لَوۡ لَا جَآءُوۡ عَلَیۡہِ بِاَرۡبَعَۃِ شُہَدَآءَ ۚ فَاِذۡ لَمۡ یَاۡتُوۡا بِالشُّہَدَآءِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ہُمُ الۡکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾
لَّوۡلَا جَآءُو عَلَيۡهِ بِأَرۡبَعَةِ شُهَدَآءَۚ فَإِذۡ لَمۡ يَأۡتُواْ بِٱلشُّهَدَآءِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡكَٰذِبُونَ
2034. He, who accuses a Muslim man or woman of adultery and does not produce four witnesses to prove his allegation, shall be held to be a liar and treated as such by the Islamic Law if he can produce only one, two or even three persons as eyewitnesses to the act. The fact of one person seeing another person committing this immoral act does not entitle him to go about spreading the evil report. (close)
As stated above, not only does Islam take a very serious view of the crimes against chastity and punishes them severely, it is also very sensitive about the good reputation of Muslim men and women and takes very effective steps to safeguard it. Islam regards it as highly reprehensible and even criminal to spread false accusations against them. According to this verse, he who accuses a Muslim man or woman of adultery and does not produce four witnesses to prove his allegation shall be held to be a liar and treated as such by the Islamic Law even if he can produce one, two or even three persons as eye-witnesses to the act. The fact of one person seeing another person committing this immoral act does not entitle him to go about spreading the evil report. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ لَمَسَّکُمۡ فِیۡ مَاۤ اَفَضۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿ۚۖ۱۵﴾
وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُۥ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ لَمَسَّكُمۡ فِي مَآ أَفَضۡتُمۡ فِيهِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
a. 2:65; 4:84. (close)
اِذۡ تَلَقَّوۡنَہٗ بِاَلۡسِنَتِکُمۡ وَ تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ بِاَفۡوَاہِکُمۡ مَّا لَیۡسَ لَکُمۡ بِہٖ عِلۡمٌ وَّ تَحۡسَبُوۡنَہٗ ہَیِّنًا ٭ۖ وَّ ہُوَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۶﴾
إِذۡ تَلَقَّوۡنَهُۥ بِأَلۡسِنَتِكُمۡ وَتَقُولُونَ بِأَفۡوَاهِكُم مَّا لَيۡسَ لَكُم بِهِۦ عِلۡمٞ وَتَحۡسَبُونَهُۥ هَيِّنٗا وَهُوَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ عَظِيمٞ
2602. Important Words:
For تلقونه (you received it) see 2:38.
The verse purports to say that the evils mentioned above are moral sins which are, unfortunately committed light-heartedly, but which produce very grievous results. Every sin is a deadly poison which a true believer must avoid. The wages of sin is death. This is the supreme lesson which this verse teaches. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اِذۡ سَمِعۡتُمُوۡہُ قُلۡتُمۡ مَّا یَکُوۡنُ لَنَاۤ اَنۡ نَّتَکَلَّمَ بِہٰذَا ٭ۖ سُبۡحٰنَکَ ہٰذَا بُہۡتَانٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۷﴾
وَلَوۡلَآ إِذۡ سَمِعۡتُمُوهُ قُلۡتُم مَّا يَكُونُ لَنَآ أَن نَّتَكَلَّمَ بِهَٰذَا سُبۡحَٰنَكَ هَٰذَا بُهۡتَٰنٌ عَظِيمٞ
یَعِظُکُمُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ تَعُوۡدُوۡا لِمِثۡلِہٖۤ اَبَدًا اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۸﴾
يَعِظُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ أَن تَعُودُواْ لِمِثۡلِهِۦٓ أَبَدًا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
وَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۹﴾
وَيُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یُحِبُّوۡنَ اَنۡ تَشِیۡعَ الۡفَاحِشَۃُ فِی الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ۙ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۰﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ ٱلۡفَٰحِشَةُ فِي ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
2035. Islam has taken as serious a view of the spreading and circulation of false accusations as that of crimes against chastity. It has condemned and prescribed punishment for both the crimes—for scandal-mongering even a severer punishment since it is calculated to produce more grievous consequences as far as the prevalence of sexual immorality in a community is concerned than the stray acts of sexual misconduct. If scandal-mongering is allowed to be indulged in unchecked in a community, it will come to lose all sense of horror and abhorrence at the commission of immoral acts with the result that immorality will become rampant and a sense of pessimism with regard to its future will begin to prevail in the community, thus shaking its whole moral foundation. (close)
In the foregoing few verses, the Quran has severely condemned scandal-mongering. It has taken as serious a view of the spreading and circulation of false accusations as that of crimes in the community, thus shaking the whole moral foundation of society. It is this sense of pessimism which the verse under comment seeks to eradicate. Whereas on the one hand the Quran has severely condemned scandal-mongering and has enjoined that sexual misconduct should be reported to the concerned authorities and not freely talked about in public, on the other it has encouraged that good and virtuous acts should be given wide publicity and proper appreciation. These Quranic injunctions conduce to the creation of a very healthy atmosphere and to the eradication and extermination of the evil of sexual immorality.
The words "Allah knows and you know not" signify that God alone knows the sources of evil and it is He Who alone can direct us as to how an evil can be successfully resisted and eradicated. It is not given to man to find out the genesis and source of evil. Moral philosophers and psychologists have discussed and debated as to what is vice, but none of them has been able so far to trace out its real source. It is the revealed word of God that has done so. The Quran has not only dealt with the various forms of evil and laid down directions and injunctions to meet and conquer it but has also shed light on how evil originates and takes birth and how it develops. In this verse we are told that scandal-mongering leads to the prevalence of vice. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۲۱﴾
وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُۥ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ رَءُوفٞ رَّحِيمٞ
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّبِعُوۡا خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَّبِعۡ خُطُوٰتِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ فَاِنَّہٗ یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ مَا زَکٰی مِنۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ اَحَدٍ اَبَدًا ۙ وَّ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُزَکِّیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۲﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِۚ وَمَن يَتَّبِعۡ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ فَإِنَّهُۥ يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِۚ وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُۥ مَا زَكَىٰ مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ أَبَدٗا وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٞ
a. 6:143; 19:45; 36:61. (close)
2036. As there is implanted in human nature an inherent sense of hesitancy and horror at committing what is clearly and manifestly an evil act, to begin with, Satan avoids tempting his victim to commit a manifestly immoral act. He leads him to his moral ruin gradually and in stages, beginning with what apparently seems to be quite a harmless act. Beginning with slander-mongering a man ends by committing the very offence he had begun by foisting it upon others. (close)
This verse sheds some light on how vice spreads and becomes disseminated and diffused. The propagation of vice begins with something which is apparently quite petty and harmless. As there is implanted in human nature an inherent sense of hesitancy and horror at committing what is clearly and manifestly an evil act; to begin with, Satan avoids tempting a man to commit a manifestly immoral act. He leads his victim to his moral ruin gradually and in stages, beginning with what apparently seems to be quite a harmless act. The victim is tempted to talk to others what he hears from someone else about an immoral act done by an individual. Soon after, scandal-mongering leads him to the forging of slanders, and the next step is the commission of the very offence which he had begun by foisting on others. Islam has cut at the very root of all evil by strictly prohibiting and condemning and even punishing scandal-mongering, as it ultimately leads to the moral disintegration of a community.
The words, "Allah is Hearing, Knowing," mean that when a man loses his way and prays to God, He listens to him and answers his prayer; and when one who is in distress responds to the Divine voice and follows it, Divine knowledge comes to his rescue and guides and leads him to his deliverance. (close)
وَ لَا یَاۡتَلِ اُولُوا الۡفَضۡلِ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ السَّعَۃِ اَنۡ یُّؤۡتُوۡۤا اُولِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۪ۖ وَ لۡیَعۡفُوۡا وَ لۡیَصۡفَحُوۡا ؕ اَلَا تُحِبُّوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۳﴾
وَلَا يَأۡتَلِ أُوْلُواْ ٱلۡفَضۡلِ مِنكُمۡ وَٱلسَّعَةِ أَن يُؤۡتُوٓاْ أُوْلِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينَ وَٱلۡمُهَٰجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۖ وَلۡيَعۡفُواْ وَلۡيَصۡفَحُوٓاْۗ أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَن يَغۡفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٌ
2037. The reference may be to Abu Bakr who stopped the allowance he used to give to Mistah, a poor relative who had unfortunately become involved in the calumny against ‘A’ishah. (close)
2605. Important Words:
For لا یأتل (let not swear) see 2:227.
The reference in this verse may be to Abu Bakr, the Holy Prophet’s most devoted and faithful disciple and his first successor. Mistah, one of his relatives unfortunately had become involved in the calumny against ‘A’ishah. On ‘A’ishah’s innocence being established by Divine revelation and her honour completely vindicated, Abu Bakr naturally was disinclined to continue the maintenance-allowance he used to give to Mistah. The verse under comment, according to most reliable traditions, was revealed in connection with the stoppage of Mistah’s allowance. It, however, has general application and implies that after a guilty person has received the punishment for his offence as prescribed by Law as Mistah had, he should be subjected to no other annoyance or disability. The punishment received by him clears him of the stigma incurred by the commission of the offence.
The words اولوا الفضل in the verse seem to refer to Abu Bakr’s moral and spiritual eminence as well as his material prosperity and abundance of wealth. (close)