَنۡعَمۡنَا عَلَی الۡاِنۡسَانِ اَعۡرَضَ وَ نَاٰ بِجَانِبِہٖ ۚ وَ اِذَا مَسَّہُ الشَّرُّ کَانَ یَــُٔوۡسًا ﴿۸۴﴾
وَإِذَآ أَنۡعَمۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡإِنسَٰنِ أَعۡرَضَ وَنَـَٔا بِجَانِبِهِۦ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ كَانَ يَـُٔوسٗا
a. See 17:68. (close)
The verse means to say that Muslims were subjected to tortures and suffered all sorts of hardships for thirteen long years, but they bore them with fortitude and patience. The case of disbelievers, however, is different. When their turn came to be visited with Divinepunishment they would give way to despair, because they had no faith in God. (close)