یَعۡلَمُ مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ تُرۡجَعُ الۡاُمُوۡرُ ﴿۷۷﴾
يَعۡلَمُ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُمۡۚ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرۡجَعُ ٱلۡأُمُورُ
a. 2:256; 27:66; 49:17. (close)
a. 2:256; 27:66; 49:17. (close)
The verse implies that the great boon of prophethood is bestowed only on those who are fitted to receive it and discharge its great responsibilities. The words, "what is before them and what is behind them," may signify the attributes and qualities they already possess and those which they later on develop. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا ارۡکَعُوۡا وَ اسۡجُدُوۡا وَ اعۡبُدُوۡا رَبَّکُمۡ وَ افۡعَلُوا الۡخَیۡرَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿ۚٛ۷۸﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱرۡكَعُواْ وَٱسۡجُدُواْۤ وَٱعۡبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمۡ وَٱفۡعَلُواْ ٱلۡخَيۡرَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ۩
b. 3:44; 41:38; 96:20. (close)
b. 3:44; 41:38; 96:20. (close)
2506. Important Words:
ارکعوا (bow down) is derived from رکع which means, he bowed down, his condition became lowered or abased. رکعت النخلةmeans, the palm-tree inclined. رکع الی اللّٰه means he completely turned towards God and leaned upon Him, he humbled himself to Him, and found peace of mind in Him. The word راکع as used by the Arabs meant, one who worshipped God alone to the exclusion of all sorts of idols and images (Asas). The famous pre-Islamic poet Nabighah says:
سیبلغ عذراً اونجاحاً من امرئ
الی ربه رب البریة راکع
i.e. he who turns to God alone, the Creator of the world, will have a sound argument in his favour and will obtain salvation ( Lane & Aqrab).
The verse points to the following four means which it is very essential to adopt for attaining spiritual eminence and success and prosperity in life: (a) To possess firm, sincere and unadulterated faith in God. This is the meaning of the word آمنوا. (b) To have full and complete reliance and dependence on God and to renounce all unfair and doubtful means for the attainment of one’s object. This is the significance of ارکعوا. (c) To give unquestioning obedience to God’s commandments and unqualified submission to His will, and to develop in oneself Divine attributes so as to become God’s own manifestation. This is the import and purport of the expression واسجدوا واعبدوا (d) To do righteous deeds and serve mankind (وافعلواالخیر). Thus this brief verse covers the entire extent and scope of the ways and means that lead to material and moral progress. (close)
وَ جَاہِدُوۡا فِی اللّٰہِ حَقَّ جِہَادِہٖ ؕ ہُوَ اجۡتَبٰٮکُمۡ وَ مَا جَعَلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ مِنۡ حَرَجٍ ؕ مِلَّۃَ اَبِیۡکُمۡ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ؕ ہُوَ سَمّٰٮکُمُ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ۬ۙ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ فِیۡ ہٰذَا لِیَکُوۡنَ الرَّسُوۡلُ شَہِیۡدًا عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ تَکُوۡنُوۡا شُہَدَآءَ عَلَی النَّاسِ ۚۖ فَاَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اعۡتَصِمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ ؕ ہُوَ مَوۡلٰٮکُمۡ ۚ فَنِعۡمَ الۡمَوۡلٰی وَ نِعۡمَ النَّصِیۡرُ ﴿٪۷۹﴾
وَجَٰهِدُواْ فِي ٱللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِۦۚ هُوَ ٱجۡتَبَىٰكُمۡ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِي ٱلدِّينِ مِنۡ حَرَجٖۚ مِّلَّةَ أَبِيكُمۡ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَۚ هُوَ سَمَّىٰكُمُ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَفِي هَٰذَا لِيَكُونَ ٱلرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَتَكُونُواْ شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِۚ فَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱعۡتَصِمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ هُوَ مَوۡلَىٰكُمۡۖ فَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَوۡلَىٰ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ
c. 9:41. (close)
1976. Jihad is of two kinds: (a) Jihad against one’s evil desires and propensities; and (b) Jihad against the enemies of truth which includes fighting in self-defence. The first kind of Jihad may be termed 'Jihad in Allah' and the latter kind of Jihad, 'Jihad in the way of Allah.' The Holy Prophet has termed the first kind of Jihad as the greater Jihad and the latter kind of Jihad as the smaller Jihad. (close)
d. 2:136; 16:124. (close)
1977. The words, 'He has named you Muslims both before, and in this Book,' refer to Isaiah’s prophecy: 'And thou shalt be called by a new name which the mouth of the Lord shall name… (Isa. 62:2 & 65:15). (close)
1977A. The allusion in the words 'and in this Book' is to Abraham’s prayer quoted in the Qur’an, viz. 'Our Lord make us "Muslims" to Thee and make our offspring a people submissive to Thee' (2:129). (close)
e. 2:144; 16:90. (close)
a. 9:41. (close)
b. 2:136; 16:124. (close)
c. 2:144; 16:90. (close)
2507. Important Words:
جاھدوا (strive) is derived from جھد. They say جھد فی الامر i.e. he did his utmost, took extraordinary pains, he employed himself vigorously in prosecuting the affair. جھد دابته means, he fatigued the beast or burdened the beast beyond its power. جاھد means, he exerted his utmost power in contending with an object of his disapprobation. جاھد العدو means, he fought with the enemy imposing upon himself distress or exerting his utmost power or ability to repel him. جھاد orمجاھدة are infinitives from جاھد (Lane & Aqrab).
The word جھاد has been used in two senses in the Quran with a slight change, viz. جھاد فی سبیل اللّٰه i.e. striving hard in the cause of Allah, used in several verses of the Quran and جھاد فی اللّٰه, literally meaning striving hard in Allah, as used in the present verse and in 29:70. As it appears from the latter two verses جھاد فی اللّٰه signifies striving hard to win the pleasure and nearness of God while جھاد فی سبیل اللّٰه signifies the waging of war against the enemies of truth. Thus جھاد فی اللّٰه seems to possess a higher spiritual significance than جھاد فی سبیل اللّٰه.
Jihad is of three kinds: (a) jihad against one’s baser self, i.e. against one’s evil desires and propensities or jihad against Satan and (b) jihad against the enemies of truth which includes fighting in self-defence. These two kinds of jihad may be termed as جھاد فی اللّٰه and the third kind of jihad may be called جھاد فی سبیل اللّٰه. The Holy Prophet has termed the first two kinds of jihad as جھاد اکبر (the greater jihad) and the third kind of jihad as جھاد اصغر (the smaller jihad). Once when he was returning from fighting he is reported to have said: رجعتم من الجھاد الاصغر الی الجھاد الاکبر i.e. you have returned from the smaller jihad (fighting against the enemies of Islam) to the greater jihad (waging war against one’s baser self) (Khatib). According to Imam Raghib, the words جاھدوا فی اللّٰه حق جھادہ include all the three forms of jihad. The words جاھدوا فی اللّٰه may also include the propagation of Islam, as the words, "and He has laid no hardship upon you in religion," indicate. See also 2:219.
The words, "He has chosen you and has laid no hardship upon you in religion," show that while on the one hand it has been laid down as a sacred duty upon Muslims to preach their religion, on the other they signify that Islam is a simple, practical and practicable religion and there is nothing in its commandments which it is not easily possible for man to carry out. To this practicality and practicability of the Islamic ordinances pointed references have also been made in vv. 2:287 & 54:18. The words also show that the Law or Shari‘ah has not been revealed to impose a burden upon man as the Christians say but, on the contrary, to lighten his burdens and to break the chains and fetters with which he has shackled himself and to uplift him morally and spiritually.
The words, "He named you Muslims before," refer to the following prophecy of the Bible:
And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory: and thou shalt be called by a new name which the mouth of the Lord shall name… And ye shall leave your name for a curse unto my chosen, and the Lord God shall slay thee; and He shall call His servants by another name (Isaiah 62:2 & 65:15).
The allusion in the words "And in this Book" is to Abraham’s prayer quoted in the Quran, viz. "Our Lord make us Muslims (submissive) to Thee and make our offspring a people submissive to Thee" (2:129). It is very significant that though in its essence the religion of all the Prophets of God was Islam, it was reserved for the religion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad to receive this proper name from God. As the religions preached and practised by the former prophets were only an undeveloped and imperfect form of Islam they did not receive a proper name and were known after their own names.
But as Islam, the eternal faith, received its fullest development and completest consummation at the hands of the Holy Prophet, his religion was given this proper name. This is one of the many superiorities which the Holy Prophetpossesses over other Prophets of God.
The words "He named you Muslims" possess another significance. The word 'Muslim' being from the root 'Islam' which means 'peace'; a true Muslim is one who is at peace with God and man and is also at peace with himself. The Holy Prophet has given an apt definition of a Muslim in the following well-known hadith
المسلم من سلم المسلمون من یدہ و لسانه
i.e. a true Muslim is one from whose hands and tongue other Muslims are safe (Bukhari). It is indeed strange that a religion, whose very name means 'peace' and whose followers are enjoined to preach and practise peace, should have been stigmatized by hostile and ignorant critics as having brought fire and sword into the world, and should have been maligned as being indebted for its expansion and propagation to the swords and spears of its votaries! Nothing could be farther from truth. (close)