قَالَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکَ ۚ سَاَسۡتَغۡفِرُ لَکَ رَبِّیۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ بِیۡ حَفِیًّا ﴿۴۸﴾
قَالَ سَلَٰمٌ عَلَيۡكَۖ سَأَسۡتَغۡفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّيٓۖ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ بِي حَفِيّٗا
a. 9:114; 26:87; 60:5. (close)
a. 9:114; 26:87; 60:5. (close)
2190. Important Words:
حفیا (gracious) is derived from حفی (hafiya).They say حفا فلاناً i.e. he gave such a one. حفاہ من الشیء means, he refused to give him the thing. حفی به means, he honoured him; he showed him much honour and kindness and affection and regard for his circumstances; he behaved towards him with benevolence and solicitude and manifested joy. حفی عنه means, he asked or inquired much respecting him or it. حفی means, kind; gracious; affectionate; having much regard for another person’s circumstances; going to the utmost in asking or inquiring etc. (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:188. (close)
وَ اَعۡتَزِلُکُمۡ وَ مَا تَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ اَدۡعُوۡا رَبِّیۡ ۫ۖ عَسٰۤی اَلَّاۤ اَکُوۡنَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّیۡ شَقِیًّا ﴿۴۹﴾
وَأَعۡتَزِلُكُمۡ وَمَا تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَأَدۡعُواْ رَبِّي عَسَىٰٓ أَلَّآ أَكُونَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّي شَقِيّٗا
b. 29:27. (close)
1777. In this verse Abraham seems to be referring to his emigration to Canaan. He went from Iraq to Canaan and from there to Egypt. He left his father and people behind him in Iraq. (close)
b. 29:27. (close)
In this verse Abraham seems to be referring to his migration to Canaan. It is on record that Abraham went from Iraq to Canaan and from there to Egypt. He left his father and people behind him in Iraq. (close)
فَلَمَّا اعۡتَزَلَہُمۡ وَ مَا یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ ۙ وَہَبۡنَا لَہٗۤ اِسۡحٰقَ وَ یَعۡقُوۡبَ ؕ وَ کُلًّا جَعَلۡنَا نَبِیًّا ﴿۵۰﴾
فَلَمَّا ٱعۡتَزَلَهُمۡ وَمَا يَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَهَبۡنَا لَهُۥٓ إِسۡحَٰقَ وَيَعۡقُوبَۖ وَكُلّٗا جَعَلۡنَا نَبِيّٗا
c. 14:40; 21:73. (close)
1778. Ishmael has not been mentioned here, though he was the eldest son of Abraham. Isaac and Jacob have been mentioned by the way only as subordinate prophets while Ishmael has found a separate and independent mention in v. 55. This shows that Ishmael possessed a higher spiritual status than both Isaac and Jacob. (close)
c. 14:40; 21:73. (close)
Ishmael has not been mentioned here, though he was the eldest son of Abraham. This is done for two reasons:(1) Isaac and Jacob have been mentioned by the way only as subordinate Prophets while Ishmael has found a separate and independent mention in v. 55 below. This shows that Ishmael possessed a higher spiritual status than both Isaac and Jacob. (2) Ishmael has been mentioned after Moses because the latter was the greatest representative of the House of Isaac. As the result of repeated defiance of the commandments of God and rejection of His Messengers by the Jews prophethood became transferred from the House of Isaac or Israel (or from the Mosaic Dispensation) to that of Ishmael, so mention has been made of him after Moses in v. 55 and that is the right place where he should have been mentioned. (close)
وَ وَہَبۡنَا لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ رَّحۡمَتِنَا وَ جَعَلۡنَا لَہُمۡ لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ عَلِیًّا ﴿٪۵۱﴾
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُم مِّن رَّحۡمَتِنَا وَجَعَلۡنَا لَهُمۡ لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ عَلِيّٗا
d. 26:85. (close)
1779. The words, Ja‘alna Lahum Lisana Sidqin ‘Aliyya (We bestowed upon them true and lasting renown), mean: (1) They acquired good reputation and were remembered with respect, affection and love by their contemporaries and future generations. (2) Their talk was full of wisdom and intelligence and was free from all sorts of bitterness, obscenity, falsehood and hatred. (3) They were fearless in expressing their beliefs and were hard upon disbelievers and untruthful persons. (4) Their good works constituted and continued as so many monuments and memorials to their good name. (close)
a. 26:85. (close)
2193. Important Words:
لسان (renown) is derived from لسن (lasina) which means, he was or became extremely eloquent or perspicuous in speech.لسن فلانا (lasana) means, he was more eloquent than such a one; he got the better of him in speech. لسنه العقرب means, the scorpion bit him. لسان means speech, tongue, style; language; information; news, tidings; renown or reputation. لسان العرب means, the classical language of the Arabs. لسان القوم means, the spokesman of the people. لسان الصدق means, good or lasting reputation, renown or remembrance. When a noun is prefixed to the word صدق governing it in the genitive case, it gives the idea of everlastingness. عنب صدق means, a perfectly delicious and liked grape, complete in all the qualities of the best kind (Lane & Aqrab).
علیاً (high) is derived from علا. They say علا الشیء i.e. the thing became high. علا الرجل means, he overcame the man and overpowered him. علا الدابة means, he rode the beast. علا فی الارض means, he behaved proudly and insolently in the earth. علا فی المکارم means, he acquired noble qualities. علی means, high; noble; hard and firm (Aqrab & Lane). See also 4:35.
Divine mercy has two manifestations:(a) mercy shown to a person irrespective of the fact as to who he is and what his beliefs and actions are; (b) mercy shown by God to His beloved ones and His Elect on special occasions. The latter class of mercy may be called God’s special mercy. The verse under comment speaks of this latter kind of mercy, meaning that God did not bestow upon Isaac and Jacob any particular favour out of His limitless and immeasurable mercy but made them, as it were, the very possessors of Divine mercy itself.
According to the different significations of the words علی and لسان and صدق the words, We bestowed on them a true and lasting renown, would mean, (1) that they acquired good reputation and were to be remembered with respect, affection and love by their contemporaries and future generations; (2) that their talk was full of wisdom and intelligence and was free from all sort of bitterness, obscenity, falsehood and hatred (3) that they were fearless in the expression of their beliefs and were hard upon disbelievers and untruthful persons; and (4) that their good works constituted and continued as so many monuments and memorials to their good name. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ مُوۡسٰۤی ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ مُخۡلَصًا وَّ کَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿۵۲﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ مُوسَىٰٓۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ مُخۡلَصٗا وَكَانَ رَسُولٗا نَّبِيّٗا
a. 33:70. (close)
1780. The words, he was a Messenger, a Prophet, explain and remove a popular misconception, viz. that a Rasul (Messenger) is one who brings a new Law and a new Book and a Nabi (Prophet) is one who is commissioned by God only for the reformation of his people, and though, like a Rasul, a Nabi receives Divine revelations, yet he brings no Law or Book containing new commandments and ordinances. According to this popular notion every Rasul (Messenger) is necessarily a Nabi (Prophet) but not every Nabi a Rasul. The verse under comment demolishes this wrong notion because if a Rasul (Messenger) is one who brings a new Book and a new Law and as such is necessarily a Nabi (Prophet), then the addition of the word Nabi to the word Rasul in this and other verses is superfluous and redundant. The fact is that every Rasul is a Nabi and every Nabi a Rasul. These two words are interchangeable and represent two aspects of the same office and two functions of the same person. A Divine Reformer is a Rasul inasmuch as he receives Messages from God (Risalah meaning a message), and he is a Nabi in the sense that he conveys those Messages to the people to whom he is sent (Nubuwwah meaning the conveying of a message). Thus every Rasul (Messenger) is a Nabi (Prophet) because after receiving Divine Messages he conveys them to his people and every Nabi is a Rasul because he conveys to his people those Messages which he receives from God. Only the functions of Nabi follow those of Rasul. In his capacity as Rasul he first receives Messages from God and then in his capacity as Nabi he conveys them to his people. This is why here and everywhere in the Qur’an when these two words Rasul and Nabi occur together, invariably the word Nabi follows the word Rasul because that is the natural order. (close)
a. 33:70. (close)
The account of Abraham is followed by that of Moses—Isaac and Jacob having been mentioned only casually and by the way in v. 50 above. In Moses, God’s covenant with Abraham about the progeny of Isaac, found its fullest and completest manifestation. The visible mark of this divine covenant was the bestowal of Canaan on Abraham’s progeny (Gen. 17:8) which took place in the time of Moses’ Successor. The Israelite Prophets who came after Moses were only Reformer-Prophets who carried on and fulfilled his work and mission. This is why after Moses God adverts to His promise to Abraham about Ishmael which saw its sublimest and most complete and perfect manifestation and consummation in the Holy Prophet of Islam who was a descendant of Ishmael.
The words, he was a Messenger and a Prophet, explain and remove a popular misconception. According to popular notion a رسول (Messenger) is one who brings a new Law and a new Book and a نبی (Prophet) is one who is commissioned by God only for the reformation of his people. He also receives Divine revelation but brings no Law or Book containing new commandments and ordinances. According to this popular notion every رسول (Messenger) is necessarily a نبی (Prophet) but not every نبی a رسول. The verse under comment, however, demolishes this wrong notion because if a رسول (Messenger) is one who brings a new Book and a new Law and as such is necessarily a نبی (Prophet), then the addition of the word نبی to the word رسول in this and other verses is superfluous and redundant. In fact, every رسولis a نبی and every نبی a رسول. These two words represent two aspects of the same office and two functions of the same person. A Divine Reformer is a رسول inasmuch as he receives messages from God (رسالت meaning a message) and he is a نبی in the sense that he conveys those Messages to the people to whom he is sent (نبوت meaning the conveying of a message). Thus every رسول(Messenger) is a نبی (Prophet) because after receiving Divine Messages he conveys them to his people and every نبی is a رسول because he conveys to his people those Messages which he receives from God. Only the functions of نبی follow those of رسول. In his capacity as رسولhe first receives messages from God and then in his capacity as نبیhe conveys them to his people. This is why here and everywhere in the Quran when these two words—رسول and نبی occur together, invariably the word نبی follows the word رسول because that is the natural order.
See also 7:158, 159; 19:31, 55. The bringing of a new Book or a new Law, therefore, is not the necessary concomitant of a نبی or a رسول. A رسول or a نبیmay or may not bring a new Law. All Messengers (رسول) and Prophets (نبی) are of two categories—(a) those that bring a new Book and a new Law and (b) those that do not. This classification of رسول and نبی into two categories is supported by the Quranitself. See 5:45. (close)
وَ نَادَیۡنٰہُ مِنۡ جَانِبِ الطُّوۡرِ الۡاَیۡمَنِ وَ قَرَّبۡنٰہُ نَجِیًّا ﴿۵۳﴾
وَنَٰدَيۡنَٰهُ مِن جَانِبِ ٱلطُّورِ ٱلۡأَيۡمَنِ وَقَرَّبۡنَٰهُ نَجِيّٗا
b. 20:81; 28:31. (close)
1781. The words in the text mean: (a) from the right side of the Mount; (b) from the blessed side of the Mount; (c) from the side of the blessed Mount. (close)
a. 20:81; 28:31. (close)
2195. Important Words:
أیمن (right) is derived from یمن. They say یمن اللّٰه فلاناً i.e. God blessed such a one. أیمن means, (1) blessed; (2) right as opposed to left (Aqrab). The word أیمنmay qualify both جانبor الطور. For طور (Mount) see 2:64.
نجیاً (for special communion) is derived from نجا. They say نجا الرجل i.e. he discoursed secrets with the man, or simply he discoursed with him. ناجا الرجل means, he talked with the man in private, or he discoursed secretly with him. See also 4:115 & 12:81. نجیاً means, one with whom secrets are discoursed or simply one who is discoursed or talked with. It also means, one who walks quickly. الناقة النجیة means, a quick-footed she-camel (Aqrab).
According to the two meanings of الایمن given under "Important Words" above, the first part of the verse would mean:(a) We called him from the right side of the Mount; (b) We called him from the blessed side of the Mount; or (c) We called him from the side of the blessed Mount.
Taking into consideration all the three meanings of the word نجیا the expression قربناہ نجیاً would mean:(a) We drew him near to Us in order to hold a discourse with him, i.e. We selected him for Our special communion and for opening to him the avenues of divine knowledge and secrets of the unknown; (b) when We drew him near to Us, he came to Us hastening; (c) when We drew him near to Us, We Ourselves hastened to him. In the verse under comment the word الایمن has been used with regard to Moses while with regard to the Holy Prophet the word مبارک (blessed) is used. This word has a deeper and more comprehensive meaning than ایمن. The Quran has been called مبارک i.e. a blessed Book (6:93,156; 21:51). The place where the Holy Prophet was born was مبارک i.e. blessed (3:97), and so was his landing in Medina (23:30). The divinelight which he received has also been described as مبارک (blessed) (24:36) and the word of God came to him inلیلة مبارکة i.e. blessed night (44:4). (close)
وَ وَہَبۡنَا لَہٗ مِنۡ رَّحۡمَتِنَاۤ اَخَاہُ ہٰرُوۡنَ نَبِیًّا ﴿۵۴﴾
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُۥ مِن رَّحۡمَتِنَآ أَخَاهُ هَٰرُونَ نَبِيّٗا
a. 20:30, 31; 25:36; 28:36. (close)
a. 20:30, 31; 25:36; 28:36. (close)
In 20:30 Aaron has been described as helper (وزیر) of Moses and in the present verse it is said that God bestowed Aaron upon Moses. This shows that Aaron was a follower of the Law revealed to Moses and held a subordinate position to him. It can safely be inferred from this that one Prophet can be subordinate to another Prophet. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ صَادِقَ الۡوَعۡدِ وَ کَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿ۚ۵۵﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِسۡمَٰعِيلَۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صَادِقَ ٱلۡوَعۡدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولٗا نَّبِيّٗا
1782. After Moses, mention has been made of Ishmael. His account is introduced with the words 'and relate' which shows that one chapter of religious history—that of the House of Israel, is closed and a new one, that of the House of Ishmael, has begun. (close)
God was well pleased with Abraham. He chose him and his seed for the bestowal of His special favours and blessings and for that purpose He established a covenant with him. The covenant is given in the Bible as follows:
And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation (Gen. 17:19, 20).
The covenant began with Isaac and in fulfilment of it God raised a long line of Prophets among his descendants, and also gave them worldly dominion, power and wealth. The covenant found its highest fulfilment in Moses. When, however, the long line of Prophets who came after Moses as his successors terminated with Jesus, the second part of the covenant which was to be fulfilled through Ishmael came into operation and prophethood passed from the House of Israel to that of Ishmael and this was quite in harmony with the covenant which God had established with Abraham regarding the conferring of His favour upon him and his progeny. This is why after Moses’ mention has been made of Ishmael. The account of Ishmael is introduced with the words واذکر (and relate) which shows that one chapter of religious history—that of the House of Israel, is closed and a new one has begun. The Christians have been further told in this verse that the divine covenant has not terminated with Jesus but in keeping with the promise of God with Abraham has only been transferred to the progeny of Ishmael. (close)
وَ کَانَ یَاۡمُرُ اَہۡلَہٗ بِالصَّلٰوۃِ وَ الزَّکٰوۃِ ۪ وَ کَانَ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہٖ مَرۡضِیًّا ﴿۵۶﴾
وَكَانَ يَأۡمُرُ أَهۡلَهُۥ بِٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَٱلزَّكَوٰةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِۦ مَرۡضِيّٗا
b. 20:133; 33:34. (close)
a. 20:133; 33:34. (close)
Ishmael was the progenitor of the Holy Prophet of Islam, and in Islam very great stress has been laid on the observance of the five daily Prayers and on alms-giving. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اِدۡرِیۡسَ ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ صِدِّیۡقًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿٭ۙ۵۷﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِدۡرِيسَۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صِدِّيقٗا نَّبِيّٗا
1783. Most Commentators of the Qur’an are of the opinion that Idris is Enoch of the Bible, The words Hanuk (Enoch) and Idris closely resemble each other in their meanings and significations. Whereas Idris means one who reads much or instructs much, Hanuk means instruction or dedication (Enc. Bib.). Moreover, the account of Enoch as given in the Bible and in Jewish religious literature closely resembles that of Idris as given in the Qur’an. See also "The Larger Edition of the Commentary," pp. 1597, 1598. (close)
2199. Important Words:
إدریس (Idris) is derived from أدرس which is the transitive form of درس. They say أدرس الکتاب i.e. he read the book or he read it repeatedly so as to remember it; or he made it easy to remember by much reading; or he learned or studied it. درسه الکتاب(darrasahul-kitab) or ادرسه means, he taught him the book (Lane). إدریس which means, one who reads much or teaches much is derived from ادرس as یعقوب is from عقب and اضحاک is from ضحک and یسوع is from ساع and as اسماعیل is the combination of سمع and ایل (meaning God heard) and اسرائیل is the, combination of یسر and ایل (meaning the warrior of God).
Much difference of opinion exists among lexicologists about the origin of the word إدریس. According to Lisan it is a non-Arabic proper noun. According to Asma‘i, Qurtubi and Ibn Hayyan, it is not Arabic. Ibn Sikkit, however, is of the opinion that إدریس (Idris) is an Arabic name. He says that it is derived from أدرس as ابلیس is derived from أبلس. But whatever the difference of opinion the Arabs were familiar with this name even before Islam.
Now who is this Idris? Most of the commentators of the Quran are of the opinion that he is Enoch of the Bible.حنوکand إدریس closely resemble each other in their meanings and significations. Whereas إدریس means one who reads much or instructs much, حنوک means instruction or dedication (Enc. Bib.). Moreover, the account of Enoch given in the Bible and in Jewish religious literature closely resembles that of Idris as given in the Quran. In the Bible we have: And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him (Gen. 5:24). In Targum, a famous book of Jewish traditions he has been called a holy man of God whom He gave the titles of "Safra Rabba" and "Metatron"(both words meaning a learned man or religious savant) and took up to heaven (Jew. Enc.). In the Jewish book named "Sefer Hanok" (the book of Hanuk) it is written that inhabitants of the earth became wicked, therefore God took up Hanuk to heaven and made him a guardian of the heavenly treasures and the chief of angels. In another book named "Hayye Hanok" it is written that he was a holy and righteous priest whom God sent to the world for its reformation, but when it became full of sins, God raised him up to heaven (Jew. Enc.). This account of Enoch resembles very much the picture of Idris as given in the Quran in the words: He was a truthful man and a Prophet and We exalted him to a lofty station. These commendatory expressions about Idris serve to demolish the false notions held about Jesus. The godhead of Jesus, more than anything else, rests on the belief that he was taken up to heaven alive. Now if, as Christians believe, God took up Jesus to heaven according to the present verse, Idris too was exalted to a very high station in heaven, and according to the Bible Enoch (Idris) also walked with God and was taken up to heaven (Gen. 5:24). If Jesus could be regarded as Divine and is entitled to a special spiritual status on the assumption of his having been taken up to heaven, then Idris of the Quran or Enoch of the Bible, on that very score is entitled to even a higher spiritual station. If Jesus has been called son of God in the Bible, Enoch has been called the father of the sons of God in Jewish literature. The Book of Enoch which was originally written in Hebrew and later on was translated into Greek and then into Latin contains a full account of Enoch’s life. Its translation in Russian makes very useful and interesting reading.
Ishmael and Idris have been mentioned together in the verse under comment and in 21:86, the only two places where mention has been made of Idris in the Quran. It is so because Ishmael bears a very close resemblance to him. According to the Quran Ishmael was a truthful man and so was Idris. God had raised Idris to a lofty spiritual station and so had He raised Ishmael. About Enoch we read in the Bible that God walked with him (Gen. 5:24) and about Ishmael the Bible says: "Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!" (Gen. 17:18). (close)