بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِِ

Al Islam

The Official Website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Muslims who believe in the Messiah,
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.



(Revealed before Hijrah)

Place and Date of Revelation

It can be said without fear of contradiction that the whole of this Surah was revealed at Mecca. All authorities including Qurtubi agree on this point. There seems to exist some difference of opinion about the exact number of verses of this Surah. The people of Basra regard it as 119. They count vv. 46 & 47 as two separate verses while the Kufis, who hold that these two verses constitute one verse, place the number of the verses of the Surah at 118. We, however, hold that the number of the verses including the Bismillah is 119. At any rate there appears to exist no ground for some Christian writers to discover a plea to impugn the authenticity of the text of the Quran on the basis of this slight difference of opinion. There is to be found complete unanimity among scholars that the whole text of the Quran as it exists today is the revealed Word of God and is completely immune from all human interference and interpolation. Thus, a seeming difference in the number of the verses of this Surah can cast no reflection on the reliability and authenticity of its text.

There is sufficient internal evidence to show that the Surah was revealed towards the end of the Holy Prophet’s stay at Mecca. Suyuti regards it as the last Surah to be revealed at Mecca while some other commentators assign its revelation to Medina. But not much weight is attached to this latter opinion. Wherry fixes sixth or seventh year of the Call as the time of its revelation. But the text of the Surah and Islamic traditions contradict Wherry’s assumption. The view however, seems to be more akin to reality that the Surah was revealed towards the end of the Meccan period, just before Hijrah, though actually it may not have been the last Surah to be revealed at Mecca as Sayuti thinks.

Connection with the Preceding Surah

In the closing verses of the last Surah the believers were told to turn to God and obey His commandments as in this lay the secret of their future progress and prosperity. They were also enjoined to wage war with the sword so that those who drew the sword against Islam should themselves perish by the sword. They were further enjoined to strive in the way of the Lord with the Quran. The alternative commandment of jihad sometimes with the sword and another time with the Quran has made provision for both the contingencies. Neither were non-Muslims compelled to accept Islam by force nor were believers required to accept any commandment against their conscience. The believers were further told that jihad with the Quran meant that they should observe Prayers and give the Zakah and hold fast to God and that if they acted upon these commandments, God would help them and vouchsafe to them success and prosperity. Whereas the closing verses of the preceding Surah had held out to the believers a conditional promise of success, in the present Surah a sure guarantee is given that a community of believers will certainly be born who, because they will fulfil the above-mentioned conditions, will achieve success. Thus a thing which was only presumed to have existed is claimed in this Surah to have come into being as an actual fact.

The subject matter of this Surah makes a little digression from that of the preceding few Surahs. Those Surahscontained a summary of the teaching of Christianity and rejected what was unacceptable in it and corrected and amended where corrections and amendments were found necessary. This Surah, too, embodies a repudiation of the false doctrines and teachings of Christianity, but at the same time makes a pointed and emphatic reference to the fact that the whole Christian system has been replaced by Islam, which by removing all interpolations and false ideas that had found their way into it, will now guide mankind to its destined goal.

Subject Matter

The Surah opens with the glad tidings to the true believers that the time of their success and prosperity has already arrived, and then proceeds to give a brief description of their characteristics and special marks, i.e. they worship their Lord with a humble heart; they refrain from all such actions as do no good to themselves or their community; they are ever ready to undergo all sorts of sacrifice for the sake of their country; they shut all those avenues through which evil thoughts find access to the human heart, particularly they guard their chastity; they faithfully discharge their responsibilities and fulfil their covenants and pledges with other peoples; they are specially regardful of congregational Prayers, i.e. they promote and foster national feelings among the members of their community and subordinate individual requirements to national needs. These are the people who will get the Paradise promised to them in this world and will enjoy God’s eternal and everlasting favours in the life to come.

This, in a nutshell, is the process of the spiritual growth and development of believers. It is followed by a brief but beautiful description of the growth of the human foetus and defines the different stages through which the child passes––from the stage of a drop of sperm to that of a fully developed human being. The Surah then proceeds to explain that just as every physical birth is followed by death and resurrection, similarly nations or communities among whom at one time a spiritual renaissance takes place, at another time are subject to decay and decadence and in due course are succeeded by another people. In fact spiritual and physical developments bear a close resemblance. Both of them have to pass through seven stages of development. Next, the Surah develops the theme, viz. that all things are sent down into the world according to a determined measure and each continues to exist and is afforded protection till an appointed time. When at last it has served its purpose it decays and dies. In the same way the Divine teachings, sent down before the Quran, died when they had served their intended purpose. Thus the mere fact of a teaching being Divine does not entitle it to immunity from decay. It is only the Quran which has been granted continuity of life and which will therefore provide spiritual food to all humanity for all time, because it is the last revealed Divine Law.

The Surah then recounts some of the favours which God has bestowed upon man and which are necessary for his physical sustenance, and draws the moral lesson that when God has taken so much care to provide for man’s physical needs, He must have taken equal, even greater, care to provide for his spiritual requirements.

Next, we are told that the most essential prerequisite to ensure spiritual progress is belief in the Unity of God which since the inception of the world the Prophets of God have taught and preached. But the enemies of truth have always protested that some superhuman being should have been sent by God for their guidance, but in spite of this persistent protest of disbelievers God has always commissioned only men to guide men, who in the face of determined and organized opposition and persecution succeeded in their mission. (It is a strange irony that before the advent of Jesus the disbelievers always demanded that a superhuman being, preferably an angel, should have been sent as a messenger of God to guide them. How a mere mortal like them, they said, could arrogate to himself the position of being a Divine Messenger. In the time of Jesus, when he metaphorically said that he was a Son of God, they said that it was highly preposterous and blasphemous for a mere human being to claim to be a Son of God, and in the time of the Holy Prophet disbelievers said that a Prophet could not come from outside the House of Israel. In fact man in his perversity and waywardness always has found some foolish excuse to reject God’s message).

The Surah then deals at length with the subject of Divine Unity and says that Noah preached and propagated the Oneness of God. After Noah came a galaxy of Prophets. All of them taught that God was One and those Divine teachers who came after them also emphasized and stressed it. The devotees of darkness, however, always opposed and persecuted the Prophets. The result of the struggle between truth and falsehood invariably was that the believers were successful and those who disbelieved and rejected the Divine Messengers suffered defeat and came to grief. Then we are told that in course of time came Moses, the greatest Prophet of Israel, with Aaron his brother as his deputy, and they both gave the same teaching and were also successful in their mission. This is a phenomenon which has occurred again and again in the lives of God’s great Messengers. From this it is quite clear that Unity of God is the basic doctrine of all religions which all Divine Messengers taught and upon which they laid the greatest stress. The Surah further says that towards the end of the Mosaic Dispensation came Jesus, son of Mary. He also taught and laid very great stress on the Unity of God but his followers invented the false doctrine of his sonship. Such a foolish doctrine, however, cannot be accepted as true against the combined testimony and teachings of all Divine Prophets, including Jesus himself. Next, the Holy Prophet Muhammad is enjoined to observe ordinances and commandments of the Shari‘ah like all other Prophets in the matter of food and in all other acts and to adapt and mould himself to God’s perfect Shari‘ah, because those who give up the right path are led away from Him.

The Surah then proceeds to say that there have always existed differences among the followers of all religions but these differences are the result of lack of true knowledge and of heedlessness which takes hold of men after their Prophets leave the world. But such is not the case with true believers. They fear their Lord and believe in His signs and have firm faith in His Unity and do good deeds to the best of their power, and yet consider themselves not to have fully discharged their duties and responsibilities. They strive to vie with one another in doing good deeds. Man, however, is expected to act only to the best of his powers because "Allah does not burden any soul beyond its capacity." Then it is stated that though the Law of God is quite practical and practicable, the disbelievers refuse to act upon it and in their perversity and the pride of their power and wealth continue to indulge in luxury and vain pursuits till God’s punishment overtakes them and they weep and wail, but then it is too late and their wailing and weeping is of no avail. They defy and reject Divine Messengers and call them madmen. But they are so foolish as not to understand this simple thing that if the Prophets had been madmen, they should not have succeeded in their missions but should have come to an ignominious end. On the contrary, all what they say and claim comes to pass. The fact is that in their heart of hearts disbelievers do not regard the Prophets as maniacs and madmen, on the contrary they entertain a creeping fear lest what the Prophets say may be fulfilled and they may be brought to book for their rejection of the Divine Message.

The Surah further says that God would have forgiven the transgressions of disbelievers but they have gone so far in mischief and iniquity that God’s forgiveness would not be of any use to them but would only add to their wickedness. If the disbelievers should only reflect a little they would find that the very structure of the human body bears a strong testimony to the truth of God’s Prophets and His Law and to the fact that there is only One Creator and One Controller of the whole universe and of every individual being, and yet they would not believe in Divine Unity. The truth is that God has no son, neither has He a partner in creating or controlling the universe. If He had one, the consummate and beautiful arrangement and order that pervades and permeates it would have gone to pieces.

Towards the end of the Surah disbelievers are warned that they will be punished if they persisted in their rejection of the Divine Message, and the Holy Prophet is told that as punishment is sure to overtake disbelievers he should pray that at that dreadful hour he might be away from the scene of their destruction. He is further told that disbelievers would not desist from their evil course and would continue to indulge in iniquitous deeds till when the hour of punishment arrived they will beg and beseech that they might be granted one last opportunity to reform themselves. But then it would be too late, and they will realize that pain and punishment after a life of ease and comfort is doubly mortifying. In fact a single day of punishment appears to be much longer than a whole life of comfort and ease. The Surah ends with stating the great spiritual truth that man is not created without a purpose. His life has a noble aim. He should not therefore doubt or dispute the truth of Divine Law and of God’s Messengers and should realize that after the truth is made manifest he will have to render an account of his deeds to his Lord if he did not desist from the worship of false gods.

23. المؤمنون

یہ مکہ میں نازل ہونے والی آخری سورتوں میں سے ہے۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی ایک سو اُنیس آیات ہیں۔

 پچھلی سورت کے آخر پر یہ ذکر ہے کہ اصل کامیابی قیامِ نماز اور قیامِ زکوٰۃ سے ہے اور اس امر سے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ کو مضبوطی سے تھام لیا جائے۔ پس جس فلاحِ عظیم کا اس میں اشارہ ملتا ہے اس کی تفصیل سورۃ المؤمنون کی ابتدائی آیات میں مذکور ہے کہ فلاح پانے والے وہ مومن ہیں جو محض نماز کو قائم نہیں کرتے اور زکوٰۃ نہیں دیتے بلکہ اور بھی ان میں بہت سی صفات پائی جاتی ہیں۔ وہ دونوں قسم کی صفات ہیں یعنی کن کن چیزوں سے بچتے ہیں اور کیا نیکیاں بجالاتے ہیں۔

 اس کے بعد یہ بھی فرمایا گیا ہے کہ اگرچہ زندگی کا پانی آسمان سے اُترتا ہے اور اس کے بار بار آسمان سے نازل کرنے کا نظام موجود ہے لیکن اگر کسی بنا پر بنی نوع انسان کو اللہ تعالیٰ سبق سکھانا چاہے تو وہ اس بات پر قادر ہے کہ اس پانی کو لے جائے۔ اس کی دو صورتیں ہیں یا تو یہ کہ پانی بار بار آسمان کی بلندیوں سے واپس کرنے کا جو نظام ہے اس میں اللہ تعالیٰ کوئی تبدیلی فرمادے جیسا کہ ابتدائے آفرینش میں زمین کا پانی مسلسل بخارات کی صورت میں آسمانوں کی طرف بلند ہوتا رہا اور جب برستا تھا تو درمیانی گرم فضا کے نتیجہ میں پھر واپس عروج کر جاتا تھا۔ اور دوسری صورت وہ ہے جو عام مشاہدہ میں آتی ہے کہ جب پانی زمین میں گہرا اُتر جائے تو پھر گہرے کنوؤں کی تہ سے بھی نیچے غائب ہو جاتا ہے۔ 

اس کے بعد پھر پانی کے مضمون کو آگے بڑھاکر اُن کشتیوں کا ذکر ہے جو پانیوں پر چلتی ہیں اور اس نسبت سے حضرت نوح علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی کشتی کا ذکر بھی آیا ہے کہ پانی کی سطح پر بلند رہنے کی استطاعت کشتیوں کو تبھی نصیب ہوتی ہے جب اللہ تعالیٰ کا اِذن ہو۔ بلند سے بلند طوفان میں بھی کشتیاں پانی کی سطح پر بلند ہوتی رہتی ہیں اور معمولی سے طوفان سے بھی غرق ہو جاتی ہیں۔ جب قومیں آسمانی پانی سے جو روحانی طور پر ان پر نازل کیا جاتا ہے ناشکری سے پیش آتی ہیں تو دنیاوی پانی کی طرح اس سے بھی اللہ انہیں محروم کر دیتا ہے اور یہ امر بھی ان کو فائدہ نہیں پہنچاتاکہ موسلادھار بارش کی طرح مسلسل رسول ان میں آتے رہے ہیں بلکہ سب کے انکار پر وہ مُصر رہتے ہیں۔

 پھر ایسے پہاڑی علاقے کا ذکر فرمایا جہاں پانی کے چشمے اُبلتے تھے اور امن اور تسکینِ قلب کا موجب بنتے تھے۔ اسی وادی میں حضرت مسیح علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام اور اُن کی والدہ کو دشمنوں سے نجات دیتے ہوئے اللہ تعالیٰ لے گیا۔ قرائن و آثار بتاتے ہیں کہ یہ وادیٔ کشمیر ہی ہے۔ 

اس کے بعد آیت ۷۹ میں یہ مضمون بیان فرمایا گیا ہے کہ ارتقائی منازل میں سب سے پہلے قوتِ شنوائی عطا ہوئی تھی اور اس کے بعد بصارت اور پھر وہ دل انسان کو عطا کئے گئے جو گہری بصیرت رکھتے ہیں اور ہر قسم کے روحانی مضامین کو سمجھنے کی استطاعت رکھتے ہیں۔

 اس کے بعد کچھ ایسی آیات آتی ہیں جن کے مضامین اُن آیات سے ملتے جلتے ہیں جن پر تفصیلی بحث پہلے گزر چکی ہے۔ پھر ایک ایسی آیت ہے جو ایک نئے مضمون کو پیش فرما رہی ہے۔ قیامت کے دن جب انسانوں سے یہ سوال کیا جائے گا کہ تم زمین میں کتنی دیر رہے ہو تو وہ کہیں گے کہ شاید ایک دن یا اس کا بھی کچھ حصہ۔ اللہ تعالیٰ اس کا جواب یہ دے گا کہ دراصل تم اس سے بھی بہت تھوڑا عرصہ وہاں ٹھہرے ہو۔ اس سے موت کے بعد جی اٹھنے تک کے زمانے کی طوالت کی طرف اشارہ ہے۔ دنیا اتنی دُور دکھائی دے گی کہ جیسے آناً فاناً گزر گئی اور یہ وہ مضمون ہے جو روزمرہ انسانی تجربہ میں آیا ہے کہ بہت دُور کے ستارے جو اپنے حجم میں چاند اور سورج کے تمام نظام شمسی سے بھی بہت بڑے ہیں محض چھوٹے چھوٹے نقطوں کی صورت میں دکھائی دے رہے ہیں۔

 اس سورت کی آخری آیت ایک دعا کی صورت میں ہے جو آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو ان الفاظ میں سکھائی گئی کہ اپنے ربّ کو مخاطب ہوکر یہ عرض کیا کر کہ اے میرے ربّ! بخش دے اور رحم فرما اور تُو سب رحم کرنے والوں سے بہتر رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
اللہ کے نام کے ساتھ جو بے انتہا رحم کرنے والا، بِن مانگے دینے والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

Surely, success does come to the believers,
یقیناً مومن کامیاب ہوگئے۔

Who are humble in their Prayers,
وہ جو اپنی نماز میں عاجزی کرنے والے ہیں۔

And who shun all that which is vain,
اور وہ جو لغو سے اِعراض کرنے والے ہیں۔

And who are active in paying the Zakat,
اور وہ جو زکوٰۃ (کا حق) ادا کرنے والے ہیں۔

And who guard their chastity —
اور وہ جو اپنی شرم گاہوں کی حفاظت کرنے والے ہیں۔

Except from their wives or what their right hands possess, for then they are not to be blamed;
مگر اپنی بیویوں سے نہیں یا اُن سے (بھی نہیں) جن کے اُن کے داہنے ہاتھ مالک ہوئے۔ پس یقیناً وہ ملامت نہیں کئے جائیں گے۔

But those who seek anything beyond that are the transgressors —
پس جو اس سے ہٹ کر کچھ چاہے تو یہی لوگ ہیں جو حد سے تجاوز کرنے والے ہیں۔

And who are watchful of their trusts and their covenants,
اور وہ لوگ جو اپنی امانتوں اور اپنے عہد کی نگرانی کرنے والے ہیں۔

And who are strict in the observance of their Prayers.
اور وہ لوگ جو اپنی نمازوں پر محافظ بنے رہتے ہیں۔