وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ فِی اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ یَتَّبِعُ کُلَّ شَیۡطٰنٍ مَّرِیۡدٍ ۙ﴿۴﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَٰدِلُ فِي ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيۡطَٰنٖ مَّرِيدٖ
a. 13:14; 22:9; 31:21; 40:70. (close)
a. 13:14; 22:9; 31:21; 40:70. (close)
2439. Important Words:
مرید (rebellious) is derived from مرد (marada) which means, he exalted himself; he was insolent and audacious in pride and in acts of disobedience; he was excessively proud or disobedient or rebellious; he was refractory; he outstripped others in pride or disobedience. مرد (marida), means it (the tree) became denuded of its leaves. شجر أمرد means, a tree devoid of leaves, المارد or المرید means, one who is destitute of good (Lane & Aqrab). See also 9:101.
The verse shows that true knowledge is a great divine boon and all misguidance is the result of the lack of it. At another place (35:29) the Quran states that the realization of the Diving Being is vouchsafed only to those who are possessed of true knowledge. The present verse is of general application and applies to no particular person. The words فی الله (concerning Allah) mean, concerning the person, power and attribute of God.
It may be noted here that شیطان (Satan) or ابلیس (Iblis) is the being who has been created by God to incite men to do evil deeds as angels have been created to exhort them to do good deeds and thus he is the exact opposite of the angels, and the object of his creation is to try and test the mettle of men. He has his representatives in every time and age. It is this inciter to evil deeds and his representatives who have been mentioned in the Quran in connection with Adam’s story. This inciter to evil deeds will live as long as the world lasts but his representatives in the form of wicked men die and others take their place.
It may also be mentioned here that Satan will not be punished for inciting men to evil deeds as angels will not be rewarded for exhorting them to do good deeds. Punishment is awarded for deeds which are against the laws of nature or of the Shari‘ah but to incite men to bad deeds is ingrained in the very nature of Satan and is a part of his being. So the question of punishment in regard to him does not arise. It is true that according to the Quran, Satan will go to Hell just as the angels will go to Heaven but the fire of Hell will cause him no pain or suffering just as the rewards of heaven will give no joy or happiness to the angels. Having been created of fire (7:13) Satan is immune from the effects of burning. He is no doubt hated and condemned and denounced because he represents evil and sin but he deserves and will receive no punishment for what is a part of his nature and what he has been created to do. His representatives from among men, however, will certainly be punished for their wicked deeds. See also 2:35, 37. (close)
کُتِبَ عَلَیۡہِ اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ تَوَلَّاہُ فَاَنَّہٗ یُضِلُّہٗ وَ یَہۡدِیۡہِ اِلٰی عَذَابِ السَّعِیۡرِ ﴿۵﴾
كُتِبَ عَلَيۡهِ أَنَّهُۥ مَن تَوَلَّاهُ فَأَنَّهُۥ يُضِلُّهُۥ وَيَهۡدِيهِ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ
b. 4:39, 120. (close)
1931. Only those are led astray by Satan who make friends with him and follow him. At another place the Qur’an says that Satan has no power over righteous servants of God. It is only those who accept his evil suggestions that are led astray (16:100, 101; 17:66). (close)
a. 4:39,120. (close)
The verse makes it clear that only those are led astray by Satan who first make friends with him and follow him. At another place the Quran says that Satan has no power over the true servants of God. It is only those who accept his evil suggestions and follow him that fall victim to him (16:100-101; 17:66).
The expression یھدیه (guides him) contains a beautiful irony. i.e. Satan 'guides' disbelievers to the fire of Hell as if the fire of Hell is a thing to which they would like to be guided. It is of interest to note that whereas for the righteous it is said that "are on guidance" or, in other words, they are mounted on guidance, for the wicked it is said that they are led or driven to Hell. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ رَیۡبٍ مِّنَ الۡبَعۡثِ فَاِنَّا خَلَقۡنٰکُمۡ مِّنۡ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ نُّطۡفَۃٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ عَلَقَۃٍ ثُمَّ مِنۡ مُّضۡغَۃٍ مُّخَلَّقَۃٍ وَّ غَیۡرِ مُخَلَّقَۃٍ لِّنُبَیِّنَ لَکُمۡ ؕ وَ نُقِرُّ فِی الۡاَرۡحَامِ مَا نَشَآءُ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّی ثُمَّ نُخۡرِجُکُمۡ طِفۡلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبۡلُغُوۡۤا اَشُدَّکُمۡ ۚ وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّتَوَفّٰی وَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّنۡ یُّرَدُّ اِلٰۤی اَرۡذَلِ الۡعُمُرِ لِکَیۡلَا یَعۡلَمَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ عِلۡمٍ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ تَرَی الۡاَرۡضَ ہَامِدَۃً فَاِذَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہَا الۡمَآءَ اہۡتَزَّتۡ وَ رَبَتۡ وَ اَنۡۢبَتَتۡ مِنۡ کُلِّ زَوۡجٍۭ بَہِیۡجٍ ﴿۶﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمۡ فِي رَيۡبٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡبَعۡثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقۡنَٰكُم مِّن تُرَابٖ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطۡفَةٖ ثُمَّ مِنۡ عَلَقَةٖ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضۡغَةٖ مُّخَلَّقَةٖ وَغَيۡرِ مُخَلَّقَةٖ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمۡۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡحَامِ مَا نَشَآءُ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٖ مُّسَمّٗى ثُمَّ نُخۡرِجُكُمۡ طِفۡلٗا ثُمَّ لِتَبۡلُغُوٓاْ أَشُدَّكُمۡۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰٓ أَرۡذَلِ ٱلۡعُمُرِ لِكَيۡلَا يَعۡلَمَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ عِلۡمٖ شَيۡـٔٗاۚ وَتَرَى ٱلۡأَرۡضَ هَامِدَةٗ فَإِذَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهَا ٱلۡمَآءَ ٱهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنۢبَتَتۡ مِن كُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٖ
c. 13:9; 35:12; 41:48. (close)
a. 16:71; 36:69. (close)
b. 16:66; 27:61; 30:49-51; 35:28; 45:6. (close)
1932. Man’s creation and physical development constitutes a strong argument in favour of Life after death. This creation is a process of evolution, a gradual unfolding, a development from one stage to another, from lifeless matter to a seed, then to a fertilised ovum, then to a foetus and then it culminates in the birth of a perfectly formed human being. This process of evolution, however, does not stop with man’s birth. It continues. The wonderful physical growth of man from lifeless matter to a fully developed human being constitutes an irrefutable proof that the Creator of man and the Author of all these stages of his development possesses the power to give him a new life after he is dead. The inference also seems to be that just as the creation and physical development of man is a process of evolution and gradual growth, so is his spiritual development. Another argument is taken from nature, viz. that the barren, bleak or dead earth vibrates with new life when rain falls upon it. This phenomenon also leads to the same conclusion that God, Who has the power to make the dead and barren earth vibrate with new life, has the power to bring man to life after his death. (close)
a. 13:9; 35:12; 41:48. (close)
b. 16:71; 36:69. (close)
c. 16:66; 27:61; 30:49-51; 35:28; 45:6. (close)
2441. Important Words:
تراب (dust) is derived from ترب which means, it became dusted or dusty; he had dust in his hand; he clove to dust or earth; he clove to the dust or earth by means of poverty. تراب means, dust, earth (Lane).
علقة (clotted blood) is derived from علق which has several meanings. علق به means, it stuck fast, clung or adhered to it; it was or became suspended by it; it concerned him or it. علقت المرأة means, the woman became pregnant. علق means, blood or intensely red blood or thick or clotted blood because of its clinging together. علقة signifies a portion of clotted blood or the seminal fluid when it becomes thick clotted blood after which it passes to another stage termed مضغة (Lane).
مضغة (lump of flesh) is derived from مضغ. They say مضغ الطعام i.e. he chewed the food. مضغة means, a piece or bit of flesh or a morsel of flesh; a foetus when it has become like a lump or flesh (Lane & Aqrab).
مخلقة (formed) is derived form خلق for which see 3:50. مضغة مخلقة signifies a foetus when it has become like a lump of flesh perfect or complete in make or of which the make has become apparent (Lane).
ھامدة (lifeless) is active participle in the feminine gender from ھمد which means, he or it died or perished. ھمدت الریح means, the wind became still. ھمدت الارض means, the land became lifeless, without herbage and without rain (Lane & Aqrab).
اھتزت (stirs) is derived from ھز. They say ھزہ i.e. he shook it. اھتز النبات means, the plant or herbage became tall. اھتزت الارضmeans, the land produced herbage or became in motion and produced plants or herbage (Lane & Aqrab). When Sa‘d, a very prominent companion of the Holy Prophet died, he is reported to have exclaimed, اھتز عرش الرحمان لموت سعد بن معاذ i.e. the Throne of the Gracious God shook on account of the death of Sa‘d bin Ma‘adh.
ربت (swells) is fromربا meaning, it increased or augmented; it became high. ربت الارض means, the earth became large and swelled (Lane). See also 2:266 & 3:131.
بھیج (beauteous) is derived from بھج (bahuja) i.e. he or it was or became beauteous or beautiful or goodly or beautiful and bright or splendid; or from بھج (bahija) which means, he was or became joyful, glad or happy. بھج به means, he rejoiced in it or at it. Or it may also be said to have been derived from بھج (bahaja). They say بھجه (bahaja) i.e. it made him joyful, glad or happy. بھیج means, beauteous or beautiful and bright or splendid, having a joyful, glad or happy appearance. بھجة means, beauty or goodliness of a thing or its beauty and brightness or splendour; joyfulness, gladness or happiness of appearance (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse proceeds to give arguments to show that life after death or the resurrection is an established fact. Man’s own creation and physical development is the first argument given in this verse to prove this theme. This creation is a process of evolution, a gradual unfolding, a development from one stage to another, from lifeless matter to a seed, then to a fertilized ovum, then to a foetus and then it culminates in the birth of a perfectly formed human being. But this process of evolution and growth does not stop with man’s birth. It continues. A child grows into a full grown man and then he passes on to old age and then to death which is the flight of the human soul from its physical habitat. This wonderful physical growth of man from a lifeless piece of matter to a fully developed human being constitutes an irrefutable proof that the Creator of man and the Author of all these stages of development possesses the power to give him a new life after he is dead.
The inference seems to be that just as the creation and development of man is a process of evolution and gradual growth, in the same way the progress of Islam will also be gradual and in stages.
After this argument in favour of life after death, another argument given in this verse is taken from nature. The verse says that the earth becomes barren, bleak or dead on account of a long period of drought. There is not a blade of grass to be seen on it. Then God sends down rain. The bleak and barren earth begins to vibrate with new life. This phenomenon also leads to the same conclusion that God Who has the power to make the dead and barren earth vibrate with new life has the power to bring man to life after his death. It also leads to the implied inference that by the advent of Islam, a spiritually dead Arabia will bloom and blossom into new life. See also 23:13-15. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ وَ اَنَّہٗ یُحۡیِ الۡمَوۡتٰی وَ اَنَّہٗ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ۙ﴿۷﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَأَنَّهُۥ يُحۡيِ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ وَأَنَّهُۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
c. 2:74; 30:51; 35:10; 41:40; 42:10; 57:18. (close)
a. 2:74; 30:51; 35:10; 41:40; 42:10; 57:18. (close)
The verse purports to say that the inescapable inference from the preceding verse is (1) that God is الحق i.e. His existence is an established fact and He is the Creator Who creates according to the requirements of wisdom and justice; (2) that He infuses new life into a spiritually dead people and (3) that He has the power to do all things which are in accordance with His design and device and which fulfil His purpose.
The word الموتی (the dead) here specially signifies those who are spiritually dead. The physically dead are mentioned in the next verse. (close)
وَّ اَنَّ السَّاعَۃَ اٰتِیَۃٌ لَّا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہَا ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَبۡعَثُ مَنۡ فِی الۡقُبُوۡرِ ﴿۸﴾
وَأَنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ ءَاتِيَةٞ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبۡعَثُ مَن فِي ٱلۡقُبُورِ
d. 15:86; 18:22; 20:16; 40:60; 45:33. (close)
a. 15:86; 18:22; 20:16; 40:60; 45:33. (close)
The verse continues the theme of its predecessor and like it constitutes an inevitable conclusion to v. 6 viz. "that the Hour will certainly come and that Allah will raise up those who are in the graves." The expression "who are in the graves" may also refer to those who are spiritually dead and are waiting for a Divine Reformer to come and raise them from their graves, i.e. their spiritual death. This expression and the word الموتی (the dead) in the preceding verse may be taken as depicting two aspects of the spiritually dead people. (close)
وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ فِی اللّٰہِ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَّ لَا ہُدًی وَّ لَا کِتٰبٍ مُّنِیۡرٍ ۙ﴿۹﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَٰدِلُ فِي ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖ وَلَا هُدٗى وَلَا كِتَٰبٖ مُّنِيرٖ
a. 22:4. (close)
1933. ‘Ilm (knowledge) signifies, intellectual proofs and arguments, Huda Divine guidance and Kitabu Munir scriptural evidence. (close)
b. 22:4. (close)
The verse stresses the importance of true knowledge and reiterates the fact that all deviation from the right path is due to the lack of it. It purports to say that the inference from v. 6 viz. that God is and that He has the power to bring the dead to life, is so patent and manifest that it is only perverse thinking, born of lack of true knowledge that can deny it.
علم (knowledge) signifies intellectual proof and arguments, ھدی Divine guidance and کتاب منیر signifies scriptural evidence. (close)
ثَانِیَ عِطۡفِہٖ لِیُضِلَّ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ لَہٗ فِی الدُّنۡیَا خِزۡیٌ وَّ نُذِیۡقُہٗ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ عَذَابَ الۡحَرِیۡقِ ﴿۱۰﴾
ثَانِيَ عِطۡفِهِۦ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۖ لَهُۥ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا خِزۡيٞۖ وَنُذِيقُهُۥ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ
1934. Two kinds of punishment are in store for the deniers of truth, viz. defeat and discomfiture in the present life and disgrace and ignominy in the life to come. The punishment in this life constitutes a proof of punishment in the life to come. (close)
2445. Important Words:
ثانی (turning) is derived from ثنی. They say ثناہ i.e. he doubled it or folded it; he bent it; he turned him or turned him away or back. ثناہ من حاجته he turned him or turned him away or back from the object of his want. ثانی عطفه meaning twisting or bending his back and turning his side, is a metaphor for "behaving proudly." See also 11:6 & 15:88.
Two kinds of punishment are in store for the deniers of truth, viz. defeat and discomfiture in the present life and disgrace and ignominy in the life to come. The punishment in this life constitutes a proof of punishment in the life to come. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ یَدٰکَ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ لَیۡسَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِّلۡعَبِیۡدِ ﴿٪۱۱﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ يَدَاكَ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَيۡسَ بِظَلَّـٰمٖ لِّلۡعَبِيدِ
b. 3:183; 8:52; 41:47. (close)
a. 3:183; 8:52; 41:47. (close)
وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّعۡبُدُ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی حَرۡفٍ ۚ فَاِنۡ اَصَابَہٗ خَیۡرُ ۨ اطۡمَاَنَّ بِہٖ ۚ وَ اِنۡ اَصَابَتۡہُ فِتۡنَۃُ ۣ انۡقَلَبَ عَلٰی وَجۡہِہٖ ۟ۚ خَسِرَ الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃَ ؕ ذٰلِکَ ہُوَ الۡخُسۡرَانُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۱۲﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَعۡبُدُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ حَرۡفٖۖ فَإِنۡ أَصَابَهُۥ خَيۡرٌ ٱطۡمَأَنَّ بِهِۦۖ وَإِنۡ أَصَابَتۡهُ فِتۡنَةٌ ٱنقَلَبَ عَلَىٰ وَجۡهِهِۦ خَسِرَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةَۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلۡخُسۡرَانُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
1935. The Arabs say, Fulanun ‘Ala Harfin min Amrihi, i.e. such a one is in a vacillating condition, looking to the result of an affair he turns to it if he sees what he likes and turns away from it if he sees what does not please him (Lane). The Quranic expression means, one who serves Allah standing aloof with respect to religion, in a fluctuating state, like the person who is in the outskirts of the army, so that if he is sure of victory and spoil, he stands firm, otherwise he flees away. The sense of the expression 'on the verge' is explained in the very next sentence, viz. "if good befalls him, he is content therewith; and if there befalls him a trial, he returns to his former way." Or, the expression may signify that people of weak faith are always in a state of doubt and suspense. If, by accepting the truth, they hope to get some material benefit they remain and behave as believers, but if belief is attended with trials and tribulations, they turn back on their heels. (close)
a. 70:21, 22. (close)
b. 33:20; 70:21-22. (close)
2446. Important Words:
حرف (verge) is infinitive noun from حرف (harafa). They say حرف الشیء عن وجھه i.e. he turned the thing from its proper way or manner or altered it therefrom. حرف means, the extremity, verge, border, margin, brink, side or edge of anything, as for instance the side of a river, the edge of a sword or the ridge of a mountain. علی حرف من امرہ means, such a one is in a vacillating condition, looking to the result of an affair, he turns to it if he sees what he likes, and turns away from it if he sees what does not please him. من یعبد اللّٰه علی حرف means, one who serves Allah standing aloof with respect to religion, in a fluctuating state, like the person who is in the outskirts of the army, so that if he is sure of victory and spoil, he stands firm, otherwise he flees away; or the meaning is, he who serves God in doubt or suspense being unsteady like him who is on the ridge of a mountain; or the meaning is, one who serves God in one mode of circumstances i.e. when in ample circumstances and not when in straitened circumstances (Lane).
The sense of the expression علی حرف (on the verge) is explained in the very next sentence, viz. if good befall him, he is content therewith; and if there befall him a trial, he returns to his former way. Taking the word حرف in the sense of suspense, the expression would signify that people of weak faith are always in a state of doubt and suspense. If by accepting the message of truth they hope to get some material benefit, they remain and act as believers but if belief is attended with trials and tribulations then they turn back on their heels. Taking this word in the sense of edge or brink, the expression would mean that such people have only a superficial knowledge of religion. They do not enter into its spirit and have no insight into it. Such waverers and doubters are always deprived of the very benefits they hope to get by their insincere faith. (close)
یَدۡعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَضُرُّہٗ وَ مَا لَا یَنۡفَعُہٗ ؕ ذٰلِکَ ہُوَ الضَّلٰلُ الۡبَعِیۡدُ ﴿ۚ۱۳﴾
يَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُۥ وَمَا لَا يَنفَعُهُۥۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلضَّلَٰلُ ٱلۡبَعِيدُ
b. 6:72; 10:107; 21:67; 25:56. (close)
a. 6:72; 10:107; 21:67; 25:56. (close)