قَالَ لَا تُؤَاخِذۡنِیۡ بِمَا نَسِیۡتُ وَ لَا تُرۡہِقۡنِیۡ مِنۡ اَمۡرِیۡ عُسۡرًا ﴿۷۴﴾
قَالَ لَا تُؤَاخِذۡنِي بِمَا نَسِيتُ وَلَا تُرۡهِقۡنِي مِنۡ أَمۡرِي عُسۡرٗا
Moses repents of his mistake, begs to be excused and promises to ask no more questions. This may be interpreted as signifying that at first Jews and Christians would offer to make common cause with the Holy Prophet but later on they would back out of their solemn agreements. It so happened that when the Prophet went to Medina, the Jews of the town entered into an alliance with him. But later on, finding that such an alliance would entail great sacrifices, they broke it and ended by openly siding with his enemies. So was the case with Christians also. In the beginning they were on friendly terms with Muslims but their friendship soon became changed into open enmity. The Christian Emperor Heraclius treated the Prophet’s epistle with great respect and it appeared that he would become Muslim. But afterwards when Christians found that the political interests of Islam clashed with their own they declared war on Muslims which continued to have repercussions for a very long time. (close)
فَانۡطَلَقَا ٝ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا لَقِیَا غُلٰمًا فَقَتَلَہٗ ۙ قَالَ اَقَتَلۡتَ نَفۡسًا زَکِیَّۃًۢ بِغَیۡرِ نَفۡسٍ ؕ لَقَدۡ جِئۡتَ شَیۡئًا نُّکۡرًا ﴿۷۵﴾
فَٱنطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَٰمٗا فَقَتَلَهُۥ قَالَ أَقَتَلۡتَ نَفۡسٗا زَكِيَّةَۢ بِغَيۡرِ نَفۡسٖ لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتَ شَيۡـٔٗا نُّكۡرٗا
1713. The word Intalaqa which has been used several times in these verses was exactly the one used by the Archangel Gabriel for the Holy Prophet in his Mi‘raj (Spiritual Ascension). (close)
1713A. A youth in the language of visions, among other things, signifies ignorance, strength and wild impulses. The killing of the young boy by the righteous "Servant of God" in Moses’s Vision meant that Islam would require its Followers to bring a veritable death over their carnal desires and passions. (close)
a. 5:33. (close)
2114. Important Words:
قتله (he killed him). قتل means, he killed; he killed his carnal desires. قتل الشراب means, he lessened the effect of wine by mixing it with water. They say قتل الجوع اوالبرد i.e. he lessened the vehemence of hunger or cold. قتل غلیه means, he quenched his thirst by making him drink water (Aqrab). See also 2:62; 2:73 & 4:158.
This part of Moses’ vision corresponds to the second part of the Holy Prophet’s Vision. In his Vision the Prophet saw a man calling him from across the road and then he was offered a cup of wine which he refused to accept. Gabriel told him that the man who called him was Satan and that the cup of wine signified deviating from the right path (Jarir). Similarly, in the second part of his vision Moses was shown a young man which, in the language of dreams signifies, among other things, ignorance, power and love of sensuous pleasures. Moses’ objection to the killing of the young boy by the righteous servant of God in his vision meant that Islam would require its followers to bring a veritable death over their carnal desires and passions but that the pleasure-loving Jews and Christians would find fault with this Islamic commandment.
The expression فانطلقا i.e. so they journeyed on, which has been used several times in these verses is exactly the expression used by the Archangel Gabriel for the Holy Prophet in his Vision, namely, انطلق انطلق i.e. go on, go on.
The words, when they met a young boy, he slew him, may refer to the murder by a party of Muslims of that archenemy of Islam, Ka‘b bin Ashraf, the ring leader of the Jewish miscreants of Medina (Hisham).
This verse also makes clear that the Journey of Moses of which an account has been given in these verses was undertaken in a vision because no sane person while awake would kill a man without legitimate cause. (close)
قَالَ اَلَمۡ اَقُلۡ لَّکَ اِنَّکَ لَنۡ تَسۡتَطِیۡعَ مَعِیَ صَبۡرًا ﴿۷۶﴾
۞قَالَ أَلَمۡ أَقُل لَّكَ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسۡتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبۡرٗا
قَالَ اِنۡ سَاَلۡتُکَ عَنۡ شَیۡءٍۭ بَعۡدَہَا فَلَا تُصٰحِبۡنِیۡ ۚ قَدۡ بَلَغۡتَ مِنۡ لَّدُنِّیۡ عُذۡرًا ﴿۷۷﴾
قَالَ إِن سَأَلۡتُكَ عَن شَيۡءِۭ بَعۡدَهَا فَلَا تُصَٰحِبۡنِيۖ قَدۡ بَلَغۡتَ مِن لَّدُنِّي عُذۡرٗا
This verse shows that the followers of Moses—the Jews—would repeatedly break their solemn agreements with the Holy Prophet till a complete rupture of mutual relations ensued. (close)
فَانۡطَلَقَا ٝ حَتّٰۤی اِذَاۤ اَتَیَاۤ اَہۡلَ قَرۡیَۃِ ۣاسۡتَطۡعَمَاۤ اَہۡلَہَا فَاَبَوۡا اَنۡ یُّضَیِّفُوۡہُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِیۡہَا جِدَارًا یُّرِیۡدُ اَنۡ یَّنۡقَضَّ فَاَقَامَہٗ ؕ قَالَ لَوۡ شِئۡتَ لَتَّخَذۡتَ عَلَیۡہِ اَجۡرًا ﴿۷۸﴾
فَٱنطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَتَيَآ أَهۡلَ قَرۡيَةٍ ٱسۡتَطۡعَمَآ أَهۡلَهَا فَأَبَوۡاْ أَن يُضَيِّفُوهُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَارٗا يُرِيدُ أَن يَنقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُۥۖ قَالَ لَوۡ شِئۡتَ لَتَّخَذۡتَ عَلَيۡهِ أَجۡرٗا
1714. The verse seems to signify that Moses and the Holy Prophet would seek the cooperation of Jews and Christians in the cause of God but it would be denied to both of them. (close)
The words اھل قریة (people of a town) in a dream signify, one or more nations; and asking for their hospitality means, seeking their cooperation in a righteous cause. In this sense of the words, اھل قریة the verse would mean that Moses and the Holy Prophet would seek the cooperation of Jews and Christians in the cause of God but it would be denied to both of them. That the Jews flatly refused to give any cooperation or assistance to Moses when he asked them to go with him to conquer Canaan is clearly stated in the Quran (5:22-25). The Holy Prophet also failed to receive the cooperation of Christians in even such a noble cause as the establishment of the Unity of God on earth. Says the Quran, O People of the Book! come to a word equal between us and you—that we worship none, but Allah, and that we associate no partner with Him and that some of us take not others for Lords besides Allah. But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we have submitted to God (3:65).
According to Ta‘tirul-Anam, جدار (wall) in a vision with a breach in it denotes a leader of a people or a learned man who has lost his property and the repairing of it signifies the restoration of the property of that leader.
In view of these interpretations, the words, And they found therein a wall which was about to fall, signify that Jewish and Christian religious leaders would lose all influence over their followers; and the repairing of the wall denotes that that influence would be rehabilitated. These words may also refer to the progress made by the Israelites through Moses and by the Ishmaelites through the Holy Prophet. The words, if thou hadst desired, thou couldst have taken payment for it, may mean that the business instinct of the Jewish and Christian peoples would grow so strong that they would not do anything without demanding remuneration for it. (close)
قَالَ ہٰذَا فِرَاقُ بَیۡنِیۡ وَ بَیۡنِکَ ۚ سَاُنَبِّئُکَ بِتَاۡوِیۡلِ مَا لَمۡ تَسۡتَطِعۡ عَّلَیۡہِ صَبۡرًا ﴿۷۹﴾
قَالَ هَٰذَا فِرَاقُ بَيۡنِي وَبَيۡنِكَۚ سَأُنَبِّئُكَ بِتَأۡوِيلِ مَا لَمۡ تَسۡتَطِع عَّلَيۡهِ صَبۡرًا
a. 3:8; 12:22. (close)
When the righteous servant of God (the Holy Prophet) saw that Moses, i.e. his followers, in spite of his earnest appeal for their cooperation in the propagation of the ideals which were common between them, would not give up their attitude of sullen aloofness and hostility, he realized that he would have to sever all connection with them. (close)
اَمَّا السَّفِیۡنَۃُ فَکَانَتۡ لِمَسٰکِیۡنَ یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ فَاَرَدۡتُّ اَنۡ اَعِیۡبَہَا وَ کَانَ وَرَآءَہُمۡ مَّلِکٌ یَّاۡخُذُ کُلَّ سَفِیۡنَۃٍ غَصۡبًا ﴿۸۰﴾
أَمَّا ٱلسَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتۡ لِمَسَٰكِينَ يَعۡمَلُونَ فِي ٱلۡبَحۡرِ فَأَرَدتُّ أَنۡ أَعِيبَهَا وَكَانَ وَرَآءَهُم مَّلِكٞ يَأۡخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصۡبٗا
1715. The words, "poor people," here may represent "the Muslims." Making a hole in the boat meant that Islam would exhort Muslims to spend their money in the cause of Allah, by way of Zakat and charity. This would appear to be a source of economic weakness rather than of strength and true prosperity, which in fact it would not be. The tyrant king of the Isra’ were the Byzantine and Iranian Empires which would have swallowed up Arabia had it not seemed to them a poor and barren land, not worth the trouble of conquering. It was thus preserved intact for the Holy Prophet. (close)
With this verse begins an explanation of the foregoing incidents as given by the holy man of Moses’ vision.
The words, 'poor people' here represent the meek of heart whom material prosperity and abundance of wealth do not prevent from taking care of and sympathizing with the needy and the destitute and from associating with them. The expression 'a king' denotes love of the world and attachment for material things. The verse thus means to say that those proud and conceited sons of darkness who disdain to spend their money on philanthropic purposes are wholly lost in the love of this world and fall easy victims to Satan. This is why the Holy Prophet sought to make a hole in the boat of his people—he laid down such laws as should render their love of this world pierced with the love of the next world so that they should spend their money in the service of the oppressed and the down-trodden and instead of tyrannizing over them they should serve them and sympathize with them.
It is worthy of note that whereas in the Holy Prophet’s Vision the love of the world took the form of an old woman, in Moses’ vision it was represented by a cruel king. This signified that the love of the world and its pleasures would exercise much less influence over the followers of the Holy Prophet than over those of Moses. (close)
وَ اَمَّا الۡغُلٰمُ فَکَانَ اَبَوٰہُ مُؤۡمِنَیۡنِ فَخَشِیۡنَاۤ اَنۡ یُّرۡہِقَہُمَا طُغۡیَانًا وَّ کُفۡرًا ﴿ۚ۸۱﴾
وَأَمَّا ٱلۡغُلَٰمُ فَكَانَ أَبَوَاهُ مُؤۡمِنَيۡنِ فَخَشِينَآ أَن يُرۡهِقَهُمَا طُغۡيَٰنٗا وَكُفۡرٗا
1716. Ghulam (a youth), as stated above, in a dream or vision signifies ignorance, strength and wild impulses. "His parents" in the verse are the human body and soul, because the source (or the parents) from which spring all moral qualities is the combination of the human body and soul which are represented here as "believers" because, as taught by Islam, man by nature is inclined to virtue. These "believers" may be dragged into vice by the impulses represented as "youth." Islam eradicates these impulses and leaves man—the human body and soul combined, to develop along beneficent lines and thus to achieve the high purpose of human life. (close)
As explained under 18:75 above غلام (youth) in a vision signifies, activity or buoyancy, power and ignorance; and the word قتل as also shown under the same verse means, diminishing or lessening the effect or vehemence of a thing. In view of the significance of these words, the killing of the youth would signify the lessening or diminishing the evil effects of ignorance, too much power and uncontrolled buoyancy.
The expression ابواہ (his parents) here means the human body and soul, because the parents or the source from which spring all moral qualities is the combination of the human body and soul which is man himself. So the killing of the youth in the vision signifies bringing under proper control unbridled human passions and lessening their vehemence and intensity. Thus the killing of the young man by the holy man of God so that he should not lead his parents to rebellion and disbelief, as seen in his vision by Moses, signifies that man has been gifted with great natural powers to perform the highest deeds of virtue and that in order to bring these powers into play, the faculties of activity, power and ignorance have been implanted in him. Man can fulfil the great object of his life by making use of these powers which spring from a combination of the human body and soul. But if these powers are not kept under proper control, they lead man to disbelief and transgression. These powers have been brought under proper control and their undue vehemence curbed by the commandments and ordinances which God has revealed to the Holy Prophet as signified by the killing of the young boy by the holy man in Moses’ Vision. (close)
فَاَرَدۡنَاۤ اَنۡ یُّبۡدِلَہُمَا رَبُّہُمَا خَیۡرًا مِّنۡہُ زَکٰوۃً وَّ اَقۡرَبَ رُحۡمًا ﴿۸۲﴾
فَأَرَدۡنَآ أَن يُبۡدِلَهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا خَيۡرٗا مِّنۡهُ زَكَوٰةٗ وَأَقۡرَبَ رُحۡمٗا
The verse means to say that Islam has laid down these ordinances and commandments so that man may completely subdue his carnal desires and thus experience a new spiritual birth. But, as mentioned above the followers of Moses gave free play to their low passions and, abandoning themselves to a life of ease and pleasure, exceeded all bounds of moderation and sobriety. (close)
وَ اَمَّا الۡجِدَارُ فَکَانَ لِغُلٰمَیۡنِ یَتِیۡمَیۡنِ فِی الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ وَ کَانَ تَحۡتَہٗ کَنۡزٌ لَّہُمَا وَ کَانَ اَبُوۡہُمَا صَالِحًا ۚ فَاَرَادَ رَبُّکَ اَنۡ یَّبۡلُغَاۤ اَشُدَّہُمَا وَ یَسۡتَخۡرِجَا کَنۡزَہُمَا ٭ۖ رَحۡمَۃً مِّنۡ رَّبِّکَ ۚ وَ مَا فَعَلۡتُہٗ عَنۡ اَمۡرِیۡ ؕ ذٰلِکَ تَاۡوِیۡلُ مَا لَمۡ تَسۡطِعۡ عَّلَیۡہِ صَبۡرًا ﴿ؕ٪۸۳﴾
وَأَمَّا ٱلۡجِدَارُ فَكَانَ لِغُلَٰمَيۡنِ يَتِيمَيۡنِ فِي ٱلۡمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ تَحۡتَهُۥ كَنزٞ لَّهُمَا وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَٰلِحٗا فَأَرَادَ رَبُّكَ أَن يَبۡلُغَآ أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسۡتَخۡرِجَا كَنزَهُمَا رَحۡمَةٗ مِّن رَّبِّكَۚ وَمَا فَعَلۡتُهُۥ عَنۡ أَمۡرِيۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَأۡوِيلُ مَا لَمۡ تَسۡطِع عَّلَيۡهِ صَبۡرٗا
1717. The orphan boys are Moses and Jesus, and their righteous father is Abraham. Their treasure was the true teaching bequeathed by them to their peoples which was in danger of being lost through the latter’s irreligiousness. This treasure was safeguarded in the Qur’an in order that when they may awaken to a realization of truth of the Quranic teaching they may accept it. (close)
1717A. It was done under Divine command. (close)
1718. The Vision of Moses points to the fact that because Islamic teaching was based on laws and principles which differed fundamentally from some principles of the Mosaic Law, true and real cooperation between Jews and Muslims was impossible. For a detailed explanation of v. 61-83, see "The Larger Edition of the Commentary," (pp. 1517-1530). (close)
As already pointed out جدار (the wall) represents the elders of the Jews i.e. Moses, Jesus (18:78) and Abraham of whom the Quran says, "and in the next he will surely be among the righteous" (2:131).
By کنز (treasure) is meant the treasure of divine knowledge which was vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus.
The verse purports to say that God preserved in the Quran the great treasure of spiritual knowledge which was vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus (98:4) and which was in danger of being lost because of the irreligiousness of the Jews and their engrossment in worldly affairs so that, when they awaken to a realization of truth, they may accept it.
The words, as a mercy from thy Lord, mean that the preservation by God of the imperishable part of the teachings of Moses and Jesus in the Quran was an act of mercy on His part because the Jews by their repeated rebellion and transgression had forfeited all title to Divine mercy. But despite their iniquities God had mercy on them and preserved their own treasures of spiritual knowledge in the Quran for their guidance.
The words, I did it not of my own accord, mean that the Holy Prophet had no hand in the preservation of this great treasure of divine knowledge. A reference to this fact has also been made in the words, "Nor does he speak of his own desire" (53:4).
After a perusal of the incidents mentioned in the preceding verses and their explanation it becomes abundantly clear that the Vision of Moses has been mentioned here to point to the following facts:
(a) That it was decreed and was in the fitness of things that the Holy Prophet should appear after Christians who constitute the second part of the Mosaic Dispensation had become corrupt.
(b) That because Islamic teaching was based on laws and principles which differed fundamentally from some principles of the Mosaic Law, true and real cooperation between Jews and Muslims was impossible, but salvation without subscribing to Islamic principles was also unthinkable.
(c) That Jews and Christians would refuse to accept the Holy Prophet and would follow their own separate course but they will have to give their allegiance to him in the long run.
(d) That, after a long and fatiguing journey and after having despaired of obtaining real peace and contentment of mind through their own unaided efforts, Jews and Christians would be compelled to take stock of their whole position with the result that they would realize that as their religion had long outlived its usefulness they should have given it up long before.
(e) That after the dawning of this realization upon them, the prophecies concerning them which have been preserved in the Quran will lead Jews and Christians to accept the Holy Prophet.
(f) That after having accepted Islam they will submit themselves to limitations and restrictions which it has imposed upon man to regulate his moral conduct, and that by subduing their unrestrained passions they will become resigned to Divine decree and thus will draw upon themselves God’s grace and will bathe in the sea of His Mercy.
In fact, the Isra’ of Moses constituted a beautiful prelude to the coming Islamic Dispensation which was to supplant the Mosaic Law. (close)