وَ کَذٰلِکَ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ قُرۡاٰنًا عَرَبِیًّا وَّ صَرَّفۡنَا فِیۡہِ مِنَ الۡوَعِیۡدِ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَتَّقُوۡنَ اَوۡ یُحۡدِثُ لَہُمۡ ذِکۡرًا ﴿۱۱۴﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ قُرۡءَانًا عَرَبِيّٗا وَصَرَّفۡنَا فِيهِ مِنَ ٱلۡوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَّقُونَ أَوۡ يُحۡدِثُ لَهُمۡ ذِكۡرٗا
c. 42:8; 43:4; 46:13. (close)
c. 42:8; 43:4; 46:13. (close)
The verse purports to say that if the western nations wish to escape the Divine punishment which they have incurred by their evil deeds, and which is in store for them; they can do so by accepting the message of Islam and by following the Holy Prophet. (close)
فَتَعٰلَی اللّٰہُ الۡمَلِکُ الۡحَقُّ ۚ وَ لَا تَعۡجَلۡ بِالۡقُرۡاٰنِ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ اَنۡ یُّقۡضٰۤی اِلَیۡکَ وَحۡیُہٗ ۫ وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ زِدۡنِیۡ عِلۡمًا ﴿۱۱۵﴾
فَتَعَٰلَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡحَقُّۗ وَلَا تَعۡجَلۡ بِٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ مِن قَبۡلِ أَن يُقۡضَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكَ وَحۡيُهُۥۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدۡنِي عِلۡمٗا
d. 23:117. (close)
1855. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'Seek knowledge though it may be found in a country as far away as China' (Saghir, vol. 1). Elsewhere in the Qur’an, knowledge has been styled as 'God’s great grace' (2:270 & 4:114). Knowledge is of two kinds: (a) That which is vouchsafed to man through revelation and which has found its perfect manifestation in the Qur’an. (b) That which man acquires by his own effort and labour. (close)
a. 23:117. (close)
The words O my Lord, increase me in knowledge show the great importance that the Quran attaches to the acquirement of knowledge. Even the Holy Prophet to whom was vouchsafed knowledge about the generations that have passed away and about those that are yet to be born أوتیت علم الاولین و الآخرین)), is taught to pray that his knowledge may be increased. He is further reported to have said, "Seek knowledge though it may be found in a country as far away as China" (Saghir vol. 1). Elsewhere in the Quran knowledge has been styled as "God’s great grace" (2:270 & 4:114).
The verse also implies that all knowledge is of two kinds: (a) that which is vouchsafed to man through revelation and which has found its perfect manifestation in the Quran which is the last and most perfect Divine teaching; (b) that which man acquires by his own effort and labour. It is this second kind of knowledge for the acquisition of which man is enjoined in the present verse to make ceaseless effort.
The verse also implies that the Quran will come to be increasingly read and followed. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ عَہِدۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اٰدَمَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ فَنَسِیَ وَ لَمۡ نَجِدۡ لَہٗ عَزۡمًا ﴿۱۱۶﴾٪
وَلَقَدۡ عَهِدۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ مِن قَبۡلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمۡ نَجِدۡ لَهُۥ عَزۡمٗا
1856. The verse shows that Adam’s lapse was only an error of judgment. It was inadvertent and involuntary and not at all intentional or deliberate. To err is human. (close)
2324. Important Words:
عھدنا (We had made a covenant). عھد means, he promised. عھد الامر means, he knew the affair. عھد فلان وعدہ means, he guarded and fulfilled his promise. عھد الی فلان means, he enjoined upon him or commanded him and made it a condition for him (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse shows that Adam’s lapse was only an error of judgement on his part. It was quite inadvertent and involuntary and not at all intentional or deliberate. To err is human and man, however spiritually exalted he might be, is prone to forgetfulness and consequently is sometimes liable to falter. (close)
وَ اِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِاٰدَمَ فَسَجَدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِیۡسَ ؕ اَبٰی ﴿۱۱۷﴾
وَإِذۡ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ ٱسۡجُدُواْ لِأٓدَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ أَبَىٰ
a. 2:35; 7:12, 13; 15:27-34; 17:62; 18:51; 38:72-75. (close)
a. 2:35; 7:12-13; 15:27-34; 17:62; 18:51; 38:72-75. (close)
Who was this Adam who is mentioned in this verse and when and where he lived, is apertinent question. Adam, who lived about 6000 years ago is popularly believed to be the first man created by God upon this earth. This view is neither substantiated and proved by facts of history nor supported by the Quran. The truth is that the world has passed through different cycles of creation and civilization, and Adam, the progenitor of the present human race, was only the first link in the present cycle and not the very first man in God’s creation. There must have lived many Adams before him. Modern science has computed one million years as the age of human race. (Enc. Brit. 14th Edit., p.767). It is not claimed that the race which lived before Adam was entirely swept away before he was born. Most probably there had remained a small remnant of the old race and Adam was one of them. But he himself became the progenitor of a new race and the precursor of a new civilization. It is difficult to say whether the original inhabitants of America, Australia, etc. are the progeny of this last Adam, or some other Adam who had gone before him. Iraq is considered by archaeologists to be the place where Adam lived. See also 2:31 and 7:12.
The expression اسجدوا لآدم (submit to Adam)does not mean, "prostrate before Adam", because prostration before anything or being except God is, according to the Quran, a heinous sin and therefore completely forbidden (41:38). So prostration before Adam by way of worship being opposed to the express teaching of the Quran, a command to that effect could never have proceeded from God. The expression therefore has evidently been used here in the sense of "obey Adam" or "submit to Adam" i.e. "assist him in the discharge of his great duties." This is a Divine command which is given to the angels and through them to all men whenever a messenger of God appears in the world. A reference to this fact is to be found in a famous saying of the Holy Prophet. He is reported to have said: "When God loves a person He communicates this fact to the Arch-angel Gabriel who also begins to love him and proclaims in heaven that God loves a certain person. Upon this all the angels in heaven also begin to love him. The process continues till the person comes to be loved by all good and righteous men on earth" (Bukhari, Kitab bad’ul-Khalq). Thus the command to the angels to submit to Adam applied to Iblis also. Elsewhere it is expressly stated in the Quran (7:13) that Iblis was also commanded to submit to Adam. So there is no point in the objection that as only the angels were commanded to submit, Iblis could not have been justifiably called to account for not carrying out this command.
أبی (he refused). Iblis refused to obey Adam because (1) he considered the teaching of Adam to be against his interests; (2) he looked upon Adam as of lower status to himself; (3) he regarded the ideals of Adam as incapable of being achieved and because also (4) he led a life of deceit and falsehood. See also 2:35, 36, 37. (close)
فَقُلۡنَا یٰۤـاٰدَمُ اِنَّ ہٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّکَ وَ لِزَوۡجِکَ فَلَا یُخۡرِجَنَّکُمَا مِنَ الۡجَنَّۃِ فَتَشۡقٰی ﴿۱۱۸﴾
فَقُلۡنَا يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوّٞ لَّكَ وَلِزَوۡجِكَ فَلَا يُخۡرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ فَتَشۡقَىٰٓ
b. 7:23; 18:51. (close)
1857. Adam is warned that if he succumbed to the blandishments held out to him by Iblis and accepted his advice, he would become deprived of Jannah, i.e. life of bliss and spiritual contentment which he formerly enjoyed. (close)
a. 7:23; 18:51. (close)
الجنة (the garden) does not refer to Heaven or Paradise but only to the garden-like place where Adam was first made to live. The word cannot refer to heaven; first, because it was on the earth that Adam was made to live, as the words: "I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth" (2:31) indicate; and secondly, because heaven is a place from where no one having once entered it can ever be expelled (15:49), whereas Adam was compelled to leave the جنة referred to in this verse. Recent archaeological researches show that the place where Adam was made to dwell was the garden of Eden which lay near Babylon in Iraq, and which was given this name on account of the great fertility of its soil (Enc. Brit. under "Ur"). See also 2:35, 36.
The Bible also lends support to this view. It says: "And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom He had formed" (Gen. 2:8).
The verse means to warn Adam that if he succumbed to the blandishments held out to him by Iblis and accepted his advice, he would become deprived of جنة i.e. the life of bliss, comfort and spiritual contentment which he had formerly enjoyed. (close)
اِنَّ لَکَ اَلَّا تَجُوۡعَ فِیۡہَا وَ لَا تَعۡرٰی ﴿۱۱۹﴾ۙ
إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعۡرَىٰ
See next verse. (close)
وَ اَنَّکَ لَا تَظۡمَؤُا فِیۡہَا وَ لَا تَضۡحٰی ﴿۱۲۰﴾
وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظۡمَؤُاْ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضۡحَىٰ
1858. Reference in this and the preceding verse seems to be to the amenities and comforts which are the concomitants of civilized life. These two verses point to the fact that to provide food, clothing and shelter to its people—their primary necessities of life—is the first duty of a civilized government and that a society can only be called civilized when all its members are adequately provided with these necessities. Mankind will continue to suffer from social upheavals, and the moral tone of human society will never really improve unless economic inequalities of such a serious nature, that some sections of society roll in wealth and others die of starvation, are done away with. Adam is told here that he will live in a place where amenities and necessities of life will be adequately available to all its inhabitants. This state of affairs has been described elsewhere in the Qur’an in the words, and eat therefrom plentifully wherever you will (2:36). The verse under comment also shows that with Adam began a new social order and that he laid the foundations of a kingdom which ushered in the era of social progress of man. (close)
The reference in this and the preceding verse seems to be to the amenities and comforts which are the concomitants of civilized life. These two verses point to the fact that to provide food, clothing and housing to its people which are their primary necessities of life is the first duty of a civilized government and that a society can only be called civilized when all its members are provided with these necessities. Mankind will continue to suffer from social upheavals and the moral tone of human society will never really improve unless economic inequalities of such a serious nature that some sections of society roll in wealth and others die of starvation, are done away with. Adam is told in these verses that he will live in a place where amenities and necessities of life will be adequately available to all its inhabitants. This state of affairs has been described elsewhere in the Quran in the words, And eat therefrom plentifully wherever you will (2:36). The verse under comment also shows that with Adam began a new social order and that he laid the foundations of a kingdom which ushered in the era of social progress of man. (close)
فَوَسۡوَسَ اِلَیۡہِ الشَّیۡطٰنُ قَالَ یٰۤـاٰدَمُ ہَلۡ اَدُلُّکَ عَلٰی شَجَرَۃِ الۡخُلۡدِ وَ مُلۡکٍ لَّا یَبۡلٰی ﴿۱۲۱﴾
فَوَسۡوَسَ إِلَيۡهِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ قَالَ يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ هَلۡ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ ٱلۡخُلۡدِ وَمُلۡكٖ لَّا يَبۡلَىٰ
a. 2:37; 7:21. (close)
1859. There exists in the world no such tree as 'the tree of eternity.' The 'tree,' as mentioned here and elsewhere in the Qur’an, was a certain family or tribe from which Adam was bidden to keep aloof because its members were his enemies. (close)
a. 2:37; 7:21. (close)
2329. Important Words:
شیطان (Satan) is either derived from شطن or شاط and means, (1) the being who is not only himself far from truth but also turns others away from it; and (2) the being who burns with hate and anger and is lost (Aqrab & Mufradat). See also 2:15.
In common usage شیطان signifies (1) the Evil Spirit i.e. Satan; (2) anybody who greatly transgresses proper limits and is excessively proud and rebellious; (3) any evil propensity or inclination. شیطان (Satan) is a very general term and is of much wider significance than ابلیس (Iblis), for whereas Iblis is the name given to the Evil Spirit who belonged to the jinn and refused to serve Adam, thereafter becoming the leader of the forces of evil, شیطان is any evil or harmful being or thing, whether a spirit or a human being or an animal or a disease, etc. The Quran mentions ابلیس and شیطان side by side wherever the story of Adam is given, but everywhere a distinction is observed between the two. Wherever the Quran speaks of the being who, unlike the angels, refused to serve Adam, it invariably mentions the name Iblis and wherever it speaks of the being who beguiled Adam and became the means of his being turned out of جنة (garden) it mentions the name "Satan". This distinction, which is most significant and which has been maintained throughout the Quran, shows that Iblis and Satan are two aspects of the same being or person. When he refuses to believe in Adam and to submit to him, he is called Iblis but when he translates his refusal into action and opposes him and puts all sorts of obstacles in his way and creates difficulties for him, he is called Satan. It may further be added that الشیطان mentioned in connection with Adam was one of his own people.
As for شجرة الخلد (the tree of eternity), the Quran elsewhere makes mention of two شجرة (trees) i.e. شجرة طیبة (good tree) and شجرة خبیثة (evil tree). See 14:25 & 27. In the Quran pure things are likened to the former and impure things to the latter. In view of this explanation it appears that Adam was enjoined to avoid quarrels and useless wranglings which are calculated to create discord and disharmony in a family, otherwise there exists in the world no such tree as "tree of eternity" the eating of whose fruit makes a man naked or provides him with the knowledge of good and evil. The "tree" as mentioned in the present verse and elsewhere in the Quran was a certain family or tribe from which Adam was bidden to keep aloof because its members were his enemies. (close)
فَاَکَلَا مِنۡہَا فَبَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ۫ وَ عَصٰۤی اٰدَمُ رَبَّہٗ فَغَوٰی ﴿۱۲۲﴾۪ۖ
فَأَكَلَا مِنۡهَا فَبَدَتۡ لَهُمَا سَوۡءَٰتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۚ وَعَصَىٰٓ ءَادَمُ رَبَّهُۥ فَغَوَىٰ
b. 7.23; 20:122. (close)
1860. As a result of acceptance by Adam of Satan’s suggestions a split occurred among his people which caused him much distress and mental anguish. Adam and Eve discovered that by acting upon the evil suggestions of Satan, they had made a grievous mistake and had involved themselves in great trouble. The verse does not mean that their weakness became known to other people but that only Adam and Eve themselves became conscious of it. (close)
1861. Waraq also meaning young lads of a community (Lane), the verse purports to say that as Satan had succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of the morally weak members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the youth and other righteous and good members of the community and with their help began to reorganize his people. According to the Bible, Adam used fig leaves (Gen. 3:6, 7), which in the language of visions signify young righteous and pious people. (close)
a. 7:23; 20:122. (close)
2330. Important Words:
سوآت (shame) is the plural of سوءة which is derived from ساء which means, it was or became evil, foul or abominable. سوءة means, any evil, foul or abominable saying or action or habit or practice; any saying or action of which one is ashamed when it appears and which one would like to hide; any disgracing action or thing; the external portion of organs of generation of a man or of a woman; corpse or dead body; nakedness (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:21.
ورق (leaves) is both singular and plural and is substantive noun from the verb ورق (waraqa). They say ورق الشجر i.e. the tree put forth leaves. أورق الرجل means, the man became rich. انت طیب الورق means, thou hast a good and righteous progeny. ورق means, leaves, foliage; sheet of paper; the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community. It also signifies the beauty of the things of this world and their resplendence (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:23.
غوی (his life became miserable) means, he erred; he deviated from the right way; he acted ignorantly; he failed in his object and was disappointed; he was lost; his life became unpleasant (Aqrab, Lane & Mufradat).
As a result of acceptance by Adam of Satan’s suggestion a split occurred among his people which caused him much distress and mental anguish.
The words, their shame became manifest, mean that the evil consequences of their lapse began to appear and they realized their weaknesses. They discovered that by acting upon the evil suggestions of Satan, they had made a grievous mistake and had involved themselves in great trouble. The verse does not mean that their weakness became known to other people but that only Adam and Eve became conscious of it.
As ورق also means young lads of a community(see under "Important Words" above) the verse purports to say that as Satan had succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of the spiritually weaker members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the youth and other righteous and good members of the community and with their help began to reorganize his people. It is generally the youth of a community who first accept the teachings of a Divine Messenger because they have no preconceived ideas, prejudices and inhibitions to shed. Their minds are like a clean slate and they find no difficulty in accepting a teaching which appeals to their reason and conscience. See also 7:23.
The Bible describes Adam’s lapse in the words: "And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. And the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons" (Gen. 3:6-7). Thus whereas, according to the Quran, Adam hid his nakedness with 'the leaves of the garden', which means the young lads or pious and righteous members of the community, according to the Bible he used the fig leaves which in the language of visions also signify righteous and pious people. So there is no contradiction or incongruity between the Quranic and the Biblical statements in this respect.
That Adam’s disobedience was not deliberate but casual and accidental is evident from v. 116 above. (close)
ثُمَّ اجۡتَبٰہُ رَبُّہٗ فَتَابَ عَلَیۡہِ وَ ہَدٰی ﴿۱۲۳﴾
ثُمَّ ٱجۡتَبَٰهُ رَبُّهُۥ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡهِ وَهَدَىٰ
1862. The verse shows that Adam’s act of disobedience was inadvertent and accidental, for an act of deliberate disobedience could not have been followed by the great honour of his being selected by God for His special favour. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
The words, Then his Lord chose him, also indicate that Adam’s act of disobedience was inadvertent and unconscious, for an act of deliberate disobedience could not have been followed by the great honour of his being selected by God for His favour. The verse means to say that when Adam realized his mistake and repented of it and sought God’s forgiveness, God took pity on him, chose him for His grace, and revealed to him the right plan by employing which he could successfully foil and defeat Satan’s machinations. (close)