اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَسۡجُدُ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الشَّمۡسُ وَ الۡقَمَرُ وَ النُّجُوۡمُ وَ الۡجِبَالُ وَ الشَّجَرُ وَ الدَّوَآبُّ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ ؕ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ حَقَّ عَلَیۡہِ الۡعَذَابُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّہِنِ اللّٰہُ فَمَا لَہٗ مِنۡ مُّکۡرِمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَفۡعَلُ مَا یَشَآءُ ﴿ؕٛ۱۹﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَسۡجُدُۤ لَهُۥۤ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَن فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلشَّمۡسُ وَٱلۡقَمَرُ وَٱلنُّجُومُ وَٱلۡجِبَالُ وَٱلشَّجَرُ وَٱلدَّوَآبُّ وَكَثِيرٞ مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِۖ وَكَثِيرٌ حَقَّ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلۡعَذَابُۗ وَمَن يُهِنِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُۥ مِن مُّكۡرِمٍۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَفۡعَلُ مَا يَشَآءُ۩
a. 13:16; 16:49, 50; 55:7. (close)
1940. God has fixed certain laws—natural laws, which all created things, animate or inanimate, have to obey. There is no escape from submission to these laws. There are, however, certain other laws—the laws of the Shari‘ah which God has revealed for the guidance of man. Man may obey or disobey and defy these laws and may suffer the consequences of his defiance. The verse further brings home to idolaters the folly and futility of their taking the objects of nature for worship beside Allah. It says that all these things depend upon Him for their very existence. They submit to the laws He has fixed for them and cannot live independently of God for a moment. It is sheer folly, therefore, to adore and worship things and beings which are themselves subject to God-made laws. (close)
a. 13:16; 16:49-50; 55:7. (close)
God has fixed certain laws—natural laws, which all created things, animate or inanimate, have to obey. There is no escape from submission to these laws. There are, however, certain other laws—the laws of the Shari‘ah—which God has made for the guidance of man. These laws man may obey or disobey and defy and thus may suffer the consequences of his defiance.
The verse further brings home to idolaters the folly and futility of their taking the objects of nature for worship besides Allah. It says that all these things depend upon Him for their very existence. They all submit to the laws He has fixed for them and cannot live independently of God for a moment. It is sheer folly, therefore, to adore and worship things and beings which are themselves subject to God-made laws. The expression یسجد له کثیر من الناس و کثیر حق علیه العذاب besides the meaning given in the text, may also mean that many from among men submit to Allah and many others incur His displeasure and punishment because they do not submit to laws made by Him. (close)
ہٰذٰنِ خَصۡمٰنِ اخۡتَصَمُوۡا فِیۡ رَبِّہِمۡ ۫ فَالَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا قُطِّعَتۡ لَہُمۡ ثِیَابٌ مِّنۡ نَّارٍ ؕ یُصَبُّ مِنۡ فَوۡقِ رُءُوۡسِہِمُ الۡحَمِیۡمُ ﴿ۚ۲۰﴾
۞هَٰذَانِ خَصۡمَانِ ٱخۡتَصَمُواْ فِي رَبِّهِمۡۖ فَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ قُطِّعَتۡ لَهُمۡ ثِيَابٞ مِّن نَّارٖ يُصَبُّ مِن فَوۡقِ رُءُوسِهِمُ ٱلۡحَمِيمُ
1941. The reference in the words "These are two" is to two classes of men—the believers and disbelievers. (close)
b. 44:49; 55:45; 56:43-54. (close)
The reference in the words "These two" is to two classes of men—the believers and disbelievers, i.e. those who obey and willingly submit to the laws of nature and those of the Shari‘ah and those who flout, disobey and defy these laws. The verse means to say that the second class of men will suffer the evil consequences of their disobedience and defiance. (close)
یُصۡہَرُ بِہٖ مَا فِیۡ بُطُوۡنِہِمۡ وَ الۡجُلُوۡدُ ﴿ؕ۲۱﴾
يُصۡهَرُ بِهِۦ مَا فِي بُطُونِهِمۡ وَٱلۡجُلُودُ
c. 44:46. (close)
a. 44:46. (close)
2453. Important Words:
یصھر (will be melted) is formed from صھر which means, he melted or liquefied fat or a thing; he or it burned; he thoroughly cooked with fire. صھرته الشمس means, the sun affected him severely by its heat (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse purports to say that the flouters and defiers of Divine Laws will suffer both internal and external punishment, i.e. they will lose their peace of mind and will also suffer corporal punishment. The verse also seems to point, on the one hand, to the extreme severity of the punishment of Hell and on the other to its temporary nature. It purports to say that the fire of Hell will burn and melt whatever there would be in the bellies and skins of disbelievers, i.e. it will melt away the inward and outward dross and impurities of the sins committed by them and thus after cleansing and purifying them of their impurities and dross will make them deserving of salvation. (close)
وَ لَہُمۡ مَّقَامِعُ مِنۡ حَدِیۡدٍ ﴿۲۲﴾
وَلَهُم مَّقَٰمِعُ مِنۡ حَدِيدٖ
2454. Important Words:
مقامع (maces) is the plural of مقمعة which is derived from قمع. They say قمعه i.e. he beat him with a mace or iron rod; he prevented him by force from what he intended; he dominated him and disgraced him; he struck on the upper part of his head. مقمعة means, a mace; an iron rod or club to lead an elephant; a hooked staff (Aqrab). (close)
کُلَّمَاۤ اَرَادُوۡۤا اَنۡ یَّخۡرُجُوۡا مِنۡہَا مِنۡ غَمٍّ اُعِیۡدُوۡا فِیۡہَا ٭ وَ ذُوۡقُوۡا عَذَابَ الۡحَرِیۡقِ ﴿٪۲۳﴾
كُلَّمَآ أَرَادُوٓاْ أَن يَخۡرُجُواْ مِنۡهَا مِنۡ غَمٍّ أُعِيدُواْ فِيهَا وَذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ
a. 5:38; 32:21. (close)
b. 8:15; 34:43. (close)
b. 5:38; 32:21. (close)
c. 8:15; 34:43. (close)
The expression من غم may also mean, on account of غم (anguish), or غم being case in apposition with the pronoun ھا (ha), the expression may mean, whenever they will seek to get out of it, i.e. out of غم (anguish). (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُدۡخِلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ یُحَلَّوۡنَ فِیۡہَا مِنۡ اَسَاوِرَ مِنۡ ذَہَبٍ وَّ لُؤۡلُؤًا ؕ وَ لِبَاسُہُمۡ فِیۡہَا حَرِیۡرٌ ﴿۲۴﴾
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُدۡخِلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ يُحَلَّوۡنَ فِيهَا مِنۡ أَسَاوِرَ مِن ذَهَبٖ وَلُؤۡلُؤٗاۖ وَلِبَاسُهُمۡ فِيهَا حَرِيرٞ
c. 18:32; 35:34; 76:22. (close)
d. 76:13. (close)
1942. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'The Nile and the Euphrates are two of the streams of Paradise' (Muslim, ch. al-Jannah). The Holy Prophet and his Companions knew that they were promised "gardens" not only in the next life but in this world also and they also knew that by "gardens" in this world were meant rich and fertile lands once ruled by the Kings of Persia and the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire. During the Caliphate of ‘Umar, Muslim armies fought on two fronts, in Mesopotamia and Syria, and when some Arab chiefs presented themselves before him and offered their services, he asked them to which of "the two promised lands" (Mesopotamia or Syria) they would like to go. The prophecy was literally fulfilled when ‘Umar asked Suraqah bin Malik to wear the bracelets of gold which the Kings of Iran used to wear on special State ceremonies. (close)
a. 18:32; 35:34; 76:22. (close)
b. 76:13. (close)
This verse refers to the believers, the second of the two classes of men referred to in v. 20 above. The first class of men—the disbelievers, have been referred to in vv. 20-23 above.
The verse embodies a prophecy which met with remarkable fulfilment. It was made at a time when the very fate of Islam hung in the balance and there was no safety or security for Muslims anywhere. But afterwards in fulfilment of this prophecy they were given most fertile and beautiful countries to rule. They had the choicest of fruits to eat and they lived in gardens beneath which streams flowed. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, "The Nile and the Euphrates are two of the streams of Paradise" (Muslim, ch. Al-Jannah). So it is clear that the Holy Prophet and his Companions knew that they were promised 'gardens' not only in the next life but in this world also and that they also knew that by 'gardens' in this life were meant rich and fertile lands once ruled by the Kings of Persia and the Emperors of the eastern Roman Empire. During the Caliphate of ‘Umar, Muslim armies fought on two fronts, in Mesopotamia and Syria, and when Arab chiefs with their respective claims presented themselves before him and offered their services, he asked them to which of "the two promised lands," Mesopotamia or Syria, they would like to go. This shows that the Companions of the Holy Prophet knew and understood that the 'gardens' promised them in the Quran were the rich provinces of the Persian Empire and of Syria and Egypt. The prophecy was literally fulfilled. When Persia was conquered, bracelets of gold and pearl and silken garments formed part of the booty. These things were distributed among the Muslims and Suraqah, a companion of the Holy Prophet, was made by ‘Umar to wear the bracelets of gold which the kings of Persia used to wear on special State occasions. Thus was fulfilled another prophecy of the Holy Prophet according to which he is reported to have once said to Suraqah, "How would you feel when you will be made to wear the golden bracelets of Chosroes (Al-Khasa’isul-Kubra, vol. II, p. 113). (close)
وَ ہُدُوۡۤا اِلٰی الطَّیِّبِ مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ ۚۖ وَ ہُدُوۡۤا اِلَی صِرَاطِ الۡحَمِیۡدِ ﴿۲۵﴾
وَهُدُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلطَّيِّبِ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ وَهُدُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطِ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ
The verse shows that Paradise will not be a place of inactivity or idleness. On the other hand it will be a place of continuous work. Only the nature of the work will be different and there will be no fear of failure or fall as in this life. The spiritual progress of the righteous will be uniform and uninterrupted. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلۡنٰہُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَآءَ ۣ الۡعَاکِفُ فِیۡہِ وَ الۡبَادِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّرِدۡ فِیۡہِ بِاِلۡحَادٍۭ بِظُلۡمٍ نُّذِقۡہُ مِنۡ عَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿٪۲۶﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ ٱلَّذِي جَعَلۡنَٰهُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَآءً ٱلۡعَٰكِفُ فِيهِ وَٱلۡبَادِۚ وَمَن يُرِدۡ فِيهِ بِإِلۡحَادِۭ بِظُلۡمٖ نُّذِقۡهُ مِنۡ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٖ
a. 8:35; 16:89; 43:38; 48:26. (close)
a. 8:35; 16:89; 43:38; 48:26. (close)
2457. Important Words:
عاکف means, one who dwells in a place or dwells there permanently. Here it means one who dwells in Mecca or dwells in it constantly. See also 2:126 & 21:53.
الباد (visitor from the desert) is derived from بدا. They say بدا القوم الی البادیة i.e. people went forth to the desert, or they went forth from the region of the towns to the pasturing places in the desert. حضارة which means, life in the towns, is contrary to بداوة which means, life in the desert. باد means, one who dwells in بادیة i.e. desert or tents; not remaining in his place; one who comes from outside the town, i.e. a visitor or an occasional visitor (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse serves as an introduction to the subject of pilgrimage which is the central theme of this Surah. Circumambulation of the Sacred Mosque is the most important of the rituals and ceremonies of Pilgrimage, so a brief reference to the sacredness and importance of the Ka‘bah forms a befitting introduction to the subject of Hajj.
The reference in words "those who hinder men from the way of Allah and from the Sacred Mosque" may also be to a well-known incident connected with the Truce of Hudaibiyyah. In the 7th year of the Hijrah, the Holy Prophet, in fulfilment of a vision, left Medina with 1400 Companions to pay a visit to Mecca and perform ‘Umrah or the Lesser Pilgrimage. When he reached a place called Hudaibiyyah, he was prevented by the Meccans from proceeding further. He returned to Medina after having signed a truce known as the Truce of Hudaibiyyah. This Truce, known after the name of the place at which it was signed, led to the conquest of Mecca and eventually of the whole of Arabia.
The verse also points to the Islamic principle of the equality of status of all men in a place of worship and by implication to the inherent equality of all human beings. (close)
وَ اِذۡ بَوَّاۡنَا لِاِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ مَکَانَ الۡبَیۡتِ اَنۡ لَّا تُشۡرِکۡ بِیۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ طَہِّرۡ بَیۡتِیَ لِلطَّآئِفِیۡنَ وَ الۡقَآئِمِیۡنَ وَ الرُّکَّعِ السُّجُوۡدِ ﴿۲۷﴾
وَإِذۡ بَوَّأۡنَا لِإِبۡرَٰهِيمَ مَكَانَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ أَن لَّا تُشۡرِكۡ بِي شَيۡـٔٗا وَطَهِّرۡ بَيۡتِيَ لِلطَّآئِفِينَ وَٱلۡقَآئِمِينَ وَٱلرُّكَّعِ ٱلسُّجُودِ
1943. The verse shows that the site of the Ka‘bah had existed long before Abraham’s time. In fact, the Ka‘bah was built by Adam. It was the first House of worship built in the world (3:97). By the time of Abraham it had fallen into ruins and its site, having been disclosed to him by revelation, he and his son Ishmael, the Holy Prophet’s great progenitor, rebuilt it. See also 146. (close)
1943A. The Ka‘bah is variously mentioned in the Qur’an as "My House" (2:126 & 22:27), "The Sacred House" (14:38), "The Sacred Mosque" (2:151), "The House" (2:128,159; 3:98; 8:36; 22:27), "The Ancient House" (22:30, 34), and "The Frequented House" (52:5). All these different appellations point to the eminence of the Ka‘bah as the greatest centre of worship for mankind. (close)
b. 2:126. (close)
1944. The words, keep My house clean, embodied both a commandment and a prophecy. The commandment was that the Ka‘bah was not to be polluted with idol-worship as it had been built for the worship of the One True God, and the prophecy lay in the fact that this commandment would be defied and the House of God would become a house of idols but would eventually be completely cleared of them. (close)
1945. This verse serves as an introduction to the subject of Pilgrimage which is the central theme of this Surah. Circumambulation of the Sacred Mosque is the most important ceremony of the Pilgrimage, so a brief reference to the sanctity and importance of the Ka‘bah forms a befitting introduction to the subject of Hajj. (close)
a. 2:126. (close)
The Ka‘bah is variously mentioned in the Quran as بیتی i.e. My House (2:126 & 22:27), as البیت المحرم i.e. the Sacred House (14:38), as المسجد الحرام i.e. the Sacred Mosque (2:151), as البیت i.e. the House (2:128, 159; 3:98; 8:36; 22:27), as البیت العتیق i.e. the Ancient House (22:30, 34), as البیت المعمور i.e. the Frequented House (52:5) and as اول بیت i.e. the First House (3:97). All these different appellations point to the eminence of the Ka‘bah as being the greatest centre of worship for mankind.
The words "We assigned to Abraham the site of the House" show that the site of the Ka‘bah had existed before Abraham’s time. In fact the Ka‘bah was built by Adam and as it appears from 3:97, it was the first House of worship built in the world. By the time of Abraham it had fallen into ruins and its site having been disclosed to him by revelation he and his son Ishmael, the Holy Prophet’s great progenitor, rebuilt it.
The words "keep My House clean" embodied both a commandment and a prophecy. The commandment was that the Ka‘bah was not to be polluted with idol worship as it had been built for the worship of the One True God and the prophecy lay in the fact that this commandment would be defied and the House of God would become the house of idols but would eventually be completely cleared of them. The prophecy was fulfilled when at the Fall of Mecca the Ka‘bah was cleared by the Holy Prophet of all the abominations and of the 360 idols that were kept in it. Thus the commandment, in a way, embodied a prophecy about the advent of the Holy Prophet; and the rebuilding of the Ka‘bah by Abraham and Ishmael was, in fact, the first step towards the fulfilment of that great prophecy. See also 2:128-130. (close)
وَ اَذِّنۡ فِی النَّاسِ بِالۡحَجِّ یَاۡتُوۡکَ رِجَالًا وَّ عَلٰی کُلِّ ضَامِرٍ یَّاۡتِیۡنَ مِنۡ کُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِیۡقٍ ﴿ۙ۲۸﴾
وَأَذِّن فِي ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلۡحَجِّ يَأۡتُوكَ رِجَالٗا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٖ يَأۡتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٖ
a. 2:198; 3:98. (close)
1946. The Pilgrimage as an institution began with the Patriarch Abraham as the words, And proclaim unto men the Pilgrimage, show. It was not an idolatrous institution incorporated into Islam by the Holy Prophet to conciliate the idol-worshipping Arabs as some Christian writers have been led to think. From the time of Abraham Pilgrimage has continued without break to this day. The gathering in Mecca every year of many hundreds of thousands of Muslims from very distant lands bears an irrefutable testimony to the fulfilment of this prophecy. (close)
a. 2:198; 3:98. (close)
2458A. Important Words:
رجالا (on foot) is the plural of راجل, which means, one who walks on foot, a footman. رجل راجل means, a great walker (Lane). See also 2:240.
ضامر (lean camel) is active participle from ضمر which means, he or it was or became lean or slender and lean or lean and lank in the belly. ضامر means, lean and lank in the belly; a horse in a state of preparation for racing by its having been fed with food barely sufficient to sustain it after having become fat. خیل ضامرة means, horses in that state, i.e. lean and lank horses (Lane).
عمیق (distant) is derived from عمق which means, it was or became deep. عمیق when applied to a road means, remote or far-extending or long. بئر عمیقة means, a deep well (Lane & Aqrab).
The Pilgrimage as an institution began with Abraham as the words "and proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage" show. It was not an idolatrous institution incorporated into Islam by the Holy Prophet to conciliate the idol worshipping Arabs as some Christian writers have been led to think. From the time of Abraham, Pilgrimage has continued without a break to this day and will continue till the end of time. The Ka‘bah was once the centre of Pilgrimage for the Arabs alone, but now it is the centre of Pilgrimage for the whole Muslim world and is destined to become the spiritual centre for all mankind. It is when Islam will prevail in the world that the Ka‘bah will become a symbol of the Unity of God and of mankind. The time is not far off when there will be only One God, one Religion, one Prophet and one Book with the Ka‘bah as the one spiritual centre for the whole of mankind. That the Ka‘bah was destined one day to come into the possession of the Holy Prophet who was to set free captives "not for price nor reward" and at whose hands it was to become the spiritual centre for the whole of mankind was foretold several hundred years before the advent of the Holy Prophet by the Prophet Isaiah. Isaiah’s prophecy is as follows:
I have raised him up in righteousness; and I will direct his ways: He shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the Lord of hosts... the labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: They shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God (Isaiah 45:13-14).
The prophecy is too clear to need any explanation. It evidently applies to the Holy Prophet.
The verse also constitutes a mighty prophecy. The proclamation that Ka‘bah would one day become a great centre to which people from distant lands would come to perform Hajj was made at Mecca at a time when the very fate of Islam was hanging in the balance. Life was not safe for the Holy Prophet and his followers. They were being driven away from their hearths and homes and did not know where to go. It was at that time that it was proclaimed to the world, as if with a beat of drum, that to the Ka‘bah would come people from all parts of the earth. The gathering in Mecca every year of many hundreds of thousands of Muslims from very distant lands bears an irrefutable testimony to the remarkable fulfilment of this prophecy. (close)