Introduction of Al-Hajj
(Partly revealed before Hijrah and partly after Hijrah)
According to scholarly opinion this Surah is both of Meccan and Medinite origin. A part of it was revealed before the Hijrah and a part after it. Ibn ‘Abbas and Mujahid are of the opinion that vv. 20, 21, 22 were revealed after the Hijrah while Ibn ‘Abbas includes v. 23 also in this category. According to Dahhak, however, the whole Surah was revealed after the Hijrah.
The immediate connection of this Surah with its predecessor, the Surah Al-Anbiya’, consists in the fact that the basic subject dealt within that Surah was that Divine punishment continues to dog the footsteps of disbelievers because they persistently reject truth. It leads to the evident conclusion that it is only by believing in the Divine Message and leading a good and useful life that man can obtain salvation. This subject was further elaborated and the Holy Prophet was told that disbelievers among his own people too would not escape punishment if they did not believe in him. In the concluding words of the last verse of Surah Al-Anbiya’, viz. Say, O Lord judge with justice, the Holy Prophet was enjoined to invoke Divine punishment upon disbelievers because of their persistently hostile attitude, and the opening verse of the present Surah, viz. O people fear your Lord, the quaking of the Hour is a terrible thing, constitutes an answer to his prayer. In these words the disbelievers are warned that they can escape Divine punishment only by believing in the Holy Prophet, and by mending their ways and invoking God’s mercy and forgiveness.
This is the immediate connection of this Surah with its predecessor. But there exists a broader connection and deeper relationship between the subject matter of the various Surahs. The subject which began in Surah Maryam and was later developed and elaborated in Surahs Ta Ha and Al-Anbiya’ has been brought to completion in the present Surah. In Surah Maryam, the basic principles of the Christian faith were explained and effectively refuted, as without their refutation there could have been no justification for a new message. The Holy Prophet had claimed to have brought a new message and a new Law for the whole of mankind. If Christianity could be shown to have existed in the world in its pristine purity and if there was extant in the world a faith which claimed to be true and practicable, then the need of a new faith could not be established. So the basic principles of Christianity had to be proved false and unfounded. This had been done in Surah Maryam; and by shedding light on the incidents attending Jesus’ birth and his claims he was shown in that Surah to be in no way different from and superior to other messengers of God.
In chapter Ta Ha, the Christian doctrine that Law was a curse, was fully and completely repudiated and rebutted while in Surah Al-Anbiya’ the same subject was treated in a different manner, and the doctrine of original sin was shown to be quite untenable. It was made clear that if man suffered from the legacy of original sin and being devoid of free will he could not get rid of it, then the very object of the advent of Divine Messengers was defeated and the disbelievers should not have been punished and man should not have been regarded as accountable for his actions and deeds. In the present Surah, however, we are told that if Jesus was a perfect specimen of righteousness and he had attained the highest stage of spiritual development (and the old Shari‘ah had ceased to function and to be valid any more), then there was no need of a new Shari‘ah (Law) and a new Messenger. But the fact that the Holy Prophet had claimed to be a Divine Messenger and to have brought a new Law, in itself constitutes a challenge to this baseless Christian belief. The claim of the Holy Prophet rests on five quite sound hypotheses, viz. (1) that his enemies like those of the former prophets will meet defeat and destruction; (2) that his teachings are indispensable for mankind and are based on truth and wisdom; (3) that his followers will prosper both materially and spiritually; (4) that he will be blessed with divine boons and blessings in an unusual measure; and (5) that all false faiths and religious systems including Christianity will suffer defeat at his hands.
The disbelievers are threatened with Divine punishment because they have rejected the Holy Prophet and have opposed and persecuted him.
The Prophet has sound and solid arguments to establish the truth of his claim. Mere empty assertions cannot stand before these weighty arguments.
Heavenly signs also uphold the Prophet’s cause and in the face of Divine support his enemies cannot expect to succeed against him.
The teachings of the Holy Prophet are a blessing for mankind and they are designed to bring about peace, harmony and goodwill in the world, while the teachings of his opponents are entirely devoid of all these qualities, on the contrary they only tend to create disharmony and discord. Therefore the two teachings cannot be equal.
The Holy Prophet’s advent has fulfilled the second part of Abraham’s prayer. His failure means the non-fulfilment of that prayer which is impossible.
The Holy Prophet has met with long and hard opposition and has endured untold hardships with great patience and fortitude. Now the time has arrived that he be granted permission to fight his opponents in self-defence. Islam does not believe in non-resistance of evil under all conditions and circumstances. God will grant the Holy Prophet succour and bestow success on him. His end will be like that of other great Divine Messengers.
All Divine Prophets were opposed, and satanic people placed all sorts of obstacles and impediments in their way. But God removed all those obstacles and the cause of truth ultimately triumphed. It has happened in the time of every Prophet and it will happen again in the time of the Holy Prophet and God will give him victory and Islam will prevail against all religions.
Defensive warfare is not only permissible, but is commendable and Divine succour comes to those who fight in the defence of truth. Had it not been so, truth would have failed in obtaining its very object.
Divine teaching, like fresh rain, gives new life and new vigour to a spiritually dead world and therefore it is bound to succeed. This cycle of a new revelation taking the place of an old one goes on. But when a particular teaching has completed its allotted span of life and has served its intended purpose and outlived its utility, then a new teaching takes its place. This constitutes an infallible sign that the old teaching has been subject to human interference and has therefore ceased to satisfy the needs and requirements of the new age and consequently become deprived of Divine aid. But its followers labouring under the misconception that because their religion had once received Divine help, it must always continue to do so. In their ignorance and perversity, they foolishly seek to persecute the followers of the new revelation and to nip the new message in the bud, but they fail in their nefarious designs. Thus, when a teaching which was once attended with Divine assistance becomes deprived of it, a new faith becomes the vehicle of Divine will and purpose.
The Surah ends with the theme that Divine help will now come to the Holy Prophet because he is the Promised Reformer. His followers should, therefore, give him full and unconditional allegiance. This is the only way to success and victory. The Muslims should bear in mind that not only is the Holy Prophet the Promised Teacher, but they too are a Promised People and consequently are bound to succeed.
یہ مدنی سورت ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی اناسی آیات ہیں۔
اس کی پہلی آیت میں تمام بنی نوع انسان کو قیامت کے زلزلے سے ڈرایا گیا ہے کیونکہ ایک ایسا رسول آچکا ہے جس نے تمام بنی نوع انسان کو رحمان خدا کی حفاظت میں چلے آنے کی دعوت دی تھی جس کو قبول نہ کرنے کے نتیجہ میں ایسی ہولناک جنگوں سے ایک بار پھر ڈرایا جا رہا ہے گویا تمام زمین پر قیامت ٹوٹ پڑے گی، وہ ایسی ہولناک تباہی ہوگی کہ مائیں اپنے دودھ پیتے بچوں کی حفاظت کا خیال بھول جائیں گی اور ہر حاملہ کا حمل ساقط ہو جائے گا اور تُو لوگوں کو ایسے دیکھے گا جیسے وہ نشے سے مدہوش ہوچکے ہیں حالانکہ مدہوش نہیں ہوں گے بلکہ اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف سے نازل ہونے والے سخت عذاب کی وجہ سے وہ اپنے حواس کھوچکے ہوں گے۔ قیامت سے یہ بھی خیال گزرتا ہے کہ جب سب بنی نوع انسان ہلاک ہوگئے تو دوبارہ پھر کیسے زندہ کئے جائیں گے۔ فرمایا جس اللہ نے تمہیں اس سے پہلے مٹی سے پیدا کیا اور پھر رحمِ مادر میں مختلف شکلوں میں سے گزارا وہی اللہ ہے جو تمہیں پھر زندہ کردے گا۔ پھر فرمایا لوگوں میں سے وہ بھی ہے جو اللہ تعالیٰ کی عبادت ایسے کرتا ہے گویا وہ کسی گڑھے کے کنارے پر کھڑا ہو۔ جب تک اس کو خیر پہنچتی رہتی ہے وہ مطمئن رہتا ہے اور جب وہ فتنے میں مبتلا کیا جاتا ہے تو اوندھے منہ گڑھے میں جاپڑتا ہے۔ یہ ایسا شخص ہے جو دنیا و آخرت دونوں میں خسارہ میں رہتا ہے۔ اس کے بعد تمام ادیان کے پیروکاروں کا اختصار سے ذکر فرما دیا گیا کہ ان کے درمیان اللہ تعالیٰ قیامت کے دن فیصلہ فرمائے گا۔ اس کے بعد اللہ تعالیٰ کا یہ تاکیدی حکم ہے کہ حجِ بیت اللہ کے لئے آنے والوں کو خانہ کعبہ تک پہنچنے سے ہرگز نہ روکو۔ اس کے معاً بعد بیت اللہ کا ذکر ہے اور حضرت ابراہیم علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو اللہ تعالیٰ نے جو تاکید فرمائی ہے اس کا ذکر ہے کہ میرے گھر کو ہمیشہ حج پر آنے والے اور اعتکاف کرنے والے کی خاطر پاک و صاف رکھو۔ حضرت ابراہیم علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو جو یہ تاکید کی گئی یہ صرف آپ کی ذات کو نہیں بلکہ آپ کے اور آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کے پیروکاروں کو قیامت تک کے لئے ہے۔ اس کے بعد آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو یہ حکم دیا گیا ہے کہ تمام بنی نوع انسان کو حج کی غرض سے خانہ کعبہ آنے کے لئے ایک دعوتِ عام دو۔ اس کے بعد قربانیوں وغیرہ کا ذکر فرمایا گیا کہ وہ بھی خانہ کعبہ کی طرح شعائر اللہ میں داخل ہیں، اگر اُن کی بے حرمتی کرو گے تو گویا خانہ کعبہ کی بے حرمتی کروگے۔ لیکن خانہ کعبہ کی خاطر کی جانے والی ساری قربانیاں اس وقت قبول ہوں گی جب تقویٰ کے ساتھ کی جائیں گی کیونکہ اللہ تعالیٰ کو نہ تو قربانیوں کا گوشت پہنچتا ہے نہ ان کا خون بلکہ محض قربانی کرنے والوں کا تقویٰ پہنچتا ہے۔ اس کے بعد جہاد بالسیف کے مضمون پر بڑی وضاحت سے روشنی ڈالی گئی ہے اور بتایا گیا ہے کہ صرف ان لوگوں کو اپنے دفاع میں جہاد بالسیف کی اجازت دی جارہی ہے جن پر اس سے پہلے دشمن کی طرف سے تلوار اٹھائی گئی اور ان کو اپنے گھروں سے نکال دیا گیا محض اس لئے کہ وہ یہ اعلان کرتے تھے کہ اللہ ہمارا ربّ ہے۔ اس کے بعد یہ عظیم الشان مضمون بھی بیان فرمایا گیا کہ اگر دفاع کی اجازت نہ دی جاتی تو صرف مسلمانوں کی مسجد یں ہی منہدم نہ کردی جاتیں بلکہ یہود اور عیسائیوں وغیرہ کے معابد اور خانقاہوں کو بھی برباد کردیا جاتا۔ اس کے بعد گزشتہ انبیاء کی منکر قوموں کی ہلاکت کا ذکر کرتے ہوئے اس طرف اشارہ فرمایا ہے کہ اگر انسان زمین کی سیر کرے اور آنکھیں کھول کر اُن ہلاک شدہ قوموں کے مدفن تلاش کرے تو یقینا وہ ان کے بدانجام سے آگاہی پائے گا۔ آجکل ماہرینِ آثارِ قدیمہ یہی کام سرانجام دے رہے ہیں اور بہت سی گزشتہ قوموں کے مدفن دریافت کرچکے ہیں۔ اس کے بعد آیت نمبر ۵۳ میں یہ فرمایا گیا ہے کہ رسول کی خواہشات میں اگر کوئی دل کی خواہش شامل ہو بھی جائے تو اللہ تعالیٰ وحی کے ذریعہ اس خواہش کو کالعدم کر دیتا ہے۔ یہاں شیطان سے مراد معروف شیطانِ لعین نہیں بلکہ انسان کی رگوں میں خون کی طرح دوڑتے پھرتے رہنے والا شیطان مراد ہے اور آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ہے: وَلٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ اَعَانَنِیْ عَلَیْہِ فَاَسْلَمَ (مسند احمد بن حنبل، مسند بنی ہاشم) کہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے اس کے خلاف میری مدد فرمائی ہے اور وہ مسلمان ہوگیا ہے۔ پس اس آیت کریمہ سے ہرگز یہ مرادنہیں کہ واقعۃً کوئی شیطان انبیاء کے دلوں میں کوئی فتنہ پیدا کرتا ہے کیونکہ ایک دوسری جگہ (الشعراء: ۲۲۲-۲۲۳) پر بڑی وضاحت سے فرما دیا گیا ہے کہ شیطان کو رسولوں کے قریب بھی پھٹکنے کی اجازت نہیں ہوسکتی۔ یہ تو انتہائی جھوٹے اور بدکردار لوگوں پر نازل ہوتا ہے اور رسولوں پر یہ بیان کسی صورت اطلاق نہیں پاسکتا۔ اس سورت کے آخری رکوع میں یہ بیان فرمایا گیا ہے کہ جنہیں یہ لوگ اللہ کا شریک ٹھہراتے ہیں اُن فرضی شرکاء کو تو اتنی استطاعت بھی نہیں کہ ایک مکھی اگر کسی چیز کو چاٹ جائے تو اسے اس کے منہ سے واپس لے سکیں۔ واقعۃً ایک مکھی کے منہ میں کسی چیز کے داخل ہوتے ہی اس کے لعاب کے اثر سے نیز اس کے پیٹ میں کیمیائی تبدیلیوں کے نتیجہ میں وہ چیز اصل حالت میں رہ ہی نہیں سکتی۔ اس سورت کی آخری آیت میں اللہ کی راہ میں وہ جہاد کرنے کی تلقین فرمائی گئی ہے جس کی وضاحت اس سے پہلے فرمادی گئی ہے اور یہ بھی فرمایا گیا کہ حضرت ابراہیم علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام اور رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم اور آپؐ کے متبعین کو اللہ تعالیٰ نے ہی مسلم قرار دیا ہے۔ وہ سب سے بہتر جانتا ہے کہ اس کے سامنے کون کلیۃً سر تسلیم خم کرتا ہے۔ آخر پر اس اعلان کا اعادہ فرمایا گیا کہ یہ رسول یعنی محمد رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ایک عالمی رسول ہیں۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوۡا رَبَّکُمۡ ۚ اِنَّ زَلۡزَلَۃَ السَّاعَۃِ شَیۡءٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۲﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمۡۚ إِنَّ زَلۡزَلَةَ ٱلسَّاعَةِ شَيۡءٌ عَظِيمٞ
1929. As-Sa‘ah (the Hour), or al-Qiyamah, is used in three senses: (a) Death of a great and famous person (as-Sa‘atus-Sughra); (b) a national calamity (as-Sa‘atul-Wusta): (c) the Day of Judgment (as-Sa‘atul-Kubra). The word has been used in the Qur’an in the last two senses. The context shows that here it has been used in the sense of a national calamity that shakes the very foundations of a people. It may have particular reference to the impending doom of the Arabs when Mecca, the citadel of their political power, was to fall and their political power and their social system were to break and crumble; or it may refer to a terrible calamity that would overtake mankind in the form of a global war and would bring calamitous changes in its wake. The present verse, read along with 2:213, lends further support to the inference that the words "the Hour" or "the Day of Judgment" used in the Qur’an generally signify a great national calamity that overtakes a whole people. (close)
2437. Important Words:
زلزلة (earthquake) is derived from زلزل. They say زلزل اللّٰه الارض i.e. God shook the earth. زلزله means, he frightened him. زلزل الابل means, he drove the camels harshly. زلزلة means, a shaking of the earth; an earthquake; a calamity; a terrible visitation; زلازل (plural) i.e. calamities, miseries, trials, afflictions (Aqrab). The word also means: a war or the effects of war. The last two World Wars were called زلزلة (an earthquake) because they shook the foundation of human society and brought about new political and social changes and also a revolutionary change in the beliefs, ideas and ideals of men. The word has been used in the Quran in the sense of a calamity (2:215) and also in the sense of war or the effects of war (33:11, 12).
الساعة (Hour) is derived from ساع. They say ساع الشیء i.e. the thing was lost, it degraded. ساعت الابل means, the camels went away grazing without a driver. ساعة means, an hour; a part of time; a while or a little while; a space; a period; an indefinite time; a watch. الساعة means, the present time; now; just now; this moment. It also means, difficulty, distress or affliction; distance; remoteness. الساعة (Hour) or القیامة is used in three senses: (a) death of a great and famous person. It is called القیامة الصغری or الساعةالصغری i.e. the small resurrection; (b) a national calamity or the doom that overtakes a whole people on account of their evil deeds. It is called الساعة الوسطی i.e. the Middle Hour; (c) the Day of Judgement. It is called القیامة الکبری or الساعة الکبری i.e. the Great Hour (Lane & Aqrab).
The word الساعة has been used in the Quran in the last two senses mentioned under "Important Words" above. The context shows that in the verse under comment it has been used in the second sense, i.e. in the sense of a national calamity that shakes the very foundation of a people. It may have particular reference to the impending doom of the Arabs when Mecca, the citadel of their political power, would fall and their political power and whole social system would break and crumble or it may refer to a terrible calamity that would overtake mankind in the form of a global war and would bring calamitous changes in its wake. The present verse read along with 2:213 lends further support to the inference that the words الساعة (the Hour) or یوم القیامة (the Day of Judgement) used in the Quran generally signify a great national calamity that overtakes a people. (close)
یَوۡمَ تَرَوۡنَہَا تَذۡہَلُ کُلُّ مُرۡضِعَۃٍ عَمَّاۤ اَرۡضَعَتۡ وَ تَضَعُ کُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمۡلٍ حَمۡلَہَا وَ تَرَی النَّاسَ سُکٰرٰی وَ مَا ہُمۡ بِسُکٰرٰی وَ لٰکِنَّ عَذَابَ اللّٰہِ شَدِیۡدٌ ﴿۳﴾
يَوۡمَ تَرَوۡنَهَا تَذۡهَلُ كُلُّ مُرۡضِعَةٍ عَمَّآ أَرۡضَعَتۡ وَتَضَعُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمۡلٍ حَمۡلَهَا وَتَرَى ٱلنَّاسَ سُكَٰرَىٰ وَمَا هُم بِسُكَٰرَىٰ وَلَٰكِنَّ عَذَابَ ٱللَّهِ شَدِيدٞ
1930. The verse has used three metaphors or similes to express the extreme severity of the earthquake of the Hour, referred to in the preceding verse. Nothing is dearer to a mother than the baby to which she gives suck, and there could be no terror more dreadful in its effects than the one that makes a woman cast down her burden and which drives men to frenzy, and yet the verse says that the suddenness and severity of the terror inspired by the dreadful event would be such that mothers would abandon the babes at their breasts and pregnant women would cast down their burdens and people would go mad with fright and, like drunken men, would lose all control over their actions. (close)
2438. Important Words:
تذھل (forget) is derived from ذھل. They say ذھل عنه i.e. he forgot it or neglected it; he was or became unmindful of it; he neglected it intentionally or in consequence of his being diverted by something. ذھول is the neglecting of a thing, dismissing it from the mind; or the quitting of a thing with confusion or perplexity or alienation of mind such as arises from fear etc. or being diverted from one’s constant companion so as to forget him (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse has used three metaphors or similes to express the extreme severity of "the earthquake of the Hour," referred to in the preceding verse. Nothing is dearer to a mother than the babe to which she gives suck and there could be no terror more dreadful in its effects than the one that makes a woman cast down her burden and which drives men to frenzy and yet, the verse says, the suddenness and severity of the terror inspired by the dreadful event would be such that mothers would abandon the babes at their breasts and pregnant women would cast down their burdens and people would go mad with fright and like a drunken man would lose all control over their actions. The wording of the verse incidentally implies that the "Hour" referred to in the preceding verse is not the final Day of Judgement but, as stated in the preceding verse, is the destruction of the political power of Meccans in the form of the Fall of Mecca and other calamities that would overtake them, and the victory of Islam. (close)
وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ فِی اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ یَتَّبِعُ کُلَّ شَیۡطٰنٍ مَّرِیۡدٍ ۙ﴿۴﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَٰدِلُ فِي ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيۡطَٰنٖ مَّرِيدٖ
a. 13:14; 22:9; 31:21; 40:70. (close)
a. 13:14; 22:9; 31:21; 40:70. (close)
2439. Important Words:
مرید (rebellious) is derived from مرد (marada) which means, he exalted himself; he was insolent and audacious in pride and in acts of disobedience; he was excessively proud or disobedient or rebellious; he was refractory; he outstripped others in pride or disobedience. مرد (marida), means it (the tree) became denuded of its leaves. شجر أمرد means, a tree devoid of leaves, المارد or المرید means, one who is destitute of good (Lane & Aqrab). See also 9:101.
The verse shows that true knowledge is a great divine boon and all misguidance is the result of the lack of it. At another place (35:29) the Quran states that the realization of the Diving Being is vouchsafed only to those who are possessed of true knowledge. The present verse is of general application and applies to no particular person. The words فی الله (concerning Allah) mean, concerning the person, power and attribute of God.
It may be noted here that شیطان (Satan) or ابلیس (Iblis) is the being who has been created by God to incite men to do evil deeds as angels have been created to exhort them to do good deeds and thus he is the exact opposite of the angels, and the object of his creation is to try and test the mettle of men. He has his representatives in every time and age. It is this inciter to evil deeds and his representatives who have been mentioned in the Quran in connection with Adam’s story. This inciter to evil deeds will live as long as the world lasts but his representatives in the form of wicked men die and others take their place.
It may also be mentioned here that Satan will not be punished for inciting men to evil deeds as angels will not be rewarded for exhorting them to do good deeds. Punishment is awarded for deeds which are against the laws of nature or of the Shari‘ah but to incite men to bad deeds is ingrained in the very nature of Satan and is a part of his being. So the question of punishment in regard to him does not arise. It is true that according to the Quran, Satan will go to Hell just as the angels will go to Heaven but the fire of Hell will cause him no pain or suffering just as the rewards of heaven will give no joy or happiness to the angels. Having been created of fire (7:13) Satan is immune from the effects of burning. He is no doubt hated and condemned and denounced because he represents evil and sin but he deserves and will receive no punishment for what is a part of his nature and what he has been created to do. His representatives from among men, however, will certainly be punished for their wicked deeds. See also 2:35, 37. (close)
کُتِبَ عَلَیۡہِ اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ تَوَلَّاہُ فَاَنَّہٗ یُضِلُّہٗ وَ یَہۡدِیۡہِ اِلٰی عَذَابِ السَّعِیۡرِ ﴿۵﴾
كُتِبَ عَلَيۡهِ أَنَّهُۥ مَن تَوَلَّاهُ فَأَنَّهُۥ يُضِلُّهُۥ وَيَهۡدِيهِ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ
b. 4:39, 120. (close)
1931. Only those are led astray by Satan who make friends with him and follow him. At another place the Qur’an says that Satan has no power over righteous servants of God. It is only those who accept his evil suggestions that are led astray (16:100, 101; 17:66). (close)
a. 4:39,120. (close)
The verse makes it clear that only those are led astray by Satan who first make friends with him and follow him. At another place the Quran says that Satan has no power over the true servants of God. It is only those who accept his evil suggestions and follow him that fall victim to him (16:100-101; 17:66).
The expression یھدیه (guides him) contains a beautiful irony. i.e. Satan 'guides' disbelievers to the fire of Hell as if the fire of Hell is a thing to which they would like to be guided. It is of interest to note that whereas for the righteous it is said that "are on guidance" or, in other words, they are mounted on guidance, for the wicked it is said that they are led or driven to Hell. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ رَیۡبٍ مِّنَ الۡبَعۡثِ فَاِنَّا خَلَقۡنٰکُمۡ مِّنۡ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ نُّطۡفَۃٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ عَلَقَۃٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ مُّضۡغَۃٍ مُّخَلَّقَۃٍ وَّ غَیۡرِ مُخَلَّقَۃٍ لِّنُبَیِّنَ لَکُمۡ ؕ وَ نُقِرُّ فِی الۡاَرۡحَامِ مَا نَشَآءُ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّی ثُمَّ نُخۡرِجُکُمۡ طِفۡلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبۡلُغُوۡۤا اَشُدَّکُمۡ ۚ وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّتَوَفّٰی وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّرَدُّ اِلٰۤی اَرۡذَلِ الۡعُمُرِ لِکَیۡلَا یَعۡلَمَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ عِلۡمٍ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ تَرَی الۡاَرۡضَ ہَامِدَۃً فَاِذَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہَا الۡمَآءَ اہۡتَزَّتۡ وَ رَبَتۡ وَ اَنۡۢبَتَتۡ مِنۡ کُلِّ زَوۡجٍۭ بَہِیۡجٍ ﴿۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمۡ فِي رَيۡبٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡبَعۡثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقۡنَٰكُم مِّن تُرَابٖ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطۡفَةٖ ثُمَّ مِنۡ عَلَقَةٖ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضۡغَةٖ مُّخَلَّقَةٖ وَغَيۡرِ مُخَلَّقَةٖ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمۡۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡحَامِ مَا نَشَآءُ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٖ مُّسَمّٗى ثُمَّ نُخۡرِجُكُمۡ طِفۡلٗا ثُمَّ لِتَبۡلُغُوٓاْ أَشُدَّكُمۡۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰٓ أَرۡذَلِ ٱلۡعُمُرِ لِكَيۡلَا يَعۡلَمَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ عِلۡمٖ شَيۡـٔٗاۚ وَتَرَى ٱلۡأَرۡضَ هَامِدَةٗ فَإِذَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهَا ٱلۡمَآءَ ٱهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنۢبَتَتۡ مِن كُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٖ
c. 13:9; 35:12; 41:48. (close)
a. 16:71; 36:69. (close)
b. 16:66; 27:61; 30:49-51; 35:28; 45:6. (close)
1932. Man’s creation and physical development constitutes a strong argument in favour of Life after death. This creation is a process of evolution, a gradual unfolding, a development from one stage to another, from lifeless matter to a seed, then to a fertilised ovum, then to a foetus and then it culminates in the birth of a perfectly formed human being. This process of evolution, however, does not stop with man’s birth. It continues. The wonderful physical growth of man from lifeless matter to a fully developed human being constitutes an irrefutable proof that the Creator of man and the Author of all these stages of his development possesses the power to give him a new life after he is dead. The inference also seems to be that just as the creation and physical development of man is a process of evolution and gradual growth, so is his spiritual development. Another argument is taken from nature, viz. that the barren, bleak or dead earth vibrates with new life when rain falls upon it. This phenomenon also leads to the same conclusion that God, Who has the power to make the dead and barren earth vibrate with new life, has the power to bring man to life after his death. (close)
a. 13:9; 35:12; 41:48. (close)
b. 16:71; 36:69. (close)
c. 16:66; 27:61; 30:49-51; 35:28; 45:6. (close)
2441. Important Words:
تراب (dust) is derived from ترب which means, it became dusted or dusty; he had dust in his hand; he clove to dust or earth; he clove to the dust or earth by means of poverty. تراب means, dust, earth (Lane).
علقة (clotted blood) is derived from علق which has several meanings. علق به means, it stuck fast, clung or adhered to it; it was or became suspended by it; it concerned him or it. علقت المرأة means, the woman became pregnant. علق means, blood or intensely red blood or thick or clotted blood because of its clinging together. علقة signifies a portion of clotted blood or the seminal fluid when it becomes thick clotted blood after which it passes to another stage termed مضغة (Lane).
مضغة (lump of flesh) is derived from مضغ. They say مضغ الطعام i.e. he chewed the food. مضغة means, a piece or bit of flesh or a morsel of flesh; a foetus when it has become like a lump or flesh (Lane & Aqrab).
مخلقة (formed) is derived form خلق for which see 3:50. مضغة مخلقة signifies a foetus when it has become like a lump of flesh perfect or complete in make or of which the make has become apparent (Lane).
ھامدة (lifeless) is active participle in the feminine gender from ھمد which means, he or it died or perished. ھمدت الریح means, the wind became still. ھمدت الارض means, the land became lifeless, without herbage and without rain (Lane & Aqrab).
اھتزت (stirs) is derived from ھز. They say ھزہ i.e. he shook it. اھتز النبات means, the plant or herbage became tall. اھتزت الارضmeans, the land produced herbage or became in motion and produced plants or herbage (Lane & Aqrab). When Sa‘d, a very prominent companion of the Holy Prophet died, he is reported to have exclaimed, اھتز عرش الرحمان لموت سعد بن معاذ i.e. the Throne of the Gracious God shook on account of the death of Sa‘d bin Ma‘adh.
ربت (swells) is fromربا meaning, it increased or augmented; it became high. ربت الارض means, the earth became large and swelled (Lane). See also 2:266 & 3:131.
بھیج (beauteous) is derived from بھج (bahuja) i.e. he or it was or became beauteous or beautiful or goodly or beautiful and bright or splendid; or from بھج (bahija) which means, he was or became joyful, glad or happy. بھج به means, he rejoiced in it or at it. Or it may also be said to have been derived from بھج (bahaja). They say بھجه (bahaja) i.e. it made him joyful, glad or happy. بھیج means, beauteous or beautiful and bright or splendid, having a joyful, glad or happy appearance. بھجة means, beauty or goodliness of a thing or its beauty and brightness or splendour; joyfulness, gladness or happiness of appearance (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse proceeds to give arguments to show that life after death or the resurrection is an established fact. Man’s own creation and physical development is the first argument given in this verse to prove this theme. This creation is a process of evolution, a gradual unfolding, a development from one stage to another, from lifeless matter to a seed, then to a fertilized ovum, then to a foetus and then it culminates in the birth of a perfectly formed human being. But this process of evolution and growth does not stop with man’s birth. It continues. A child grows into a full grown man and then he passes on to old age and then to death which is the flight of the human soul from its physical habitat. This wonderful physical growth of man from a lifeless piece of matter to a fully developed human being constitutes an irrefutable proof that the Creator of man and the Author of all these stages of development possesses the power to give him a new life after he is dead.
The inference seems to be that just as the creation and development of man is a process of evolution and gradual growth, in the same way the progress of Islam will also be gradual and in stages.
After this argument in favour of life after death, another argument given in this verse is taken from nature. The verse says that the earth becomes barren, bleak or dead on account of a long period of drought. There is not a blade of grass to be seen on it. Then God sends down rain. The bleak and barren earth begins to vibrate with new life. This phenomenon also leads to the same conclusion that God Who has the power to make the dead and barren earth vibrate with new life has the power to bring man to life after his death. It also leads to the implied inference that by the advent of Islam, a spiritually dead Arabia will bloom and blossom into new life. See also 23:13-15. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ وَ اَنَّہٗ یُحۡیِ الۡمَوۡتٰی وَ اَنَّہٗ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ۙ﴿۷﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَأَنَّهُۥ يُحۡيِ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ وَأَنَّهُۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
c. 2:74; 30:51; 35:10; 41:40; 42:10; 57:18. (close)
a. 2:74; 30:51; 35:10; 41:40; 42:10; 57:18. (close)
The verse purports to say that the inescapable inference from the preceding verse is (1) that God is الحق i.e. His existence is an established fact and He is the Creator Who creates according to the requirements of wisdom and justice; (2) that He infuses new life into a spiritually dead people and (3) that He has the power to do all things which are in accordance with His design and device and which fulfil His purpose.
The word الموتی (the dead) here specially signifies those who are spiritually dead. The physically dead are mentioned in the next verse. (close)
وَّ اَنَّ السَّاعَۃَ اٰتِیَۃٌ لَّا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہَا ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَبۡعَثُ مَنۡ فِی الۡقُبُوۡرِ ﴿۸﴾
وَأَنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ ءَاتِيَةٞ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبۡعَثُ مَن فِي ٱلۡقُبُورِ
d. 15:86; 18:22; 20:16; 40:60; 45:33. (close)
a. 15:86; 18:22; 20:16; 40:60; 45:33. (close)
The verse continues the theme of its predecessor and like it constitutes an inevitable conclusion to v. 6 viz. "that the Hour will certainly come and that Allah will raise up those who are in the graves." The expression "who are in the graves" may also refer to those who are spiritually dead and are waiting for a Divine Reformer to come and raise them from their graves, i.e. their spiritual death. This expression and the word الموتی (the dead) in the preceding verse may be taken as depicting two aspects of the spiritually dead people. (close)
وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ فِی اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ لَا ہُدًی وَّ لَا کِتٰبٍ مُّنِیۡرٍ ۙ﴿۹﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَٰدِلُ فِي ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَلَا هُدٗى وَلَا كِتَٰبٖ مُّنِيرٖ
a. 22:4. (close)
1933. ‘Ilm (knowledge) signifies, intellectual proofs and arguments, Huda Divine guidance and Kitabu Munir scriptural evidence. (close)
b. 22:4. (close)
The verse stresses the importance of true knowledge and reiterates the fact that all deviation from the right path is due to the lack of it. It purports to say that the inference from v. 6 viz. that God is and that He has the power to bring the dead to life, is so patent and manifest that it is only perverse thinking, born of lack of true knowledge that can deny it.
علم (knowledge) signifies intellectual proof and arguments, ھدی Divine guidance and کتاب منیر signifies scriptural evidence. (close)
ثَانِیَ عِطۡفِہٖ لِیُضِلَّ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ لَہٗ فِی الدُّنۡیَا خِزۡیٌ وَّ نُذِیۡقُہٗ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ عَذَابَ الۡحَرِیۡقِ ﴿۱۰﴾
ثَانِيَ عِطۡفِهِۦ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۖ لَهُۥ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا خِزۡيٞۖ وَنُذِيقُهُۥ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ
1934. Two kinds of punishment are in store for the deniers of truth, viz. defeat and discomfiture in the present life and disgrace and ignominy in the life to come. The punishment in this life constitutes a proof of punishment in the life to come. (close)
2445. Important Words:
ثانی (turning) is derived from ثنی. They say ثناہ i.e. he doubled it or folded it; he bent it; he turned him or turned him away or back. ثناہ من حاجته he turned him or turned him away or back from the object of his want. ثانی عطفه meaning twisting or bending his back and turning his side, is a metaphor for "behaving proudly." See also 11:6 & 15:88.
Two kinds of punishment are in store for the deniers of truth, viz. defeat and discomfiture in the present life and disgrace and ignominy in the life to come. The punishment in this life constitutes a proof of punishment in the life to come. (close)