فَوَسۡوَسَ اِلَیۡہِ الشَّیۡطٰنُ قَالَ یٰۤـاٰدَمُ ہَلۡ اَدُلُّکَ عَلٰی شَجَرَۃِ الۡخُلۡدِ وَ مُلۡکٍ لَّا یَبۡلٰی ﴿۱۲۱﴾
فَوَسۡوَسَ إِلَيۡهِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ قَالَ يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ هَلۡ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ ٱلۡخُلۡدِ وَمُلۡكٖ لَّا يَبۡلَىٰ
a. 2:37; 7:21. (close)
1859. There exists in the world no such tree as 'the tree of eternity.' The 'tree,' as mentioned here and elsewhere in the Qur’an, was a certain family or tribe from which Adam was bidden to keep aloof because its members were his enemies. (close)
a. 2:37; 7:21. (close)
2329. Important Words:
شیطان (Satan) is either derived from شطن or شاط and means, (1) the being who is not only himself far from truth but also turns others away from it; and (2) the being who burns with hate and anger and is lost (Aqrab & Mufradat). See also 2:15.
In common usage شیطان signifies (1) the Evil Spirit i.e. Satan; (2) anybody who greatly transgresses proper limits and is excessively proud and rebellious; (3) any evil propensity or inclination. شیطان (Satan) is a very general term and is of much wider significance than ابلیس (Iblis), for whereas Iblis is the name given to the Evil Spirit who belonged to the jinn and refused to serve Adam, thereafter becoming the leader of the forces of evil, شیطان is any evil or harmful being or thing, whether a spirit or a human being or an animal or a disease, etc. The Quran mentions ابلیس and شیطان side by side wherever the story of Adam is given, but everywhere a distinction is observed between the two. Wherever the Quran speaks of the being who, unlike the angels, refused to serve Adam, it invariably mentions the name Iblis and wherever it speaks of the being who beguiled Adam and became the means of his being turned out of جنة (garden) it mentions the name "Satan". This distinction, which is most significant and which has been maintained throughout the Quran, shows that Iblis and Satan are two aspects of the same being or person. When he refuses to believe in Adam and to submit to him, he is called Iblis but when he translates his refusal into action and opposes him and puts all sorts of obstacles in his way and creates difficulties for him, he is called Satan. It may further be added that الشیطان mentioned in connection with Adam was one of his own people.
As for شجرة الخلد (the tree of eternity), the Quran elsewhere makes mention of two شجرة (trees) i.e. شجرة طیبة (good tree) and شجرة خبیثة (evil tree). See 14:25 & 27. In the Quran pure things are likened to the former and impure things to the latter. In view of this explanation it appears that Adam was enjoined to avoid quarrels and useless wranglings which are calculated to create discord and disharmony in a family, otherwise there exists in the world no such tree as "tree of eternity" the eating of whose fruit makes a man naked or provides him with the knowledge of good and evil. The "tree" as mentioned in the present verse and elsewhere in the Quran was a certain family or tribe from which Adam was bidden to keep aloof because its members were his enemies. (close)
فَاَکَلَا مِنۡہَا فَبَدَتۡ لَہُمَا سَوۡاٰتُہُمَا وَ طَفِقَا یَخۡصِفٰنِ عَلَیۡہِمَا مِنۡ وَّرَقِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ۫ وَ عَصٰۤی اٰدَمُ رَبَّہٗ فَغَوٰی ﴿۱۲۲﴾۪ۖ
فَأَكَلَا مِنۡهَا فَبَدَتۡ لَهُمَا سَوۡءَٰتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۚ وَعَصَىٰٓ ءَادَمُ رَبَّهُۥ فَغَوَىٰ
b. 7.23; 20:122. (close)
1860. As a result of acceptance by Adam of Satan’s suggestions a split occurred among his people which caused him much distress and mental anguish. Adam and Eve discovered that by acting upon the evil suggestions of Satan, they had made a grievous mistake and had involved themselves in great trouble. The verse does not mean that their weakness became known to other people but that only Adam and Eve themselves became conscious of it. (close)
1861. Waraq also meaning young lads of a community (Lane), the verse purports to say that as Satan had succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of the morally weak members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the youth and other righteous and good members of the community and with their help began to reorganize his people. According to the Bible, Adam used fig leaves (Gen. 3:6, 7), which in the language of visions signify young righteous and pious people. (close)
a. 7:23; 20:122. (close)
2330. Important Words:
سوآت (shame) is the plural of سوءة which is derived from ساء which means, it was or became evil, foul or abominable. سوءة means, any evil, foul or abominable saying or action or habit or practice; any saying or action of which one is ashamed when it appears and which one would like to hide; any disgracing action or thing; the external portion of organs of generation of a man or of a woman; corpse or dead body; nakedness (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:21.
ورق (leaves) is both singular and plural and is substantive noun from the verb ورق (waraqa). They say ورق الشجر i.e. the tree put forth leaves. أورق الرجل means, the man became rich. انت طیب الورق means, thou hast a good and righteous progeny. ورق means, leaves, foliage; sheet of paper; the prime and freshness of a thing; the young lads of a community. It also signifies the beauty of the things of this world and their resplendence (Lane & Aqrab). See also 7:23.
غوی (his life became miserable) means, he erred; he deviated from the right way; he acted ignorantly; he failed in his object and was disappointed; he was lost; his life became unpleasant (Aqrab, Lane & Mufradat).
As a result of acceptance by Adam of Satan’s suggestion a split occurred among his people which caused him much distress and mental anguish.
The words, their shame became manifest, mean that the evil consequences of their lapse began to appear and they realized their weaknesses. They discovered that by acting upon the evil suggestions of Satan, they had made a grievous mistake and had involved themselves in great trouble. The verse does not mean that their weakness became known to other people but that only Adam and Eve became conscious of it.
As ورق also means young lads of a community(see under "Important Words" above) the verse purports to say that as Satan had succeeded in causing a split in Adam’s community and some of the spiritually weaker members had gone out of its fold, Adam gathered together the youth and other righteous and good members of the community and with their help began to reorganize his people. It is generally the youth of a community who first accept the teachings of a Divine Messenger because they have no preconceived ideas, prejudices and inhibitions to shed. Their minds are like a clean slate and they find no difficulty in accepting a teaching which appeals to their reason and conscience. See also 7:23.
The Bible describes Adam’s lapse in the words: "And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. And the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons" (Gen. 3:6-7). Thus whereas, according to the Quran, Adam hid his nakedness with 'the leaves of the garden', which means the young lads or pious and righteous members of the community, according to the Bible he used the fig leaves which in the language of visions also signify righteous and pious people. So there is no contradiction or incongruity between the Quranic and the Biblical statements in this respect.
That Adam’s disobedience was not deliberate but casual and accidental is evident from v. 116 above. (close)
ثُمَّ اجۡتَبٰہُ رَبُّہٗ فَتَابَ عَلَیۡہِ وَ ہَدٰی ﴿۱۲۳﴾
ثُمَّ ٱجۡتَبَٰهُ رَبُّهُۥ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡهِ وَهَدَىٰ
1862. The verse shows that Adam’s act of disobedience was inadvertent and accidental, for an act of deliberate disobedience could not have been followed by the great honour of his being selected by God for His special favour. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
a. 2:38. (close)
The words, Then his Lord chose him, also indicate that Adam’s act of disobedience was inadvertent and unconscious, for an act of deliberate disobedience could not have been followed by the great honour of his being selected by God for His favour. The verse means to say that when Adam realized his mistake and repented of it and sought God’s forgiveness, God took pity on him, chose him for His grace, and revealed to him the right plan by employing which he could successfully foil and defeat Satan’s machinations. (close)
قَالَ اہۡبِطَا مِنۡہَا جَمِیۡعًۢا بَعۡضُکُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۚ فَاِمَّا یَاۡتِیَنَّکُمۡ مِّنِّیۡ ہُدًی ۬ۙ فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ ہُدَایَ فَلَا یَضِلُّ وَ لَا یَشۡقٰی ﴿۱۲۴﴾
قَالَ ٱهۡبِطَا مِنۡهَا جَمِيعَۢاۖ بَعۡضُكُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوّٞۖ فَإِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدٗى فَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشۡقَىٰ
b. 2:37-39; 7:25. (close)
1863. The words, 'both of you,' signify two groups of people, i.e. the followers of Adam and the followers of Satan. The words, kum (you) and Jami‘ (all of you), also show that the verse refers not to two persons but to two groups of persons or to two parties. This is also clear from 7:25 where the plural number Ihbitu (go forth all of you) has been used instead of Ihbita (go forth both of you). It appears that Adam emigrated from Iraq, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring country. The emigration was perhaps a temporary one, and he must have returned to his native land not long after. The words, a provision for a time (7:25), contain a hint about the emigration being a temporary one. (close)
The words "both of you", signify two groups of people i.e. the followers of Adam and the followers of Satan. The word کم (you) and جمیعا (all of you) also show that the verse refers not to two persons but to two groups of persons or parties. This is also clear from 7:25 where the plural number اھبطوا (go forth all of you) has been used instead of اھبطا (go forth both of you).
It appears that Adam migrated from Iraq, the land of his birth, to a neighbouring country. The migration was perhaps a temporary one, and he must have returned to his native land not long after. The words, a provision for a time, contain a hint about the migration being a temporary one. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَعۡرَضَ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِیۡ فَاِنَّ لَہٗ مَعِیۡشَۃً ضَنۡکًا وَّ نَحۡشُرُہٗ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اَعۡمٰی ﴿۱۲۵﴾
وَمَنۡ أَعۡرَضَ عَن ذِكۡرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُۥ مَعِيشَةٗ ضَنكٗا وَنَحۡشُرُهُۥ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ أَعۡمَىٰ
c. 18:102. (close)
1864. A person, who consigns God to oblivion in this life and leads a life which obstructs or impedes his spiritual development and thus deprives himself of heavenly light, will be born blind at the time of his second birth in the life after. This will be because his soul in this life which will serve as a body for the more spiritually developed soul in the next world had become blind, because he had led a life of sin in this world. (close)
The verse means to say that a person who consigns God to oblivion in this life and leads a life which obstructs or impedes his spiritual development and growth and thus deprives himself of heavenly light will be born blind at the time of his second birth in the afterlife. This will be because his soul in this life which serves as a body for the much more spiritually developed soul in the next world had become blind on account of his having led a sinful and depraved life in this world. This is one meaning of the verse.
It may have another interpretation. معیشة (life) signifies the basis of human life and it is not only physical amenities and comforts on which human life depends but other innumerable things also contribute to its sustenance and to man’s social, moral and spiritual development. Of these things those people who reject Divine teaching remain deprived and thus they lead a difficult life, full of strains and stresses. Moreover, the sphere of action of the rejecters of Divine teaching is very narrow and limited because they have no grand and great goal before them, as it is belief in Divine attributes and the development by man of these attributes in his person that help to broaden his vision. This is why the Prophets of God and His Elect stand on a much higher moral plane than the votaries of philosophy. (close)
قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرۡتَنِیۡۤ اَعۡمٰی وَ قَدۡ کُنۡتُ بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۶﴾
قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرۡتَنِيٓ أَعۡمَىٰ وَقَدۡ كُنتُ بَصِيرٗا
قَالَ کَذٰلِکَ اَتَتۡکَ اٰیٰتُنَا فَنَسِیۡتَہَا ۚ وَکَذٰلِکَ الۡیَوۡمَ تُنۡسٰی ﴿۱۲۷﴾
قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتۡكَ ءَايَٰتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَاۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ تُنسَىٰ
1865. In answer to the disbeliever’s protestation as to why he was raised up blind while he was possessed of sight in the former life, God would say that he had become spiritually blind in his worldly life on account of his having led a life of sin; and as his soul was to serve as a body for another much more spiritually developed soul in the life after, therefore he was born blind in the Hereafter. The verse may also mean that as a disbeliever does not develop in him Divine attributes and remains a stranger to them, so when on the Day of Resurrection those attributes will be manifested in all their splendour and glory, he, being a stranger to them, will not be able to recognize them, and thus will stand like a blind man, having no recollection or remembrance of them. (close)
In answer to the disbeliever’s protestation as to why he was raised up blind while he was possessed of sight in the former life, God would say that he had become spiritually blind in that world on account of his having led a life of disbelief and sin, and as his soul was to serve as a body for another much more spiritually developed soul in the afterlife, therefore he was born blind in the Hereafter.
The verse possesses another interpretation: As a disbeliever does not develop within himself divine attributes and remains a stranger to them, on the Day of Resurrection when those attributes will be manifested in their full splendour and glory, he—being stranger to them—will not be able to recognize them and will thus stand like a blind man, having had no recollection or remembrance of them. (close)
وَ کَذٰلِکَ نَجۡزِیۡ مَنۡ اَسۡرَفَ وَ لَمۡ یُؤۡمِنۡۢ بِاٰیٰتِ رَبِّہٖ ؕ وَ لَعَذَابُ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ اَشَدُّ وَ اَبۡقٰی ﴿۱۲۸﴾
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجۡزِي مَنۡ أَسۡرَفَ وَلَمۡ يُؤۡمِنۢ بِـَٔايَٰتِ رَبِّهِۦۚ وَلَعَذَابُ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ أَشَدُّ وَأَبۡقَىٰٓ
The verse presents some difficulty. In the preceding three verses we are told that a disbeliever will be raised up blind in the hereafter as a punishment for having turned a blind eye to God’s attributes and in this verse it is stated that the punishment of the Hereafter is surely severer and more lasting, which means that there will be another punishment severer and more lasting than the former punishment. What are these two punishments of the Hereafter? This difficulty is solved by vv. 2:167 and 6:95 wherein it is stated that when disbelievers will be disowned by their false gods and will be left alone, the falsity of their beliefs will dawn on them and consequently their remorse and frustration will be bitter in the extreme. That bitter realization will constitute the first punishment and the torment of Hell will form the second and more severe punishment. (close)
اَفَلَمۡ یَہۡدِ لَہُمۡ کَمۡ اَہۡلَکۡنَا قَبۡلَہُمۡ مِّنَ الۡقُرُوۡنِ یَمۡشُوۡنَ فِیۡ مَسٰکِنِہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّاُولِی النُّہٰی ﴿۱۲۹﴾٪
أَفَلَمۡ يَهۡدِ لَهُمۡ كَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا قَبۡلَهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡقُرُونِ يَمۡشُونَ فِي مَسَٰكِنِهِمۡۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّأُوْلِي ٱلنُّهَىٰ
a. 17:18; 36:32. (close)
The verse embodies a perpetual warning for the deniers of Divine Messengers that they will ultimately come to grief. It is an invariable and immutable divine law that rejection of Divine teaching lands the rejecters in utter ruin and destruction. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَا کَلِمَۃٌ سَبَقَتۡ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ لَکَانَ لِزَامًا وَّ اَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّی ﴿۱۳۰﴾ؕ
وَلَوۡلَا كَلِمَةٞ سَبَقَتۡ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَكَانَ لِزَامٗا وَأَجَلٞ مُّسَمّٗى
a. 8:69; 10:20. (close)
1866. The reference is to the Divine declaration contained in the verse, 'My mercy encompasses all things' (7:157). God in His infallible wisdom has decreed that His mercy will continue to transcend all His other attributes. (close)
b. 8:69; 10:20. (close)
2336. Important Words:
لزاماً (inevitable) is derived from لزم. They say لزمه i.e. it necessarily or inseparably belonged to it, clove or adhered to him or it. لزام الامر means, the affair became incumbent upon him. ألزمه شیئا means, he obliged him to do or endure a thing or He (God) decreed or ordained to him a thing; he made a thing cleave to him or he made him to cleave to a thing. لزاماً means, death; reckoning; such as cleaves fast; a thing inseparable; decision in a case (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in the words, a word already gone forth, is to the Divine declaration contained in the verse "My mercy encompasses all things" (7:157) i.e. God in His infallible wisdom has decreed that His attribute of mercy will continue to transcend all His other attributes. Or the reference may be to the verse "And Allah would not punish them while thou wast amongst them" (8:34). In this case the words "a term already fixed" refer to the battle of Badr. (close)