وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ مُوۡسٰۤی ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ مُخۡلَصًا وَّ کَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿۵۲﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ مُوسَىٰٓۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ مُخۡلَصٗا وَكَانَ رَسُولٗا نَّبِيّٗا
a. 33:70. (close)
1780. The words, he was a Messenger, a Prophet, explain and remove a popular misconception, viz. that a Rasul (Messenger) is one who brings a new Law and a new Book and a Nabi (Prophet) is one who is commissioned by God only for the reformation of his people, and though, like a Rasul, a Nabi receives Divine revelations, yet he brings no Law or Book containing new commandments and ordinances. According to this popular notion every Rasul (Messenger) is necessarily a Nabi (Prophet) but not every Nabi a Rasul. The verse under comment demolishes this wrong notion because if a Rasul (Messenger) is one who brings a new Book and a new Law and as such is necessarily a Nabi (Prophet), then the addition of the word Nabi to the word Rasul in this and other verses is superfluous and redundant. The fact is that every Rasul is a Nabi and every Nabi a Rasul. These two words are interchangeable and represent two aspects of the same office and two functions of the same person. A Divine Reformer is a Rasul inasmuch as he receives Messages from God (Risalah meaning a message), and he is a Nabi in the sense that he conveys those Messages to the people to whom he is sent (Nubuwwah meaning the conveying of a message). Thus every Rasul (Messenger) is a Nabi (Prophet) because after receiving Divine Messages he conveys them to his people and every Nabi is a Rasul because he conveys to his people those Messages which he receives from God. Only the functions of Nabi follow those of Rasul. In his capacity as Rasul he first receives Messages from God and then in his capacity as Nabi he conveys them to his people. This is why here and everywhere in the Qur’an when these two words Rasul and Nabi occur together, invariably the word Nabi follows the word Rasul because that is the natural order. (close)
a. 33:70. (close)
The account of Abraham is followed by that of Moses—Isaac and Jacob having been mentioned only casually and by the way in v. 50 above. In Moses, God’s covenant with Abraham about the progeny of Isaac, found its fullest and completest manifestation. The visible mark of this divine covenant was the bestowal of Canaan on Abraham’s progeny (Gen. 17:8) which took place in the time of Moses’ Successor. The Israelite Prophets who came after Moses were only Reformer-Prophets who carried on and fulfilled his work and mission. This is why after Moses God adverts to His promise to Abraham about Ishmael which saw its sublimest and most complete and perfect manifestation and consummation in the Holy Prophet of Islam who was a descendant of Ishmael.
The words, he was a Messenger and a Prophet, explain and remove a popular misconception. According to popular notion a رسول (Messenger) is one who brings a new Law and a new Book and a نبی (Prophet) is one who is commissioned by God only for the reformation of his people. He also receives Divine revelation but brings no Law or Book containing new commandments and ordinances. According to this popular notion every رسول (Messenger) is necessarily a نبی (Prophet) but not every نبی a رسول. The verse under comment, however, demolishes this wrong notion because if a رسول (Messenger) is one who brings a new Book and a new Law and as such is necessarily a نبی (Prophet), then the addition of the word نبی to the word رسول in this and other verses is superfluous and redundant. In fact, every رسولis a نبی and every نبی a رسول. These two words represent two aspects of the same office and two functions of the same person. A Divine Reformer is a رسول inasmuch as he receives messages from God (رسالت meaning a message) and he is a نبی in the sense that he conveys those Messages to the people to whom he is sent (نبوت meaning the conveying of a message). Thus every رسول(Messenger) is a نبی (Prophet) because after receiving Divine Messages he conveys them to his people and every نبی is a رسول because he conveys to his people those Messages which he receives from God. Only the functions of نبی follow those of رسول. In his capacity as رسولhe first receives messages from God and then in his capacity as نبیhe conveys them to his people. This is why here and everywhere in the Quran when these two words—رسول and نبی occur together, invariably the word نبی follows the word رسول because that is the natural order.
See also 7:158, 159; 19:31, 55. The bringing of a new Book or a new Law, therefore, is not the necessary concomitant of a نبی or a رسول. A رسول or a نبیmay or may not bring a new Law. All Messengers (رسول) and Prophets (نبی) are of two categories—(a) those that bring a new Book and a new Law and (b) those that do not. This classification of رسول and نبی into two categories is supported by the Quranitself. See 5:45. (close)
وَ نَادَیۡنٰہُ مِنۡ جَانِبِ الطُّوۡرِ الۡاَیۡمَنِ وَ قَرَّبۡنٰہُ نَجِیًّا ﴿۵۳﴾
وَنَٰدَيۡنَٰهُ مِن جَانِبِ ٱلطُّورِ ٱلۡأَيۡمَنِ وَقَرَّبۡنَٰهُ نَجِيّٗا
b. 20:81; 28:31. (close)
1781. The words in the text mean: (a) from the right side of the Mount; (b) from the blessed side of the Mount; (c) from the side of the blessed Mount. (close)
a. 20:81; 28:31. (close)
2195. Important Words:
أیمن (right) is derived from یمن. They say یمن اللّٰه فلاناً i.e. God blessed such a one. أیمن means, (1) blessed; (2) right as opposed to left (Aqrab). The word أیمنmay qualify both جانبor الطور. For طور (Mount) see 2:64.
نجیاً (for special communion) is derived from نجا. They say نجا الرجل i.e. he discoursed secrets with the man, or simply he discoursed with him. ناجا الرجل means, he talked with the man in private, or he discoursed secretly with him. See also 4:115 & 12:81. نجیاً means, one with whom secrets are discoursed or simply one who is discoursed or talked with. It also means, one who walks quickly. الناقة النجیة means, a quick-footed she-camel (Aqrab).
According to the two meanings of الایمن given under "Important Words" above, the first part of the verse would mean:(a) We called him from the right side of the Mount; (b) We called him from the blessed side of the Mount; or (c) We called him from the side of the blessed Mount.
Taking into consideration all the three meanings of the word نجیا the expression قربناہ نجیاً would mean:(a) We drew him near to Us in order to hold a discourse with him, i.e. We selected him for Our special communion and for opening to him the avenues of divine knowledge and secrets of the unknown; (b) when We drew him near to Us, he came to Us hastening; (c) when We drew him near to Us, We Ourselves hastened to him. In the verse under comment the word الایمن has been used with regard to Moses while with regard to the Holy Prophet the word مبارک (blessed) is used. This word has a deeper and more comprehensive meaning than ایمن. The Quran has been called مبارک i.e. a blessed Book (6:93,156; 21:51). The place where the Holy Prophet was born was مبارک i.e. blessed (3:97), and so was his landing in Medina (23:30). The divinelight which he received has also been described as مبارک (blessed) (24:36) and the word of God came to him inلیلة مبارکة i.e. blessed night (44:4). (close)
وَ وَہَبۡنَا لَہٗ مِنۡ رَّحۡمَتِنَاۤ اَخَاہُ ہٰرُوۡنَ نَبِیًّا ﴿۵۴﴾
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُۥ مِن رَّحۡمَتِنَآ أَخَاهُ هَٰرُونَ نَبِيّٗا
a. 20:30, 31; 25:36; 28:36. (close)
a. 20:30, 31; 25:36; 28:36. (close)
In 20:30 Aaron has been described as helper (وزیر) of Moses and in the present verse it is said that God bestowed Aaron upon Moses. This shows that Aaron was a follower of the Law revealed to Moses and held a subordinate position to him. It can safely be inferred from this that one Prophet can be subordinate to another Prophet. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ صَادِقَ الۡوَعۡدِ وَ کَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿ۚ۵۵﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِسۡمَٰعِيلَۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صَادِقَ ٱلۡوَعۡدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولٗا نَّبِيّٗا
1782. After Moses, mention has been made of Ishmael. His account is introduced with the words 'and relate' which shows that one chapter of religious history—that of the House of Israel, is closed and a new one, that of the House of Ishmael, has begun. (close)
God was well pleased with Abraham. He chose him and his seed for the bestowal of His special favours and blessings and for that purpose He established a covenant with him. The covenant is given in the Bible as follows:
And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation (Gen. 17:19, 20).
The covenant began with Isaac and in fulfilment of it God raised a long line of Prophets among his descendants, and also gave them worldly dominion, power and wealth. The covenant found its highest fulfilment in Moses. When, however, the long line of Prophets who came after Moses as his successors terminated with Jesus, the second part of the covenant which was to be fulfilled through Ishmael came into operation and prophethood passed from the House of Israel to that of Ishmael and this was quite in harmony with the covenant which God had established with Abraham regarding the conferring of His favour upon him and his progeny. This is why after Moses’ mention has been made of Ishmael. The account of Ishmael is introduced with the words واذکر (and relate) which shows that one chapter of religious history—that of the House of Israel, is closed and a new one has begun. The Christians have been further told in this verse that the divine covenant has not terminated with Jesus but in keeping with the promise of God with Abraham has only been transferred to the progeny of Ishmael. (close)
وَ کَانَ یَاۡمُرُ اَہۡلَہٗ بِالصَّلٰوۃِ وَ الزَّکٰوۃِ ۪ وَ کَانَ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہٖ مَرۡضِیًّا ﴿۵۶﴾
وَكَانَ يَأۡمُرُ أَهۡلَهُۥ بِٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَٱلزَّكَوٰةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِۦ مَرۡضِيّٗا
b. 20:133; 33:34. (close)
a. 20:133; 33:34. (close)
Ishmael was the progenitor of the Holy Prophet of Islam, and in Islam very great stress has been laid on the observance of the five daily Prayers and on alms-giving. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اِدۡرِیۡسَ ۫ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ صِدِّیۡقًا نَّبِیًّا ﴿٭ۙ۵۷﴾
وَٱذۡكُرۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِدۡرِيسَۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صِدِّيقٗا نَّبِيّٗا
1783. Most Commentators of the Qur’an are of the opinion that Idris is Enoch of the Bible, The words Hanuk (Enoch) and Idris closely resemble each other in their meanings and significations. Whereas Idris means one who reads much or instructs much, Hanuk means instruction or dedication (Enc. Bib.). Moreover, the account of Enoch as given in the Bible and in Jewish religious literature closely resembles that of Idris as given in the Qur’an. See also "The Larger Edition of the Commentary," pp. 1597, 1598. (close)
2199. Important Words:
إدریس (Idris) is derived from أدرس which is the transitive form of درس. They say أدرس الکتاب i.e. he read the book or he read it repeatedly so as to remember it; or he made it easy to remember by much reading; or he learned or studied it. درسه الکتاب(darrasahul-kitab) or ادرسه means, he taught him the book (Lane). إدریس which means, one who reads much or teaches much is derived from ادرس as یعقوب is from عقب and اضحاک is from ضحک and یسوع is from ساع and as اسماعیل is the combination of سمع and ایل (meaning God heard) and اسرائیل is the, combination of یسر and ایل (meaning the warrior of God).
Much difference of opinion exists among lexicologists about the origin of the word إدریس. According to Lisan it is a non-Arabic proper noun. According to Asma‘i, Qurtubi and Ibn Hayyan, it is not Arabic. Ibn Sikkit, however, is of the opinion that إدریس (Idris) is an Arabic name. He says that it is derived from أدرس as ابلیس is derived from أبلس. But whatever the difference of opinion the Arabs were familiar with this name even before Islam.
Now who is this Idris? Most of the commentators of the Quran are of the opinion that he is Enoch of the Bible.حنوکand إدریس closely resemble each other in their meanings and significations. Whereas إدریس means one who reads much or instructs much, حنوک means instruction or dedication (Enc. Bib.). Moreover, the account of Enoch given in the Bible and in Jewish religious literature closely resembles that of Idris as given in the Quran. In the Bible we have: And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him (Gen. 5:24). In Targum, a famous book of Jewish traditions he has been called a holy man of God whom He gave the titles of "Safra Rabba" and "Metatron"(both words meaning a learned man or religious savant) and took up to heaven (Jew. Enc.). In the Jewish book named "Sefer Hanok" (the book of Hanuk) it is written that inhabitants of the earth became wicked, therefore God took up Hanuk to heaven and made him a guardian of the heavenly treasures and the chief of angels. In another book named "Hayye Hanok" it is written that he was a holy and righteous priest whom God sent to the world for its reformation, but when it became full of sins, God raised him up to heaven (Jew. Enc.). This account of Enoch resembles very much the picture of Idris as given in the Quran in the words: He was a truthful man and a Prophet and We exalted him to a lofty station. These commendatory expressions about Idris serve to demolish the false notions held about Jesus. The godhead of Jesus, more than anything else, rests on the belief that he was taken up to heaven alive. Now if, as Christians believe, God took up Jesus to heaven according to the present verse, Idris too was exalted to a very high station in heaven, and according to the Bible Enoch (Idris) also walked with God and was taken up to heaven (Gen. 5:24). If Jesus could be regarded as Divine and is entitled to a special spiritual status on the assumption of his having been taken up to heaven, then Idris of the Quran or Enoch of the Bible, on that very score is entitled to even a higher spiritual station. If Jesus has been called son of God in the Bible, Enoch has been called the father of the sons of God in Jewish literature. The Book of Enoch which was originally written in Hebrew and later on was translated into Greek and then into Latin contains a full account of Enoch’s life. Its translation in Russian makes very useful and interesting reading.
Ishmael and Idris have been mentioned together in the verse under comment and in 21:86, the only two places where mention has been made of Idris in the Quran. It is so because Ishmael bears a very close resemblance to him. According to the Quran Ishmael was a truthful man and so was Idris. God had raised Idris to a lofty spiritual station and so had He raised Ishmael. About Enoch we read in the Bible that God walked with him (Gen. 5:24) and about Ishmael the Bible says: "Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!" (Gen. 17:18). (close)
وَّ رَفَعۡنٰہُ مَکَانًا عَلِیًّا ﴿۵۸﴾
وَرَفَعۡنَٰهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا
c. 2:254; 4:159. (close)
a. 2:254; 4:159. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَنۡعَمَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنَ النَّبِیّٖنَ مِنۡ ذُرِّیَّۃِ اٰدَمَ ٭ وَ مِمَّنۡ حَمَلۡنَا مَعَ نُوۡحٍ ۫ وَّ مِنۡ ذُرِّیَّۃِ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ۫ وَ مِمَّنۡ ہَدَیۡنَا وَ اجۡتَبَیۡنَا ؕ اِذَا تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتُ الرَّحۡمٰنِ خَرُّوۡا سُجَّدًا وَّ بُکِیًّا ﴿ٛ۵۹﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنۡعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِم مِّنَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ ءَادَمَ وَمِمَّنۡ حَمَلۡنَا مَعَ نُوحٖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ وَمِمَّنۡ هَدَيۡنَا وَٱجۡتَبَيۡنَآۚ إِذَا تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَايَٰتُ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ خَرُّواْۤ سُجَّدٗاۤ وَبُكِيّٗا۩
d. 1:7; 4:70; 5:21; 57:20. (close)
1784. Some Commentators of the Qur’an think that the words, of the posterity of Adam, refer to Idris, and, whom We carried in the Ark with Noah, refer to Abraham, and the words, of the posterity of Abraham, refer to Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob; and the words, of the posterity of, are understood before the word Israel and refer to Moses, Aaron, Zachariah, Yahya and Jesus, all of whom have been mentioned in the preceding verses of the present Surah. (close)
a. 17:108, 110; 32:16. (close)
b. 1:7; 4:70; 5:21; 57:20. (close)
c. 17:108,110; 32:16. (close)
This verse explains two things:(1) The Prophets whose names have been mentioned in it were righteous and holy men. But in spite of the very exalted position they held they were ordinary mortals. Jesus, like them, too, was a Prophet of God and like them a mere mortal. There was nothing in him that could entitle him to some special position. (2) These righteous and holy men were Divine Prophets and as such sinless. The Jews in the Old Testament (Gen. 9:21-23; 19:31-38; 20:2; Exod. 32:1-4); and Christians in the New Testament (John 10:8) hurled at these paragons of piety and righteousness very filthy charges, the former in order to screen their own crimes and the latter in order to establish the exclusive sinlessness of Jesus. Special stress has been laid on their holiness in the verse under comment and it is in order to clear them completely of the charges attributed to them and also to demolish the wrong notion of the exclusive sinlessness of Jesus that the words "whom We guided and chose" have been used about them.
Some commentators of the Quran think that the words 'of the posterity of Adam' refer to Idris, and whom we carried in the Ark with Noah to Abraham, and the words, of the posterity of Abraham, refer to Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, and the words, of the posterity of, understood before the word Israel, to Moses, Aaron, Zachariah, Yahya and Jesus, all of whom have been mentioned in the preceding verses of the present Surah. (close)
فَخَلَفَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ خَلۡفٌ اَضَاعُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اتَّبَعُوا الشَّہَوٰتِ فَسَوۡفَ یَلۡقَوۡنَ غَیًّا ﴿ۙ۶۰﴾
۞فَخَلَفَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ خَلۡفٌ أَضَاعُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَٱتَّبَعُواْ ٱلشَّهَوَٰتِۖ فَسَوۡفَ يَلۡقَوۡنَ غَيًّا
b. 7:170. (close)
1785. In fact, negligence and remissness in observing Prayers make a person ignorant of Divine attributes and kill in him the desire to establish his connection with his Creator which in turn throws him into the clutches of the Devil. And whereas negligence in invoking Divine mercy and in praying to God leads to failure, the pursuit of evil desires results in apathy towards true knowledge and indulgence in obscenities and idle pursuits; and all these things combined together bring about complete moral and spiritual ruin of a person. (close)
a. 7:170. (close)
2201. Important Words:
غیاً (destruction) is derived from غوی which means, he erred; he deviated from the right way or course; he persisted in ignorance, he failed in attaining his desire; he acted ignorantly from misbelief; he perished (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:17.
In fact negligence and remissness in observing prayers makes a person ignorant of Divine attributes and kills in him the desire to establish his connection with the Creator which in turn throws him into the clutches of the Devil. And whereas negligence in invoking Divine mercy and praying to God leads to failure, the pursuit of evil desires results in apathy towards true knowledge and indulgence in obscenities and idle pursuits; and all these things combined together bring about complete moral and spiritual ruin. (close)
اِلَّا مَنۡ تَابَ وَ اٰمَنَ وَ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَدۡخُلُوۡنَ الۡجَنَّۃَ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا ﴿ۙ۶۱﴾
إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَٰلِحٗا فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ يَدۡخُلُونَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ شَيۡـٔٗا
c. 6:49; 18:89; 25:71; 34:38. (close)
1786. The epithet "good deeds" is more applicable to such acts as are done at the proper occasion and suit the exigencies of time than to mere devotional acts, as is generally understood. (close)
b. 6:49; 18:89; 25:71; 34:38. (close)
The epithet عمل صالح is more applicable to such acts as are done at the proper occasion and suit the exigencies of time than mere devotional acts, as is generally understood. (close)