قُلۡ رَّبِّ اِمَّا تُرِیَنِّیۡ مَا یُوۡعَدُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۹۴﴾
قُل رَّبِّ إِمَّا تُرِيَنِّي مَا يُوعَدُونَ
رَبِّ فَلَا تَجۡعَلۡنِیۡ فِی الۡقَوۡمِ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۹۵﴾
رَبِّ فَلَا تَجۡعَلۡنِي فِي ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
2014. The Surah was revealed towards the end of the Meccan period. The Holy Prophet was about to leave Mecca. His departure was a signal and a sign that as the result of his persistent denial, persecution and expulsion from Mecca by the Quraish, Divine punishment was about to overtake them. He is taught to pray to God that when the threatened punishment should seize them he might not be present with them in Mecca. (close)
This and the next verse constitute at once a prayer and a prophecy. The present Surah was revealed towards the end of the Meccan period. The Holy Prophet was about to leave Mecca. His departure from Mecca was a signal and a sign that as the result of persistent denial and persecution and of his expulsion from his beloved native town by the Meccans, Divine punishment was about to overtake them. In this verse the Holy Prophet is taught to pray to God that when the threatened punishment should seize the Meccans he might not be among them in Mecca. While on the one hand the actual words of the verse, viz. "My Lord then place me not among the wrongdoing people" expressed a prayer, on the other, they implied a prophecy that when actual punishment overtook the Meccans the Prophet would be far away from the scene of punishment. These words may also mean: "My Lord, grant that I may not be of the wrongdoing people when these people are punished by Thee, and grant that when I get mastery over them I should act with justice and equity on that occasion." By implication the verse admonishes Muslims that in the hour of their victory they should not behave proudly and arrogantly towards their vanquished and humbled enemies. (close)
وَ اِنَّا عَلٰۤی اَنۡ نُّرِیَکَ مَا نَعِدُہُمۡ لَقٰدِرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ أَن نُّرِيَكَ مَا نَعِدُهُمۡ لَقَٰدِرُونَ
b. 40:78. (close)
a. 40:78. (close)
This verse confirms the fulfilment of the prophecy and the prayer embodied in vv. 94, 95 above. The expression لقادرون (are able to do) which points to the Almightiness of God emphasizes the fact that the prayer and prophecy of the Holy Prophet embodied in the preceding two verses shall certainly be fulfilled. (close)
اِدۡفَعۡ بِالَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ السَّیِّئَۃَ ؕ نَحۡنُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا یَصِفُوۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾
ٱدۡفَعۡ بِٱلَّتِي هِيَ أَحۡسَنُ ٱلسَّيِّئَةَۚ نَحۡنُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يَصِفُونَ
c. 13:23; 16:126; 41:35. (close)
2015. The Holy Prophet is here enjoined that as long as he is with disbelievers in Mecca he should patiently bear up with all the abuse and persecution to which he is subjected and should return good for evil. (close)
b. 13:23; 16:126; 41:35. (close)
In the preceding two verses we were told that punishment was about to overtake disbelievers and that at the time of that punishment the Holy Prophet would be far away from the scene of punishment. In the present verse, however, the Prophet is enjoined that as long as he is with disbelievers he should patiently bear up with all the abuse and persecution to which he is subjected and should return good for evil.
Incidentally, the verse points to a very noble principle inculcated by Islam for the moral progress of a Muslim and also for the establishment and preservation of peace and harmony among individuals and nations. The subject has been dealt with at some length in 16:91 and 42:41 where light is shed on all the different stages of the moral development of man. Briefly, there are three stages of man’s moral development, viz. of عدلi.e. doing good to others to the extent or measure of the good received from them; of إحسان which means the doing of more good than the good received or doing good without receiving any good; and of إیتاء ذی القربی which consists in doing good not in return of any good received, but as prompted by natural impulse. This is one aspect of moral development of man which the Quran has dealt with in 16:91. But there is another equally important aspect and the Quran has not omitted to deal with it also. Compared to the above-mentioned three different ways in which a Muslim is enjoined to conduct himself when he does good to other people, the Quran enjoins upon him a parallel conduct when he receives an injury. He may return evil to the extent and measure of the injury he has received or he may punish the evil-doer if he is in a position to do so but the punishment should, under no circumstances, exceed legitimate bounds. Moreover, the punishment is to be resorted to only if this course is calculated to produce wholesome effect upon the aggressor party. This is the significance of the words, the recompense of evil is evil like it (42:41). The Quran, however, prefers and recommends that forgiveness should be shown to the evil-doer. This is the meaning of the words, but whoever forgives and amends, his reward is with Allah (42:41). But a Muslim who has attained to a very high moral standard is enjoined not only to forgive the person who has done him some wrong but also to do him a good turn in addition. This is the significance of the verse under comment and this is the high moral standard of conduct expected of a Muslim by Islam. Islam enjoins the repelling of evil with evil or with forgiveness or with a kind return, which of the three courses is calculated to conduce to the moral good of the wrong-doer, or the good of the injured person or to the good of human society at large. (close)
وَ قُلۡ رَّبِّ اَعُوۡذُ بِکَ مِنۡ ہَمَزٰتِ الشَّیٰطِیۡنِ ﴿ۙ۹۸﴾
وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنۡ هَمَزَٰتِ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينِ
2016. The words, "evil ones" refer to the leading men among the Holy Prophet’s enemies, and the word, "incitements" signifies the campaign of vilification and misrepresentation by which they sought to incite people against him. (close)
2577. Important Words:
ھمزات (incitements) is the plural of ھمزة which is derived from ھمز. They say ھمزہ i.e. he pressed it; squeezed it; pinched it; he impelled or repelled him or it; he beat him; he goaded him or urged him; he broke it; he suggested evil to his mind; he incited him.ھمز or ھمزة means, madness or insanity; the evil suggestion of evil persons which they inspire into the minds of men; inciting (Lane & Aqrab).
In the expression "from the incitements of the evil ones," the words "evil ones" refer to the leading men among the Holy Prophet’s enemies, and "incitements" signifies the campaign of vilification and misrepresentation by which they sought to incite the people against him. The context bears out this meaning of the words 'evil ones.' The Holy Prophet had enjoyed full protection of God and therefore was completely immune to the influence and evil suggestions of Satan, hence the question of his being subject to the incitements of the evil ones does not arise. The Prophet’s شیطان (Evil Spirit) had lost all power to do mischief to him (Muslim, Kitab Sifatil-Munafiqin). The Prophet had found complete refuge in his Lord. (close)
وَ اَعُوۡذُ بِکَ رَبِّ اَنۡ یَّحۡضُرُوۡنِ ﴿۹۹﴾
وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحۡضُرُونِ
حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَہُمُ الۡمَوۡتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارۡجِعُوۡنِ ﴿ۙ۱۰۰﴾
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَهُمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ٱرۡجِعُونِ
a. 39:59. (close)
a. 39:59. (close)
The plural form ارجعون affords an instance of the marvellous beauty of the Quranic style. The disbeliever addressing God uses the plural form of the verb to express the Majesty and Greatness of God and out of respect for Him.
The plural form ارجعون may also represent the repetition of the singular form ارجعنی (irji‘ni i.e. send me back). The disbeliever in his perplexity and confusion continues to repeat his request again and again for being sent back to this world and these repeated requests have been expressed by the use of the plural form. Thus the plural form ارجعون expresses, on the one hand, the disbeliever’s confusion of mind, on the other, it expresses his respect for God. (close)
لَعَلِّیۡۤ اَعۡمَلُ صَالِحًا فِیۡمَا تَرَکۡتُ کَلَّا ؕ اِنَّہَا کَلِمَۃٌ ہُوَ قَآئِلُہَا ؕ وَ مِنۡ وَّرَآئِہِمۡ بَرۡزَخٌ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ یُبۡعَثُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾
لَعَلِّيٓ أَعۡمَلُ صَٰلِحٗا فِيمَا تَرَكۡتُۚ كَلَّآۚ إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَآئِلُهَاۖ وَمِن وَرَآئِهِم بَرۡزَخٌ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ
b. 21:96; 36:32. (close)
2017. Barzakh means, a barrier; or a thing that intervenes between any two things. The word is technically applied to the period or state from the day of death to the day of Resurrection (Lane). It is an intermediate state of incomplete realization of the punishments and rewards of Hell and Heaven. The Qur’an has compared it to the embryonic state and the Resurrection to the birth of the fully developed soul. (close)
b. 21:96; 36:32. (close)
2579. Important Words:
برزخ means, a barrier; a bar; a thing that intervenes between any two things; an obstruction or a thing that separates two things; the interval from the time of death to the Day of Resurrection. The word is technically applied to the period or state from the day of death to the Day of Resurrection (Lane & Aqrab).
The word لعل (that) conveys the idea of doubt. As used here the word shows that the disbeliever will have been so deeply impressed by God’s Greatness and Majesty and his own insignificance that he dare not declare with certainty that he will make amends for what he had left undone in life on earth. He only expresses a hope that he will do righteous deeds if he were sent back to this world.
The word کلمة has been used in the verse, as at several other places in the Quran in the sense of a full sentence. The Holy Prophet also used the word in the sense of a complete sentence in a well-known hadith:
أصدق کلمة قالھا لبید، الا کل شیء ما خلا اللّٰه باطل
i.e. the truest sentence is the one which the poet Labid uttered and which is to the effect, "Everything besides God is subject to destruction." See also 4:172.
The verse incidentally disproves a commonly held belief that a man passes into Heaven or Hell immediately after his death. In fact after death he lives in برزخ which is an intermediate state of incomplete realization of the punishments or rewards of Hell or Heaven respectively or a state of preparation for their complete and full realization. The Quran has compared barzakh to the embryonic state and the resurrection to the birth of the fully developed soul. (close)
فَاِذَا نُفِخَ فِی الصُّوۡرِ فَلَاۤ اَنۡسَابَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ یَوۡمَئِذٍ وَّ لَا یَتَسَآءَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۲﴾
فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي ٱلصُّورِ فَلَآ أَنسَابَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ يَوۡمَئِذٖ وَلَا يَتَسَآءَلُونَ
c. 18:100; 36:52; 50:21; 69:14. (close)
2018. When punishment overtakes a people, pedigree, descent and relationship prove of no avail. On the Judgment Day good works alone will be of any use or benefit to man and not his blood relations or friendships. (close)
a. 18:100; 36:52; 50:21; 69:14. (close)
The verse means to say that when punishment overtakes a people, nobility of pedigree, descent or relationship proves of no avail. On the Judgement Day also good works alone will be of use or benefit to man and not his blood relations or friendships. (close)
فَمَنۡ ثَقُلَتۡ مَوَازِیۡنُہٗ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾
فَمَن ثَقُلَتۡ مَوَٰزِينُهُۥ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 7:9; 101:7, 8. (close)
b. 7:9; 101:7-8. (close)
2581. Important Words:
موازین (good works) is the plural of میزان (a balance) and موزون (a thing that is weighed) and is derived from وزن. They say وزن الشیء i.e. he weighed the thing or he determined or estimated the weight of the thing. وزن الشیء means, the thing became heavy and weighty. وزن means, the act of weighing, or the weight of a thing, or weightiness. وزن الرجل means, the man was of weighty opinion (Aqrab & Lane).
See 7:9-10. (close)