ذٰلِکَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ عَاقَبَ بِمِثۡلِ مَا عُوۡقِبَ بِہٖ ثُمَّ بُغِیَ عَلَیۡہِ لَیَنۡصُرَنَّہُ اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُوۡرٌ ﴿۶۱﴾
۞ذَٰلِكَۖ وَمَنۡ عَاقَبَ بِمِثۡلِ مَا عُوقِبَ بِهِۦ ثُمَّ بُغِيَ عَلَيۡهِ لَيَنصُرَنَّهُ ٱللَّهُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٞ
1968. The verse has twofold significance. It holds out a promise of help to Muslims and also implies a prophecy about their eventual success. In the former sense it purports to say that the Muslims have been oppressed and transgressed against. They may retaliate but their retaliation should not exceed legitimate bounds. The injury they should inflict on the enemy should be proportionate to the injury they receive. According to the second meaning Muslims are told that they are going to have their enemies in their power and that they will be perfectly justified in inflicting as much injury on them as they had received from them, but it would be far better if in the hour of victory and success, by copying the Divine attributes of mercy and forgiveness, they pardoned and forgave them. (close)
The verse has twofold significance. It holds out a promise of help to Muslims and also implies a prophecy about their eventual success. In the former sense it purports to say that the Muslims have been oppressed and transgressed against. They may retaliate but their retaliation should not exceed legitimate bounds. The injury they should inflict on the enemy should not be greater than the injury they have received.
But the fear that the enemy being more powerful would inflict greater injury on them if they retaliated, should not deter them from retaliating. In that event they would be entitled to help and protection from God and would receive it in ample measure.
According to the second meaning Muslims are told that they are going to have their enemies in their power and they will be perfectly justified in inflicting as much injury on them as they had received from them but it would be far better if in the hour of victory and success they pardoned and forgave them, imitating the Divine attributes of mercy and forgiveness.
Incidentally, four very sound principles are deducible from this verse: (a) Muslims can and should fight in self-defence if they are attacked; but in no case should they take the initiative in attacking. (b) If they retaliate, their retaliation should be proportionate to the wrong done to them; they are not allowed to inflict a greater injury. (c) If they inflicted greater injury than the injury they had received, then they would be condemned as transgressors and would forfeit God’s help and protection. (d) If the party on whom punishment has been inflicted for the wrong it had done seeks again to attack the retaliators, it shall be regarded as guilty of further aggression.
It should be noted that the verse does not speak of individual retaliation. It is retaliation on national or government basis. Individuals are not allowed to take the law into their own hands for the redress of any wrong. They should have recourse to the properly constituted authorities.
The verse should be read in conjunction with vv. 39, 40 above which deal with the basic and principal subject of the Surah i.e. jihad. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُوۡلِجُ الَّیۡلَ فِی النَّہَارِ وَ یُوۡلِجُ النَّہَارَ فِی الَّیۡلِ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ سَمِیۡعٌۢ بَصِیۡرٌ ﴿۶۲﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُولِجُ ٱلَّيۡلَ فِي ٱلنَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِي ٱلَّيۡلِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعُۢ بَصِيرٞ
a. 3:28; 31:30; 35:14; 57:7. (close)
1969. Nahar (day) in the verse represents power and prosperity and Lail (night) signifies the loss of power combined with national decline and decadence. The verse uses this metaphor to point to the fact hinted at in the preceding verse that the night of misery and oppression to which Muslims were subjected for so long was about to pass away and the day of their glory and might was about to dawn. (close)
a. 31:30; 35:14; 57:7. (close)
The word النھار (day) in the verse represents power and prosperity and اللیل (night) signifies the loss of power combined with decline and decadence. The verse uses this metaphor to point to the fact hinted at in the preceding verse that the night of misery and oppression to which Muslims were subjected for so long was about to pass away and the day of their glory and might was about to dawn. The verse further consoles and comforts the oppressed Muslims that God is not oblivious of their troubles.
From Him nothing is hidden and He hears their prayers. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ وَ اَنَّ مَا یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ ہُوَ الۡبَاطِلُ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ الۡعَلِیُّ الۡکَبِیۡرُ ﴿۶۳﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ هُوَ ٱلۡبَٰطِلُ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡعَلِيُّ ٱلۡكَبِيرُ
b. 20:115; 23:117; 24:26. (close)
b. 20:115; 23:117; 24:26. (close)
The metaphor of the last verse is continued in the present verse. It purports to say that Muslims will grow and prosper because God is Truth. He has revealed the truth which the Muslims follow and practise. Islam has come to stay because it is truth and truth is invincible while falsehood is perishable.
The words "Allah is the High, the Great" signify that it is impossible that a dispensation established by God should fail, as this would constitute a serious reflection on His Greatness and Glory. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ اَنۡزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً ۫ فَتُصۡبِحُ الۡاَرۡضُ مُخۡضَرَّۃً ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَطِیۡفٌ خَبِیۡرٌ ﴿ۚ۶۴﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ فَتُصۡبِحُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مُخۡضَرَّةًۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٞ
c. 22:6; 30:51; 35:28; 39:22; 45:6. (close)
1970. The verse draws the attention of disbelievers to the natural phenomenon that is unfolding itself before their very eyes. Do they not see, it purports to say, that Divine rain has fallen on the bleak, barren and spiritually dead land of Arabia and that it has begun to vibrate with new life and there is verdure and greenness all over, i.e. there is spiritual awakening all over the country and Islam has taken deep roots? (close)
The verse draws the attention of disbelievers to the natural phenomenon that is unfolding itself before their very eyes. Do they not see, it purports to say, that divine rain has fallen on the bleak, barren and dead land of Arabia and that it has begun to vibrate with new life and there is verdure and greenness all over it i.e. there is spiritual awakening all over the country and Islam has taken deep roots? It will now grow and expand and prevail over all false faiths. (close)
لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَہُوَ الۡغَنِیُّ الۡحَمِیۡدُ ﴿٪۶۵﴾
لَّهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡغَنِيُّ ٱلۡحَمِيدُ
a. 2:256; 10:56; 31:27. (close)
a. 2:256; 10:56; 31:27. (close)
The theme of the previous verse is continued in this verse, viz. Islam will prosper and make vast conquests because God Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent it and He is at its back. God has willed that His kingdom shall be established in the earth and His worship shall take the place of the worship of false deities. He has decreed that His glory shall be extolled and His praises sung in the world because He is worthy of all praise. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمۡ مَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الۡفُلۡکَ تَجۡرِیۡ فِی الۡبَحۡرِ بِاَمۡرِہٖ ؕ وَ یُمۡسِکُ السَّمَآءَ اَنۡ تَقَعَ عَلَی الۡاَرۡضِ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۶﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلۡفُلۡكَ تَجۡرِي فِي ٱلۡبَحۡرِ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ وَيُمۡسِكُ ٱلسَّمَآءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِٱلنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٞ رَّحِيمٞ
b. 16:15. (close)
b. 16:15; 35:13. (close)
The verse constitutes a beautiful commentary on the futility of idol-worship and gives two very strong arguments against it. First, God is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has subjected all that is in the earth, in the sea and even in the air to the service of man. It is this Lord of all life Who is entitled to our worship and not the idols of wood and stone or those of man’s own fancy. Secondly, when God has pressed the whole universe into the service of man and has made him the lord of the whole creation and His own chief handiwork, it is foolish on his part to degrade himself so low as to worship anything besides God.
The verse possesses another significance. The realization that all things are created for the service of man draws our attention to the uses and properties of different objects and urges us to study them and then turn them to our benefit. It is this study of natural objects that led to new discoveries and inventions and consequently to the great material progress which the early Muslims made in the heyday of their intellectual glory. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَحۡیَاکُمۡ ۫ ثُمَّ یُمِیۡتُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُحۡیِیۡکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ الۡاِنۡسَانَ لَکَفُوۡرٌ ﴿۶۷﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَحۡيَاكُمۡ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمۡ ثُمَّ يُحۡيِيكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَٰنَ لَكَفُورٞ
c. 2:29; 16:71; 30:41, 40:69. (close)
1971. The phenomenon of life and death operates simultaneously. Every death is followed by, and brings the hope of, a new life. A few Muslims killed on the battlefields of Badr, Uhud, etc. brought about the spiritual resurrection of the whole of Arabia. (close)
a. 2:29; 16:71; 30:41; 40:69. (close)
The verse speaks of another Divine favour. God gave us life, then He will cause us to die and then will He give us a new life again. Death has been mentioned here as a Divine boon because it is the door through which man passes to a fuller life, which is eternal and is of growing and unending progress. That life which knows no end is described here by the words ثم یحییکم i.e. then will He give you life again. In yet another sense death is a great Divine blessing. If there had been no death, human life would have become intolerable and there would have been disorder, confusion and chaos on earth.
The words, "then He will cause you to die; then will He give you life," further signify that the process of life and death continues simultaneously. Every death is followed by and brings the message of a new life. A few Muslims killed at the battlefields of Badr, Uhud, etc., brought about the spiritual resurrection of the whole of Arabia. (close)
لِکُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ جَعَلۡنَا مَنۡسَکًا ہُمۡ نَاسِکُوۡہُ فَلَا یُنَازِعُنَّکَ فِی الۡاَمۡرِ وَ ادۡعُ اِلٰی رَبِّکَ ؕ اِنَّکَ لَعَلٰی ہُدًی مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۶۸﴾
لِّكُلِّ أُمَّةٖ جَعَلۡنَا مَنسَكًا هُمۡ نَاسِكُوهُۖ فَلَا يُنَٰزِعُنَّكَ فِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِۚ وَٱدۡعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَۖ إِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ هُدٗى مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
1972. Divine worship is found in one form or another among all nations and peoples. This fact leads to the great truth which Islam, among all religions, was the first to proclaim that Divine Messengers appeared among all peoples to teach them the different forms and ways of worship. (close)
2497. Important Words:
منسک (ways of worship) means, rites of sacrifice; religious rites and ceremonies of the Pilgrimage; animals of sacrifice; ways of worship; acts of devotion. See also 6:163 & 22:35.
Taking منسک in the sense of animals of sacrifice or the rites of sacrifice the verse signifies (a) that the ritual of sacrifice in one form or another is common to all religions; and (b) that it was the sacrifice of animals that was at first enjoined by God and not human sacrifice which was invented afterwards.
Taking the word منسک in the sense of 'ways of worship,' the verse means that Divine worship is found in one form or another among all nations and peoples. This fact leads to another great truth which Islam, among all religions, was the first to proclaim, viz. that Divine Messengers appeared at different times among all nations and peoples to teach them the different forms and ways of worship.
The words فی الامر (in the matter) mean, 'in the matter of Islam' or 'in the matter of the Quran.' In this sense of the words the verse purports to say that when it has been made clear that Prophets were raised among all peoples, the disbelievers have no right or justification to say that the Holy Prophet has brought a novel teaching. He has done no new thing and has introduced no innovation. See 46:10. (close)
وَ اِنۡ جٰدَلُوۡکَ فَقُلِ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۶۹﴾
وَإِن جَٰدَلُوكَ فَقُلِ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
The verse purports to say that if in spite of the fact that Divine Prophets appeared among all nations and the advent of the Holy Prophet was not an innovation and in spite of the irrefutable arguments and innumerable signs that God had shown in his favour, the disbelievers prefer to doubt and dispute the truth of his mission, then let them wait and see what the future has in store for them and what evil consequences their rejection of the truth will lead to. (close)
اَللّٰہُ یَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ فِیۡمَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۷۰﴾
ٱللَّهُ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ فِيمَا كُنتُمۡ فِيهِ تَخۡتَلِفُونَ
a. 2:114; 4:142. (close)
a. 2:114; 4:142. (close)
The argument commenced in the preceding verse is continued here. If the disbelievers, the verse purports to say, persist in their rejection of truth, God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection i.e. the day of the triumph of Islam and of the discomfiture and destruction of disbelief. (close)