وَ لۡیَسۡتَعۡفِفِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ نِکَاحًا حَتّٰی یُغۡنِیَہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ الۡکِتٰبَ مِمَّا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ فَکَاتِبُوۡہُمۡ اِنۡ عَلِمۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِمۡ خَیۡرًا ٭ۖ وَّ اٰتُوۡہُمۡ مِّنۡ مَّالِ اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡۤ اٰتٰٮکُمۡ ؕ وَ لَا تُکۡرِہُوۡا فَتَیٰتِکُمۡ عَلَی الۡبِغَآءِ اِنۡ اَرَدۡنَ تَحَصُّنًا لِّتَبۡتَغُوۡا عَرَضَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّکۡرِہۡہُّنَّ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ اِکۡرَاہِہِنَّ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۳۴﴾
وَلۡيَسۡتَعۡفِفِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ نِكَاحًا حَتَّىٰ يُغۡنِيَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَبۡتَغُونَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ مِمَّا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡ فَكَاتِبُوهُمۡ إِنۡ عَلِمۡتُمۡ فِيهِمۡ خَيۡرٗاۖ وَءَاتُوهُم مِّن مَّالِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِيٓ ءَاتَىٰكُمۡۚ وَلَا تُكۡرِهُواْ فَتَيَٰتِكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡبِغَآءِ إِنۡ أَرَدۡنَ تَحَصُّنٗا لِّتَبۡتَغُواْ عَرَضَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۚ وَمَن يُكۡرِههُّنَّ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ إِكۡرَٰهِهِنَّ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
2046. Mukatabah (deed of manumission) is a written contract by means of which a slave could earn his or her emancipation, independently and irrespective of the fact whether his or her master likes it or not. According to this contract a definite amount of money or labour is fixed as the price of the freedom of the slave. (close)
2616. Important Words:
کاتبوھم (write it for them). کاتب (kataba) is derived from کتب (kataba) which means, he wrote; he made a thing obligatory; or he prescribed a law. کتب اللّٰه لاغلبن انا ورسلی i.e. Allah has decreed or has made it obligatory upon Himself that He and His Messengers will prevail (58:22). کاتب العبد means, he made a written contract with the slave that the latter shall pay a certain sum as the price of his emancipation and then he shall earn his freedom (Lane & Aqrab). This civil written contract by means of which a slave can earn his manumission is called مکاتبة (mukatabat).
تحصنا (keeping chaste) is derived from حصن, meaning, he or it was or became inaccessible, fortified or protected against attack. حصنت المرأة means, the woman was chaste i.e. protected herself against moral or sexual sinfulness. أحصنت المرأة means, the woman got married or she was chaste. تحصن (tahassana) means, he fortified himself or he entered the حصن i.e. fortress; or he protected himself by it; he guarded or protected himself in any way. تحصنت المرأة means, she was chaste (Lane & Aqrab). See also 4:25.
The expression ان علمتم فیھم خیراً (if you know any good in them) may mean (1) if you know that they are fit to work and earn their living; (2) if you know that after their manumission they will become useful members of the society.
We maintain that of all Divine Messengers and Prophets of God, of all Founders of different creeds, Faiths and religious systems, of all social reformers and philanthropists and of all those teachers and leaders of men, who, at any time, in any land and in any form, contributed to the social uplift and moral and spiritual regeneration of humanity, the share of Muhammad, the Holy Prophet of Islam, was by far the largest. And one of the greatest services to mankind of this greatest and noblest of men was his unequivocal and emphatic condemnation of, and the effective measures he took to abolish those social injustices that were practised by one section of humanity against another. His mind rebelled and revolted against the then prevalent idea that man could be bought, sold and treated by man like chattels. His ideal of human brotherhood and the inborn and inherent equality of all men could scarcely be reconciled with the practice of slavery which was so widespread as to have become inextricably interwoven and deeply rooted in the social conditions and ideas of his time. His heart burnt to see the iniquities and enormities practised by man upon man. He grieved and pined for this unfortunate section of humanity. He would, if he could, abolish altogether by a stroke of the pen a system so repugnant and revolting, so destructive of all noble human instincts, of all that distinguishes man from beast and brute. But this institution had become an integral part of the whole fabric of human society in his time. To abolish it all of a sudden was neither wise, nor practicable or even possible. It should have meant a death-blow to the entire existing social order. The sudden emancipation in hundreds of thousands of those persons who having been held in bondage for generations had lost all initiative to lead an independent life, would have seriously told upon the whole moral tone of society. Jobless and workless they would have stooped to all sorts of immoral acts. This was exactly what the Holy Prophet sought to avoid and he did succeed in avoiding it. On the other hand, he laid down precepts and injunctions which were calculated to do away with slavery gradually but surely and effectively.
These injunctions were of two categories:
(i) Temporary provisions bearing upon the general improvement and betterment of the moral and social conditions of the existing slaves and their speedy enfranchisement. Slaves were to be treated as members of the family as long as they were in bondage, and at the same time it was declared as a most heinous crime tantamount to murder to deprive a free man of his freedom and reduce him to slavery (Muslim Kitabul-Iman). But those persons were excepted from this commandment who should themselves incur the loss of their freedom by participating in a war undertaken to destroy Islam and to impose their own beliefs and doctrines upon the Muslims at the point of the sword. Even this denial of freedom to war prisoners was to last only till those prisoners had discharged their share of the guilt, either by paying off their part of the cost of war by getting themselves ransomed or by the Muslims themselves setting them free as an act of favour which the Quran has so repeatedly and emphatically enjoined on them (47:5). See also 23:7.
(ii) Provisions of a permanent nature aiming at the complete and total extinction of slavery in every shape or form. One of such provisions by means of which a slave could earn his emancipation, independently and irrespective of the fact whether his master liked it or not, was that he could enter into a civil written contract with the latter. It is this written contract which is known as mukatabat (deed of manumission) and to which the verse under comment refers. According to this contract a definite amount of money or labour is fixed as the price of the freedom of a slave. After the contract is duly written and attested the slave is considered as manumitted and is free to earn the required amount of money by any legitimate means he likes. After he has paid the whole stipulated sum he is quite free. As to whether the slave is fit to enter into a contract of the above nature with his master is to be decided by the State and not by the master of the slave and also the amount of the money he has to pay and the manner and the time-limit of the payment. No choice is left to the owner if the slave applies for such a contract and the State considers him eligible to it with the conditions and stipulations proposed by it but to accept it. By this excellent arrangement Islam sought to secure to all slaves, who could not otherwise obtain freedom, their full emancipation and liberty, at the same time steering clear of the terrible social and moral evils to which the whole Muslim society would have fallen a helpless victim if slavery had been abolished with a stroke of the pen.
The verse has further urged the wealthy and the rich Muslims to help, with their money, those slaves who enter into mukatabat with their masters, to earn their emancipation.
The words ومن یکرھھن (but if anyone forces them to remain unmarried) signify that the responsibility of keeping them from marriage will be that of their masters. They will not be accountable for this default. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتٍ مُّبَیِّنٰتٍ وَّ مَثَلًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ خَلَوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ مَوۡعِظَۃً لِّلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿٪۳۵﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَٰتٖ مُّبَيِّنَٰتٖ وَمَثَلٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ خَلَوۡاْ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَمَوۡعِظَةٗ لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ
a. 22:17; 57:10; 58:6. (close)
The verse purports to say that the highly illuminating and useful teaching which is embodied in the preceding verses is revealed by God that it may save Muslims from those deadly social evils of which mention has been made above and also from many others which flow from them. (close)
اَللّٰہُ نُوۡرُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ مَثَلُ نُوۡرِہٖ کَمِشۡکٰوۃٍ فِیۡہَا مِصۡبَاحٌ ؕ اَلۡمِصۡبَاحُ فِیۡ زُجَاجَۃٍ ؕ اَلزُّجَاجَۃُ کَاَنَّہَا کَوۡکَبٌ دُرِّیٌّ یُّوۡقَدُ مِنۡ شَجَرَۃٍ مُّبٰرَکَۃٍ زَیۡتُوۡنَۃٍ لَّا شَرۡقِیَّۃٍ وَّ لَا غَرۡبِیَّۃٍ ۙ یَّکَادُ زَیۡتُہَا یُضِیۡٓءُ وَ لَوۡ لَمۡ تَمۡسَسۡہُ نَارٌ ؕ نُوۡرٌ عَلٰی نُوۡرٍ ؕ یَہۡدِی اللّٰہُ لِنُوۡرِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ یَضۡرِبُ اللّٰہُ الۡاَمۡثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿ۙ۳۶﴾
۞ٱللَّهُ نُورُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِۦ كَمِشۡكَوٰةٖ فِيهَا مِصۡبَاحٌۖ ٱلۡمِصۡبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍۖ ٱلزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوۡكَبٞ دُرِّيّٞ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٖ مُّبَٰرَكَةٖ زَيۡتُونَةٖ لَّا شَرۡقِيَّةٖ وَلَا غَرۡبِيَّةٖ يَكَادُ زَيۡتُهَا يُضِيٓءُ وَلَوۡ لَمۡ تَمۡسَسۡهُ نَارٞۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٖۚ يَهۡدِي ٱللَّهُ لِنُورِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَيَضۡرِبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡأَمۡثَٰلَ لِلنَّاسِۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٞ
2046A. Nur means, light as opposed to darkness. It is more extensive and more penetrating as well as more lasting in its significance than Diya’ (Lane). (close)
2046B. Mishkat means, a niche in a wall, i.e. a hole or hollow in a wall, not extending through, in which a lamp placed gives more light than it gives elsewhere; a pillar on the top of which the lamp is put (Lane). (close)
2046C. Zujajah means a glass; a globe of glass (Lane). (close)
2047. The verse is a beautiful metaphor. It speaks of three things—a lamp, a glass-globe and a niche. The Divine Light is stated to have been confined to these three things which combined together make its brightness and effulgence complete and perfect. 'The lamp' is the very source of the light; the 'glass-globe' which is over the lamp protects its light from being extinguished by the puffs of wind and increases its brightness; and 'the niche' preserves the light. The simile may aptly apply to an electric torch of which the constituent parts are the electric wires which give light, the bulb which protects the light and the reflector which spreads and diffuses the light and gives it direction. In spiritual terminology, the three things—'the lamp,' 'the glass-globe' and 'the niche'—may respectively stand for Divine Light, God’s Prophets who protect that light from being extinguished and add to its effulgence and brightness, and the Khalifahs or Successors of the Prophets who diffuse and disseminate the Divine Light and give it a direction and purpose for the guidance and illumination of the world. The verse further states that the oil used to light the lamp is of the highest possible purity and is inflammable to a degree which makes it (the oil) burst out into a flame even without being ignited. It is extracted from a tree which belongs neither to the East nor to the West, i.e. which does not discriminate in favour of or against any particular people.
The verse may have another interpretation. The light mentioned in the verse may be taken to refer to the Holy Prophet because he has been spoken of as 'light' in the Qur’an (5:16); 'the niche' in that case would signify the heart of the Holy Prophet, and 'the lamp' his most pure and unsullied nature which is endowed with the best and noblest attributes and qualities, and 'the glass' would signify that the Divine Light with which his nature has been invested is as clear and bright as crystal. When the light of heavenly revelation descended upon the light of the Holy Prophet’s nature, it shone with a twofold effulgence which in the words of the Qur’an has been described as 'light upon light.' This light of the Prophet was sustained by an oil which emanated from a blessed tree, which means that the Holy Prophet’s light was not only bright and brilliant but abundant and stable and perpetual (as the word Mubarakah signifies), and was meant to illumine both the East and the West. Further, the Holy Prophet’s heart was so pure and his nature gifted with such noble qualities that he was almost lit to discharge the duties of his great mission even before the light of Divine revelation had descended upon him. This is the significance of the words, whose oil well-nigh would shine forth even though fire touched it not.
The metaphor may have yet another explanation. The niche in the verse is the human body. The human body contains the spirit which makes itself manifest through the organs of the body. Like the niche the human body protects the light, namely, the spirit, and guides its expression, i.e. the human body contains Misbah or the lamp of the soul which illumines the human mind and brings it into touch with God. The lamp is contained in a 'Zujajah' (globe of glass), which protects it from harm or injury and enhances and reflects its light. This Zujajah which is the human brain of which the mechanism is so perfect as to have led some philosophers to think that it is the ultimate source of the Divine Light. The light is sustained by the oil from a blessed tree, namely from those basic and eternal truths which are not the exclusive possession of any people of the East or of the West. These eternal truths are implanted in the very nature of man and would almost make themselves manifest even without the help of Divine revelation. (close)
a. 14:26. (close)
2618. Important Words:
نور (light) is noun-infinitive from أنار. They say أنار الشیء i.e. the thing became bright and beautiful and manifest. أنار البیتmeans, he lit the house. أنار المسئلة means, he made the question clear and plain. نور means, light; that which makes a thing clear; light as opposed to darkness. نور is more extensive and more penetrating as well as more lasting in its significance than ضیاء. It is also one of the names of God (Aqrab & Muhit). See also 10:6.
مشکٰوة (niche) is derived from شکو and الشکو is the opening of the small skin for water or milk called شکوة and showing what is in it. شکا فلان means, the nails of such a one split in several places. They say شکا الی اللّٰه i.e. he complained of his case to God or he told God the weakness of his condition. مشکٰوة means, a niche in a wall, i.e. a hole or hollow in a wall, not extending through, in which a lamp placed therein gives more light than it gives elsewhere; a pillar or the like upon the top or head of which the lamp is put; or the iron things by means of which a lamp is suspended (Lane & Aqrab).
مصباح (a lamp), is derived from أصبح which means, he entered upon the time of morning; he rose in the middle of the night. They say أصبح القوم i.e. he came to the people in the morning, أصبح المصباح mean, he lit the lamp. أصبح الحق means, the truth became manifest. مصباح means, a lamp; a big lance or arrow (Lane & Aqrab).
زجاجة (glass) is derived from زج they say زج حاجبه i.e. his eyebrow was or became narrow and long or arched; he made his eyebrow narrow and long or made it narrow and long and arched, or clipped the redundant portion of the hair thereof. زج الموضع means, he made even, and adjusted the place. زجاجه means, a glass, a globe of glass; crystal window-pane; tumbler; eye (Lane).
مبارکة (blessed) is passive participle from برک which means, it was or it became firm or steady. برک علیه means, he applied himself constantly to it. برکة (barakatun) which is infinitive-noun from this root means, increase; abundance or plenty; firmness, stability or perpetuity coupled with increase; abundant and perpetual good. مبارکة means, abundant; firm, stable; having perpetual good blessed, etc. (Lane & Aqrab). See also 6:156.
The verse is a beautiful metaphor. It speaks of three things––a lamp, a glass-globe (or chimney) and a niche. The divine light is stated to have been confined to these three things which combined together make its brightness and effulgence complete and perfect in every respect. المصباح (the lamp) is the very source of the light; الزجاجة is the globe of glass or chimney which is over the lamp and which protects its light from being extinguished by the puff of wind and increases its brightness; and المشکٰوة (the niche) preserves the light. The simile may aptly apply to an electric torch of which the constituent parts are the electric wires which give light, the bulb which protects the light and the reflector which spreads and diffuses the light and gives it direction. In spiritual terminology the three things, i.e. المصباح (the lamp), الزجاجة (the glass) and المشکٰوة (the niche), mentioned in the verse, may respectively stand for divine light, God’s Prophets who protect that light from being extinguished and add to its effulgence and brightness, and the Khalifahs or Successors of the Prophets who diffuse and disseminate the divine light and give it a direction and purpose for the guidance and illumination of the world. This interpretation is borne out and supported by the context inasmuch as towards its close the Surah speaks of the establishment of Khilafat among the Muslims.
The verse further states that the oil used to light the lamp is of the highest possible purity and is inflammable to a degree which makes it (the oil) burst out into a flame even without being ignited. It is extracted from a tree which belongs neither to the east nor to the west.
The verse may have another interpretation. The light mentioned in the verse may be taken to refer to the Holy Prophet because he has been spoken of as نور (light) in the Quran (5:16). المشکٰوة (the niche) in the case would signify the heart of the Holy Prophet and المصباح (the lamp) his most pure and unsullied nature which is endowed with the best and noblest attributes and qualities and الزجاجة (the glass) would signify that the divine light with his nature has been invested is as clear and bright as crystal. When the light of heavenly revelation descended upon the light of the Holy Prophet’s pure nature, it shone with a twofold effulgence which in the words of the Quran has been described as "lights upon lights." This light of Prophet was sustained by an oil which emanated from a blessed tree, which means that the Holy Prophet’s light was not only bright and brilliant but abundant and stable and perpetual (as word مبارکة signifies) and was intended to illumine both the east and the west i.e. the whole world. Further, the Prophet’s heart was so pure and his nature gifted with such noble qualities that he was almost fit to discharge the duties of his great mission even before the light of Divine revelation had descended upon him. This is the significance of the words, "whose oil would well-nigh be ablaze even though fire touched it not."
If نور be understood to mean the light of Islam, the metaphor would mean that the light of Islam is placed on so high a pillar of minaret (المشکٰوة) and is so resplendent as to illumine the whole world. It is, as it were, placed under a glass-globe which not only saves it from being put out by puffs of adverse winds but adds to its lustre and glory and its light will one day spread over both the east and the west and will enlighten the entire world. The words, "a tree neither of the east nor of the west," further signify a universal guidance which does not discriminate in favour of or against any people and which is equally meant for all of them. The explanation is supported by another verse of the Quran viz. "they desire to extinguish the light of Allah with the breath of their mouth; but Allah will perfect His light, however much the disbelievers might dislike it" (61:9).
The metaphor may have yet another explanation. المشکٰوة or the niche in the verse is the human body. The human body contains the spirit which makes itself manifest through the organs of the body. Like the niche the human body protects the light, namely, the spirit; and guides its expression i.e. the human body contains the مصباح or the lamp of the soul which illumines the human mind and brings it into touch with God. The lamp is contained in زجاجة (globe or glass) which protects it from harm or injury and enhances and reflects its light. This زجاجة is the human brain of which the mechanism is so perfect as to have led some philosophers to think that it is the ultimate source of divine light. The light is sustained by the oil from a blessed tree, namely from those basic and eternal truths which are not the exclusive possession of any people, of the east or of the west. These eternal truths are implanted in the very nature of man and would almost make themselves manifest even without the help of Divine revelation. (close)
فِیۡ بُیُوۡتٍ اَذِنَ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ تُرۡفَعَ وَ یُذۡکَرَ فِیۡہَا اسۡمُہٗ ۙ یُسَبِّحُ لَہٗ فِیۡہَا بِالۡغُدُوِّ وَ الۡاٰصَالِ ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾
فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ ٱللَّهُ أَن تُرۡفَعَ وَيُذۡكَرَ فِيهَا ٱسۡمُهُۥ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُۥ فِيهَا بِٱلۡغُدُوِّ وَٱلۡأٓصَالِ
2047A. The verse contains both a proof and a prophecy. It predicts that houses illumined by the light contained in the Qur’an will be exalted and their inmates will always celebrate the praises of God. This will be a proof that they are illumined by Allah’s light. (close)
The verse purports to say that the metaphor used in the preceding verse is no mere beautiful simile or the figment of the fertile imagination but a hard, material fact. There are in existence houses in which this heavenly light is lit and from them it emanates. God has decreed that these houses shall be honoured and exalted because in them live men who celebrate the praises of their Creator in the mornings and the evenings the verse embodies both a proof and a prophecy. It is a prophecy in the sense that house illumined by the light of the Quran will be exalted and the fulfilment of this prophecy will constitute a proof that they are illumined by the light of Allah. How wonderfully the prophecy was fulfilled! The doorless and windowless hovels and huts of the poor Companions of the Holy Prophet became so honoured and respected that they became the objects of attraction and admiration for the whole world; and this fact testified to the Quran being the revealed Word of God. (close)
رِجَالٌ ۙ لَّا تُلۡہِیۡہِمۡ تِجَارَۃٌ وَّ لَا بَیۡعٌ عَنۡ ذِکۡرِ اللّٰہِ وَ اِقَامِ الصَّلٰوۃِ وَ اِیۡتَآءِ الزَّکٰوۃِ ۪ۙ یَخَافُوۡنَ یَوۡمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِیۡہِ الۡقُلُوۡبُ وَ الۡاَبۡصَارُ ﴿٭ۙ۳۸﴾
رِجَالٞ لَّا تُلۡهِيهِمۡ تِجَٰرَةٞ وَلَا بَيۡعٌ عَن ذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَإِيتَآءِ ٱلزَّكَوٰةِ يَخَافُونَ يَوۡمٗا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ ٱلۡقُلُوبُ وَٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرُ
a. 63:10. (close)
2048. The verse constitutes a great testimonial to the righteousness and goodness of the Holy Prophet’s Companions and to their love for God. They are men, says the verse, of flesh and bones. They have their worldly ambitions and aspirations, their professions and avocations. They are not monks and hermits, cut apart from the world. Yet amidst all their mundane pursuits and engagements they do not neglect to discharge their duties to God and man. (close)
a. 63:10. (close)
The verse constitutes a great testimonial to the righteousness and goodness of the Holy Prophet’s Companions and to their love for God and their liking for His remembrance. They are men, says the verse, of flesh and bones. They have their worldly ambitions and aspirations, their professions and avocations. They are not monks and hermits cut apart from the world. Yet amidst all their material pursuits and engagements they do not neglect to discharge their duties to God and man. This certificate of merit which the Companions of the Holy Prophet received from Allah, their Divine Lord and Master, has been referred to in several other places in the Quran, viz. "Those who, if We establish them in the earth will observe Prayer and pay the Zakah and enjoin good and forbid evil" (22:42), and "Their sides keep away from their beds; and they call upon their Lord in fear and hope, and spend out of what We have bestowed upon them" (32:17). It is because of this life of righteousness and service of humanity that "Allah was well pleased with them, and they were well pleased with Him" (58:23). (close)
لِیَجۡزِیَہُمُ اللّٰہُ اَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوۡا وَ یَزِیۡدَہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَرۡزُقُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ بِغَیۡرِ حِسَابٍ ﴿۳۹﴾
لِيَجۡزِيَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ أَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَرۡزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيۡرِ حِسَابٖ
b. 9:121; 16:98. (close)
b. 9:121; 16:98. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ کَسَرَابٍۭ بِقِیۡعَۃٍ یَّحۡسَبُہُ الظَّمۡاٰنُ مَآءً ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَہٗ لَمۡ یَجِدۡہُ شَیۡئًا وَّ وَجَدَ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗ فَوَفّٰٮہُ حِسَابَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَرِیۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿ۙ۴۰﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ كَسَرَابِۭ بِقِيعَةٖ يَحۡسَبُهُ ٱلظَّمۡـَٔانُ مَآءً حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَهُۥ لَمۡ يَجِدۡهُ شَيۡـٔٗا وَوَجَدَ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥ فَوَفَّىٰهُ حِسَابَهُۥۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
c. 14:19. (close)
a. 14:19. (close)
2621. Important Words:
سراب (mirage) is derived from سرب. They say سرب الماء i.e. the water flowed. سرب الرجل means, the man went at random. سرابmeans, anything which on account of the heat of the sun in the middle of the day appears as if it is water reflecting buildings and trees, etc. mirage. The Arabs say ھو أخدع من السراب i.e. he is more deceptive than mirage (Aqrab).
قیعة (plain) is derived from قاع which means, he desisted, etc. قیعة is syn. with قاع and means, even place, plain or level land that produces nothing, low and free from mountains and herbage (Lane & Mufradat). See 20:107.
See next verse. (close)
اَوۡ کَظُلُمٰتٍ فِیۡ بَحۡرٍ لُّجِّیٍّ یَّغۡشٰہُ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ سَحَابٌ ؕ ظُلُمٰتٌۢ بَعۡضُہَا فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ ؕ اِذَاۤ اَخۡرَجَ یَدَہٗ لَمۡ یَکَدۡ یَرٰٮہَا ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجۡعَلِ اللّٰہُ لَہٗ نُوۡرًا فَمَا لَہٗ مِنۡ نُّوۡرٍ ﴿٪۴۱﴾
أَوۡ كَظُلُمَٰتٖ فِي بَحۡرٖ لُّجِّيّٖ يَغۡشَىٰهُ مَوۡجٞ مِّن فَوۡقِهِۦ مَوۡجٞ مِّن فَوۡقِهِۦ سَحَابٞۚ ظُلُمَٰتُۢ بَعۡضُهَا فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ إِذَآ أَخۡرَجَ يَدَهُۥ لَمۡ يَكَدۡ يَرَىٰهَاۗ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَجۡعَلِ ٱللَّهُ لَهُۥ نُورٗا فَمَا لَهُۥ مِن نُّورٍ
2049. In vv. 37-39 above an appreciative reference is made to a class of men—the lovers of Divine Light and the righteous servants of God. The present and the immediately preceding verse speak of another class of people—the sons of darkness. People of one class accept the Divine Light and walk in it. Their enviable condition is described in the simile, 'light upon light.' The other class of people reject the Divine Light and choose to grope in the darkness of doubts. All their works prove futile and deceptive like a mirage. They love darkness, follow darkness and live in darkness, so their unenviable condition has been very aptly and graphically described in the words, their deeds are like thick layers of darkness spread over a vast and deep sea on whose surface rise waves above waves, above which are clouds— layers upon layers of darkness. (close)
2622. Important Words:
لجی (vast and deep) is relative noun from (lujjun) which is derived from لج (lajja) which means, he persisted in wrangling. لج فی امر means, he persisted or persevered in the affair, or he persisted obstinately in an affair, even if it became manifest that it was wrong; or he persisted in contention. لججت السفینة means, the boat entered the لجة i.e. the main sea, or the fathomless deep, or the great expanse of sea of which the limits could not be seen. بحر لجی means, a vast and deep sea (Lane & Aqrab).
In vv. 38-39 above an appreciative reference was made to a class of men—the lovers of divine light and the righteous servants of God. The present and the immediately preceding verse speak of another class of people—the sons of darkness. People of one class accept the divine light and walk in it with the result that they are doubly blessed, both in this world and in the next. Their enviable condition is described in the simile, "light upon light." The other class of people reject the divine light, choose to grope in the darkness of doubts and misgivings and hanker after the illusory and transient pleasures and profits of this world and end by incurring God’s displeasure. All their works prove futile and deceptive like a mirage. They love darkness, follow darkness and live in darkness and thus their unenviable condition has been very aptly and graphically described in the words, "their deeds are like thick darkness in a vast and deep sea, covered by a wave, over which is a wave, above which are clouds—layers of darkness, one upon another." (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُسَبِّحُ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الطَّیۡرُ صٰٓفّٰتٍ ؕ کُلٌّ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَہٗ وَ تَسۡبِیۡحَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُۥ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلطَّيۡرُ صَـٰٓفَّـٰتٖۖ كُلّٞ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُۥ وَتَسۡبِيحَهُۥۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِمَا يَفۡعَلُونَ
a. 17:45; 59:25; 61:2; 62:2. (close)
2050. Angels of the Heavens. (close)
2050A. Animate and inanimate things which are upon the earth such as men, animals, vegetables, and minerals. (close)
2050B. The birds which fly in the air. In a spiritual sense, the three expressions respectively signify: (a) persons of very high spiritual status; (b) worldly-minded men whose whole attention and efforts are devoted to the acquirement of material pursuits and who have no thought or time for spiritual things and (c) people whose spiritual condition is midway between that of the two above-mentioned categories. (close)
2051. Whereas the clause, Whose praises all who are in the heavens and the earth celebrate, refers to the collective testimony that the whole universe bears to the Unity and Holiness of God, the words, Each one knows his own mode of prayer and praise, refer to the evidence which everything bears to Divine Unity and Holiness individually and separately by carrying out faithfully the task allotted to it by God. Salat has different meanings with reference to different objects. Used in connection with God it means Divine mercy; used in connection with angels, it means their asking forgiveness of God for men and used in connection with man, it means the prescribed form of Prayer (Lane). (close)
The word من (who) taken to mean both animate and inanimate things, the expression "who are in the heavens and the earth and the birds with their wings outstretched" would signify three classes of beings i.e. (1) angels of the heaven; (2) animate and inanimate things which live upon or are related to the earth such as man, animals, vegetables, and minerals; (3) and the birds which fly in the air. Taken in a spiritual sense, the words "who are in the heavens," would mean persons of very high spiritual status, and "who are in the earth" would signify those unfortunate worldly-minded persons whose whole attention and efforts are devoted to material pursuits and who have no thought or time for spiritual things, and the words "the birds with their wings outstretched" would apply to those people whose spiritual condition is midway between that of the two above-mentioned categories. At one time they soar spiritually so high as to touch the very confines of the celestial firmament and at another time sink so low as to grovel in the dirt and dust of the earth.
The words کل قد علم صلاته و تسبیحه may mean: (i) each one of these beings and things knows his or its own mode of prayer and praise; (ii) God knows the reality of the prayer and praise of each one of these classes, God being the subject of the verb علم. Moreover, whereas the clause "Whose praises all who are in the heavens and the earth celebrate," refers to the collective testimony that the whole universe bears to the Unity and Holiness of God the words, "each one knows his own mode of prayer and praise," refer to the evidence which everything bears to Divine Unity and Holiness individually and separately by carrying out faithfully the task allotted to it by God. This may be the significance of the words "his own mode of prayer and praise." صلاة (prayer) has different meanings with reference to different objects; used about God, it means Divine mercy; used about angels, it means their asking forgiveness of God for men and used about men it means the prescribed form of Prayer (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۴۳﴾
وَلِلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
a. 3:190; 5:121. (close)
b. 3:190; 5:121. (close)