وَ اَنۡذِرۡہُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡحَسۡرَۃِ اِذۡ قُضِیَ الۡاَمۡرُ ۘ وَ ہُمۡ فِیۡ غَفۡلَۃٍ وَّ ہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۴۰﴾
وَأَنذِرۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡحَسۡرَةِ إِذۡ قُضِيَ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ وَهُمۡ فِي غَفۡلَةٖ وَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 2:168; 6:32; 39:57. (close)
a. 2:168; 6:32; 39:57. (close)
The words اذ قضی الامر means, (1) when the decree of God will be announced; (2) when decision will be made according to truth and justice.
The expression وھم لا یؤمنون in addition to the meaning given in the text may also signify that though on the Day of Decision the realization will dawn on disbelievers that they were in the wrong, yet having become accustomed to untruth and disbelief, they will not become reconciled to it and their hearts will continue to suffer from the rust, and they will continue to wander in the wilderness, of disbelief and consequently will suffer Divine punishment. (close)
اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَرِثُ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ مَنۡ عَلَیۡہَا وَ اِلَیۡنَا یُرۡجَعُوۡنَ ﴿٪۴۱﴾
إِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَرِثُ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَنۡ عَلَيۡهَا وَإِلَيۡنَا يُرۡجَعُونَ
c. 15:24; 28:59. (close)
1772. The verse embodies two prophecies: (a) The Christian people will first come to rule over almost the whole of the earth, and will be dominating it by their large numbers; and (b) as a result of their disbelief they will then be deprived of their dominion which will ultimately be given to the followers of Islam. (close)
a. 15:24; 28:59. (close)
As the Surah deals with the false Christian beliefs and the rise, progress and prosperity of Christian nations, and with the ultimate destruction of their material might and power the word الارض (the earth) here signifies the vast parts of the world over which they will hold sway; and the expression من علیھا (who are thereon) points to the large numbers of Christian people who at that time will be inhabiting the earth and dominating it.
The verse embodies two prophecies: (a) the Christians will first come to rule over almost the whole earth, and will be dominating it by their large numbers, and (b) then as a result of their disbelief they will be deprived of their world dominion which will ultimately be given to the followers of Islam. It points to the present great material power and grandeur of Christian nations and their subsequent destruction and to the ultimate spread and triumph of Islam. The words, And to Us will they all be returned, signify that Western Christian nations will ultimately accept Islam. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ۬ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ صِدِّیۡقًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿۴۲﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صِدِّيقٗا نَّبِيًّا
d. 38:46; 53:38. (close)
1773. "The Book" means the Qur’an. The Holy Prophet is here directed to relate the story of Abraham as it is given in the Qur’an and not as it is related in the Bible. Whereas the Qur’an depicts Abraham as a truthful man, the Bible accuses him of telling lies (Gen. 20:13). The Qur’an has laid great stress on the truthfulness of Abraham, perhaps because sometime in future, lies were to be attributed to him by some Commentators of the Qur’an. (close)
b. 38:46; 53:38. (close)
ابراھیم (Abraham) means the father of nations. Originally Abraham’s name was ابرام (Abram) which may have been derived from ابرم. They say ابرمه i.e. he twisted it (the rope) well. He made it firm, strong, solid (Lane). Abraham might have been so called because he was endowed to an unusual degree with conversational ability of a high mark. He was an irresistible debater. His talk was very effective and his arguments strong. A reference to this quality of Abraham is to be found in 2:259 and 6:76-81. Or Abram may have come to be called Abraham after God had made His covenant with him and had promised to multiply him exceedingly. God said: "As for Me, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for father of many nations have I made thee" (Gen. 17:4-5). In the Quran also Abraham has been called امة which means, "a nation", "a people", "a race" (16:121).
Abraham was a native of Ur of the Chaldees in Iraq. His people worshipped the sun and the stars. Their chief god was Merodach or (Madruk). It was also called Bel, i.e. Lord (Enc. Bib.).
Abraham was a great iconoclast. He preached the Unity and Oneness of God and strongly denounced and condemned idol-worship. By his iconoclastic activities he incurred the enmity of his father and so with his wife and his nephew Lot, he had to leave his native place for Canaan the land which God had promised to give to his seed (Gen 12:7). When Canaan suffered from a severe famine Abraham left it for Egypt where he married Hagar, the mother of Ishmael. For a detailed account of Abraham see 6:75.
الکتاب (the Book) in this verse means the Quran. The Holy Prophet is here directed to relate the story of Abraham as it is given in the Quran and not as it is related in the Bible. While the Quran depicts Abraham as a truthful man the Bible accuses him of telling lies (Gen. 20:13).
صدیق (a truthful man) is the intensified form of صادق which is active participle from صدقwhich means, he spoke the truth (Lane). صادق means one who speaks the truth. صدیق being the intensive form of صادق has four meanings; (a) one who very generally and often speaks the truth; (b) one who never tells a lie; (c) one who is so habituated to speaking truth that it becomes impossible for him to tell a lie; and (d) one who is truthful in his talk and substantiates the truth of his talk and beliefs by his actions and deeds. The speaking of truth becomes, as it were, a part of his being, a second nature with him (Lane). This is the highest stage of صدیقیت (the quality or condition of being truthful).
The word صدیق possesses a double connotation. While on the one hand it means one who is highly truthful, on the other it denotes a spiritual rank next only to the rank of prophethood. In fact, every quality possesses two connotations and two uses. It is used as an attribute and it also expresses a rank. In the present verse صدیق has been used to express only the attribute and quality of truthfulness and not the rank of صدیق which is included in the rank of نبی (a Prophet) which has also been mentioned in regard to Abraham in this verse. The verse means that Abraham was a Prophet of God and one of his most prominent and distinctive qualities was that he was truthful par excellence.
The Quran has laid great stress on the truthfulness of Abraham perhaps because in some future time lies were to be attributed to him by some commentators of the Quran.
It seems appropriate and pertinent to write here a few words about the order and arrangement of the verses of the present Surah because some Christian writers have found fault with the chronological order of the incidents mentioned in it. In fact the central theme of this Surah is to disprove and demolish the Christian dogma of godhead of Jesus Christ. The Surah opens with a brief mention of Zachariah, the father of Yahya who was a forerunner of Jesus. Zachariah’s mention is followed by a concise description of the birth of Yahya. Then a somewhat detailed description is given of the birth of Jesus who was the harbinger of the Holy Prophet and light is shed on the falsity of Christian beliefs and doctrines about him and his mother. This description of Jesus is followed by a narration of some important incidents in the life of Abraham. This seems to be a historical anachronism but in reality it is not. The Quran is not a book of history. It sometimes deliberately departs from the chronological order of events. The account of Abraham given in the present and the following verses is a case in point. The account of Jesus is followed by that of Abraham in order to drive home the point that when Abraham, the great progenitor of Moses who was the Founder of the Mosaic Dispensation of which Christianity is only an offshoot, was a firm believer in the Unity of God, how could Jesus depart from the Faith of his forefather, and claim to be God or son of God? Secondly, God had made a promise with Abraham that He would multiply him exceedingly through his two sons, Ishmael and Isaac. God’s promise with Abraham was fulfilled first through Isaac, and then when Isaac’s progeny disobeyed and defied Divine commandments and consistently rejected Divine Prophets and went so far as to kill John and crucify Jesus, God’s covenant with Abraham became transferred to Ishmael and was finally and fully fulfilled through the latter’s progeny. This is the real reason why the account of Jesus is followed by that of Abraham. After this a brief mention is made of Moses who was a descendant of Jacob and in whom God’s covenant with Abraham through Isaac found its highest fulfilment. After dealing with God’s covenant with Abraham through Isaac, the Surah proceeds to make a mention of the Divine promise with Abraham through Ishmael. This is why after Moses, mention has been made of Ishmael and this is the significance of the order which the Quran has kept in view while giving an account of the life of some Prophets and making only a brief mention of others and this is the right and natural order which should have been observed while dealing with the subject under discussion. The taunt of some Christian critics of Islam that the seeming historical anachronism was due to the Holy Prophet’s lack of the knowledge of history is absurd because elsewhere (chapter Hud) the Quran has given the accounts of some Prophets of very remote past in their proper chronological order which fact has been admitted by fair-minded Christian writers themselves. (close)
اِذۡ قَالَ لِاَبِیۡہِ یٰۤاَبَتِ لِمَ تَعۡبُدُ مَا لَا یَسۡمَعُ وَ لَا یُبۡصِرُ وَ لَا یُغۡنِیۡ عَنۡکَ شَیۡئًا ﴿۴۳﴾
إِذۡ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَـٰٓأَبَتِ لِمَ تَعۡبُدُ مَا لَا يَسۡمَعُ وَلَا يُبۡصِرُ وَلَا يُغۡنِي عَنكَ شَيۡـٔٗا
a. 6:75; 21:53; 26:71; 37:86, 87. (close)
a. 6:76; 21:53; 26:71; 37:86-87. (close)
2186. Important Words:
اب (father) which originally was ابوmeans, a father; a grandfather; an ancestor; a paternal uncle. ابوالمرأة means, the woman’s husband. ابت in reality is ابی (my father). According to Arabic usage ی has been converted into ت (Lane & Aqrab).
The point whether Abraham’s اب (ab) whose name at another place in the Quran (6:75) has been given as Azar was his father, uncle or grandfather, is much in dispute. In 2:134 Ishmael who was Jacob’s uncle has been spoken of as his اب (ab). Whether Azar was Abraham’s father or uncle does not possess much significance. From a study of all relevant historical facts, however, we are inclined to the view that Azar was Abraham’s father, though according to some Talmudic traditions Abraham’s father had died while he was young and he was left an orphan.
In Genesis (11:26) Abraham’s father’s name has been given as Terah while Luke (3:34) gives it as Thara. The Talmud agrees with Luke and says that his name was Thara. It also gives his name as Zarah. Eusebius, the father of ecclesiastical history, however, gives Athar as the name of the great Patriarch’s father (Sale). This shows that even among the Jews there existed no unanimity of views as to the name of Abraham’s father. The fact that Eusebius followed neither Genesis (11:26) nor (Luke 3:34) indicates that he had very strong reasons to differ from these two well-known sources. The two names, Athar of Eusebius and Azar of the Quran closely resemble each other. The Quranic version is therefore much more reliable and akin to reality than that of the Bible. See also 6:75.
The attributes "All-Hearing" and "All-Seeing" are among the most important Divine attributes. It is our conviction that God sees us when we are in trouble and hears our prayers when we pray to Him which is really at the root of our belief in God. If once we cease to believe in these two attributes, we cease to believe in God. But these two attributes are here further complemented by a third—the attribute غنیwhich means, One Who has no need of others and is Self-Sufficient but Whose help others need and upon Whom they are dependent. If God is not غنی and cannot come to our help when we need it, then His attributes "All-Seeing" and "All-Hearing" are of no use. Abraham has indeed adduced a most convincing and unassailable argument against idol-worship, viz. if the idols do neither see when their votaries are in trouble, nor hear their prayers when they call on them, nor do they come to their help when they need it, then what sense or purpose there is in worshipping such useless things? (close)
یٰۤاَبَتِ اِنِّیۡ قَدۡ جَآءَنِیۡ مِنَ الۡعِلۡمِ مَا لَمۡ یَاۡتِکَ فَاتَّبِعۡنِیۡۤ اَہۡدِکَ صِرَاطًا سَوِیًّا ﴿۴۴﴾
يَـٰٓأَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدۡ جَآءَنِي مِنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ مَا لَمۡ يَأۡتِكَ فَٱتَّبِعۡنِيٓ أَهۡدِكَ صِرَٰطٗا سَوِيّٗا
یٰۤاَبَتِ لَا تَعۡبُدِ الشَّیۡطٰنَ ؕ اِنَّ الشَّیۡطٰنَ کَانَ لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ عَصِیًّا ﴿۴۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَبَتِ لَا تَعۡبُدِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَۖ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ كَانَ لِلرَّحۡمَٰنِ عَصِيّٗا
b. 6:143; 24:22; 36:61. (close)
1774. ‘Ibadah which is noun-infinitive from the verb ‘Abada does not consist only in prostrating before God or an idol, but also signifies blindly or unthinkingly following a person or accepting an idea or belief without subjecting it to sane and searching criticism. This latter significance of the word is clear from the verse itself because nobody has ever been seen to worship Satan in the sense that he prostrates before him and prays to him. (close)
1775. In this verse, in fact, in the whole Surah, Shirk (idolatry) has been repeatedly denounced and condemned in the strongest and most scathing terms and the Divine attribute Ar-Rahman (The Gracious) has also been mentioned again and again, because Shirk (idolatry) in every shape and form is the direct result of the denial of Rahmaniyyah (Divine Grace). (close)
a. 6:143; 24:22; 36:61. (close)
عبادة which is noun-infinitive from the verb عبد does not consist only in prostrating before God or an idol, but also signifies blindly or unthinkingly following a person or accepting an idea or belief without subjecting it to sane and searching criticism. This significance of the word is clear from the verse itself, because nobody has ever been seen to worship Satan in the sense that he prostrates before him and prays to him. It also appears from this verse that the word شیطان (Satan) here does not mean the 'Devil' or even the idols. Here it only signifies evil inclinations, wrong ideas and beliefs and bad associates and evil spirits. According to these meanings of the words عبادة and شیطان the verse would signify that one should not follow blindly or unthinkingly evil inclinations, wrong beliefs or bad friends or associates. Such an attitude on one’s part is tantamount to giving them Divine status and to worshipping them.
The word عصیا (rebel) also indicates that شیطان in this verse does not signify idols made of wood or stone because idols of stone do not disobey God. From the previous verse one may have been led to think that Abraham had advised his father against idol-worship only. This verse belies that idea and indicates that he advised him also against blindly following evil inclinations, wrong beliefs and association with evil persons. The words الشیطان (Satan) includes all these things. (close)
یٰۤاَبَتِ اِنِّیۡۤ اَخَافُ اَنۡ یَّمَسَّکَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحۡمٰنِ فَتَکُوۡنَ لِلشَّیۡطٰنِ وَلِیًّا ﴿۴۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَبَتِ إِنِّيٓ أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٞ مِّنَ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيۡطَٰنِ وَلِيّٗا
The linking of عذاب (punishment) with the Divine attribute الرحمن (the Gracious) in this and other verses of this Surahappears to be somewhat incongruent and inconsistent. Punishment seems more appropriately related to God’s other attributes such as الجبار (the Subduer), القھار (the Most Supreme), ذو انتقام (the Avenger) etc. In fact, every punishment is the result of the defiance or disobedience of a particular Divine attribute. Sometimes a person is punished because he defies the Divine attribute الغفار (the Great Forgiver), at another time punishment comes upon him because he disobeys the Divine attribute الکریم (Most Generous) and so on. In this verse, in fact in the whole Surah, شرک i.e. idolatry, has been repeatedly denounced and condemned in the strongest and most scathing terms and the Divine attribute الرحمن i.e. the Gracious, has also been mentioned again and again because شرک (idolatry) in every shape and form is the direct result of denial of رحمانیةi.e. Divine grace. The two great idolatrous peoples—the Hindus and the Christians, have hopelessly fallen victim to the most degraded form of idolatry because they both deny رحمانیة i.e. Divine grace—the former by believing in the indestructibility and eternity of matter and soul and the latter by subscribing to the foolish doctrine that salvation is impossible without Atonement. So the mentioning together of the Divine attribute الرحمن (the Gracious) and Divine punishment shows that it is not رحمانیة i.e. Divine grace, which is the cause of Divine punishment, rather it is its denial and rejection.
شیطان (Satan), as stated above, may signify man’s evil inclinations and propensities, his bad friends and associates and evil spirits that cast their shadows upon him and lead him deeper and deeper into sin and transgression. (close)
قَالَ اَرَاغِبٌ اَنۡتَ عَنۡ اٰلِہَتِیۡ یٰۤـاِبۡرٰہِیۡمُ ۚ لَئِنۡ لَّمۡ تَنۡتَہِ لَاَرۡجُمَنَّکَ وَ اہۡجُرۡنِیۡ مَلِیًّا ﴿۴۷﴾
قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنۡ ءَالِهَتِي يَـٰٓإِبۡرَٰهِيمُۖ لَئِن لَّمۡ تَنتَهِ لَأَرۡجُمَنَّكَۖ وَٱهۡجُرۡنِي مَلِيّٗا
c. 21:69; 29:25; 37:98. (close)
1776. Rajama-hu means, he stoned him to death; he accused or slandered him; cursed him or abused him; he drove him away; he cut off all relations with him (Lane). (close)
a. 21:69; 29:25; 37:98. (close)
2189. Important Words:
لارجمنک (I shall surely cut off all relations with thee) is derived from رجم. They say رجمه i.e. he stoned him to death; he murdered him; he accused or slandered him; he cursed him; he abused him; he drove him away; he cut off all relations with him (Lane & Aqrab). See also 3:37.
ملیاً(a long while). They say ملیت فلاناً i.e. I was made to live long with such a one. تملی العیش means, he lived long. تملی بشیءmeans, he enjoyed a thing. ملیا means, a while or a long time. مرملی من اللیل means, a large part of the night passed away. انتظرہ ملیا means, he waited for him for a long time (Aqrab).
All the different meanings of the word رجم mentioned above, are applicable here. In spite of Abraham’s talking to his father with affection and considerateness, the latter lost his temper and told him to go away from him and leave him alone. This is often the case with those who have no arguments but only force to prove their claim. (close)
قَالَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکَ ۚ سَاَسۡتَغۡفِرُ لَکَ رَبِّیۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ بِیۡ حَفِیًّا ﴿۴۸﴾
قَالَ سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكَۖ سَأَسۡتَغۡفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّيٓۖ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ بِي حَفِيّٗا
a. 9:114; 26:87; 60:5. (close)
a. 9:114; 26:87; 60:5. (close)
2190. Important Words:
حفیا (gracious) is derived from حفی (hafiya).They say حفا فلاناً i.e. he gave such a one. حفاہ من الشیء means, he refused to give him the thing. حفی به means, he honoured him; he showed him much honour and kindness and affection and regard for his circumstances; he behaved towards him with benevolence and solicitude and manifested joy. حفی عنه means, he asked or inquired much respecting him or it. حفی means, kind; gracious; affectionate; having much regard for another person’s circumstances; going to the utmost in asking or inquiring etc. (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:188. (close)
وَ اَعۡتَزِلُکُمۡ وَ مَا تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ اَدۡعُوۡا رَبِّیۡ ۫ۖ عَسٰۤی اَلَّاۤ اَکُوۡنَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّیۡ شَقِیًّا ﴿۴۹﴾
وَأَعۡتَزِلُكُمۡ وَمَا تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَأَدۡعُواْ رَبِّي عَسَىٰٓ أَلَّآ أَكُونَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّي شَقِيّٗا
b. 29:27. (close)
1777. In this verse Abraham seems to be referring to his emigration to Canaan. He went from Iraq to Canaan and from there to Egypt. He left his father and people behind him in Iraq. (close)
b. 29:27. (close)
In this verse Abraham seems to be referring to his migration to Canaan. It is on record that Abraham went from Iraq to Canaan and from there to Egypt. He left his father and people behind him in Iraq. (close)